##### Contributing Factors for the Agricultural Graduates Converted as Successful Agri-preneurs

P. V. Sathya Gopal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 55-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930791

##### Improvising Climate Smart Agricultural Practices Using Design Thinking by Undergraduate Student of Agriculture under Central Agricultural University, Imphal: A Case of Social Network Analysis

Elly Kirwa, Rajkumar Josmee Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930784

Aims: This study uses Social Network Analysis (SNA) to investigate the social interaction that shape student collaborative problem solving activity when undergoing Design Thinking (DT) to improvise Climate Smart Agricultural Practices (CSAPs).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the three Colleges of Agriculture (CoAs) under Central Agricultural University, Imphal at Manipur viz., the (1) CoA, Imphal at Manipur, (2) CoA, Pasighat at Arunachal Pradesh; and (3) CoA, Kyrdemkulai at Meghalaya. The study was conducted between November 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: A sample of 28 respondents who constituted fifty percent of population of final year B.Sc. (Agriculture) students was selected through simple random sampling without replacement from the three CoAs. SNA of respondent-students was analyzed using Gephi 0.9.2 software with the following attributes to understand the student community viz., average degree, modularity, average clustering coefficient and average path length.

Results: The network for CoA, Imphal displayed the following characteristic as ‘Average Degree’ of 5.69, ‘Modularity’ of 0.149, ‘Average Clustering Coefficient’ of 0.468 and ‘Average Path Length’ of 1.57. In case of CoA, Pasighat, the attributes of social network were as ‘Average Degree’ of 3.63, ‘Modularity’ of 0.513, ‘Average Clustering Coefficient’ of 0.099 and ‘Average Path Length’ of 1.52j; while for the case of CoA, Kyrdemkulai, it had ‘Average Degree’ of 3.86, ‘Modularity’ of 0.024, ‘Average Clustering Coefficient’ of 0.650 and ‘Average Path Length’ of 1.360.

Conclusion: For meaningful improvising of CSAPs using DT, the efficiency of social network was more functional on smaller collaborative working groups as information flow was found to be high in small groups leading to development of more ideas on DT.

##### Evaluation of Fertilizer Doses for Kharif Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) through Soil Test Crop Response Approach in Mollisols of Uttarakhand

Pallavi Bhatt, Sobaran Singh, Lalit Bhatt, Pawan Kumar Pant, Sarvesh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930785

A Field experiment was conducted at N. E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Latitude 290N, Longitude 79030’ E and Altitude 243.84 m above MSL) during kharif season of 2018-19 in Mollisols of Uttarakhand, India for brinjal through Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) to recommend desired fertilizer nutrients. In the Initial phase of the investigation the artificially fertility gradient was setup to create heterogeneity in experimental soil for the test crop. Further, in second phase response of brinjal to selected combinations of three levels of FYM (0, 10 and 20 t ha-1), four levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1), four levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1) and four levels of potassium (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg K2O ha-1) in different soil fertility strips was also worked out in a Fractional Factorial Design (Latin Square type). Using the data of soil analysis, nutrient uptake and yield the basic data for fertilizer prescription were computed. Fertilizer adjustment equations were generated with the help of basic data. Fertilizer prescription equation helps in evaluating fertilizer requirement for kharif brinjal at different soil test values and yield targets as per farmers’ economic conditions. Before their use by soil testing laboratories/farmers, the equations must be verified at farmer’s field.

##### Effect of Heat Stress on Inter-relationship of Physiological and Biochemical Traits with Grain Yield in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Amrita Kumari, R. D. Ranjan, Chandan Roy, Awadesh Kumar Pal, S. Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930786

Heat stress, particularly the stress appears at the time of flowering to grain filling stages causing severe yield loss in wheat. Heat tolerance is complex phenomena that include adjustment in morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of the crop. Present investigation was carried out to understand the effect of terminal heat stress on different traits of wheat. The experiment was conducted in three dates of sowing as timely sown, late sown and very late sown to expose the crop to heat stress at later stages of the crop growth. Significant genetic variations for all the traits evaluated under three conditions indicated the presence of variability for the traits. Trait association analysis revealed that flag leaf chlorophyll content and MSI at seedling stage; MDA at reproductive stage had direct relationship with grain yield. While under very late sown condition MDA and RWC at seedling stages were found to be highly correlated with grain yield. It indicates that MDA, RWC at seedling stage and days to booting, days to milking plays important role in very late sown condition that can be used as selection criteria in breeding programme.

##### Farm Level Evaluation of Trichoderma Enriched Organic Substrates for Improved Field Establishment and Yield Enhancement in Chillies (Capsicum annuum L.)

S. Kalavathi, Merin Babu, Jeena Mathew, S. Indhuja

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930788

Trichoderma sp. is extensively used for controlling several soil and seed bornefungal plant pathogens and for enhancing crop growth and yield. But the field efficacy depends on several factors viz., proper formulation, an efficient delivery system, methods of applicationand environmental conditions. The performance and persistence in field to a greater extent is decided by the carriers or substrates used for mass multiplication. In a field trial undertaken on the varied performance of Trichoderma sp. involving different substrate combinations on the yield of chillies by ICAR-CPCRI for the period, April, 2014 to June 2016 two combinations, viz., Cowdung + Neem cake (4:1) and Coir pith compost + Neem cake + Poultry Manure + Cowdung (2:1:1:1) were found to be superior when enriched with Trichodermaharzianum (CPTD 28) as well as native isolate, Trichoderma sp. KKTD 6.

##### Heavy Metal Stabilization in Sewage Sludge Composting Process

M. R. Rehana, Biju Joseph, R. Gladis

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930789

The most important factor limiting the soil application of sewage sludge is the presence of heavy metals.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of composting on nutrient content, heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) concentration and heavy metal fractions in the sewage composts with different bulking agents (sawdust and coirpith), heavy metal adsorbent (zeolite) and liming materials (lime and flyash). Experimental results revealed that sewage sludge composts were rich in organic carbon and plant nutrients. Total nutrients and heavy metal concentration showed an increasing trend towards the maturity of composts. Heavy metal fractionation studies pointed out that mobile fractions of heavy metals such as exchangeable and carbonate fractions decreased at the end of composting whereas the residual fractions increased which indicates that composting of sewage sludge with heavy metal adsorbent and different bulking agents decreased the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals. The compost C8 (Sewage sludge + sawdust + zeolite (50:30:20) + flyash) was superior with respect to stabilization of heavy metals studied. The concentration of Cd, Cr and Pb were within the permissible limit as per Fertilizer Control Order (FCO). The addition of coal flyash and zeolite enhanced the stabilization of heavy metals due to the higher alkalinity and ion exchange capacity of flyash and zeolite respectively. Polyphenolic group and organic compounds present in sawdust also have the ability to bind heavy metal. The study revealed that composting is an effective technology for reducing the heavy metal bioavailability and the heavy metal speciation studies of the matured composts revealed that considerable portion of the heavy metals were associated with immobile fractions indicating less bioavailability and ecotoxicity.

##### Assessment of Grasscutter Domestication for Income Generation in Anambra State, Nigeria

A. N. Okeke, E. K. Oruh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930790

Grasscutter, (Thryonomys swinderianus) locally known as ‘Nchi’ can generate additional income for farmers and families but its domestication in some Nigeria is still preliminary. This study was carried out in four private Grasscutter farms within four communities; Awgbu, Nanka, Oko, and Omogho in Orumba North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria, to determine the level of profitability of each farm. Sixty structured questionnaires were administered to the members of the household, fifteen in each farm but only fifty-one (85%) were retrieved and used while nine (15%) were not used. Results shows that 29% of the farmers were men while 22% were female. The largest participants (27.5%) fall within the age bracket 31-40 years, the age of responsibility. The farm in Awgbu community has the highest number of animals (24) while the farms at Nanka, Oko and Omogho, have 11, 15 and 22 respectively. The total income each farm generated during the years (2012, 2013 and 2014) were ₦330,000, ₦200,000, ₦125,000, and ₦89,000 respectively. The feed given to these animals include cassava (Manihot esculenta), maize (Zea mays), pawpaw (Carica papaya), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). The farmers indicated that their main challenges include bad roads, shortage of funds, insufficient space and lack of governmental incentives. These setbacks can be solved by the provision of developmental grants, supply of pipe-borne water, land, feeds and good roads. These can motivate farmers to increase their production to a commercial level, which will yield them more income instead of subsistence domestication.

##### Influence of Sports Dietitian on the Dietary Intake and Hydration Habits of Collegiate Athletes

Ravneet Kaur, Navjot Kaur, Amarjot Kaur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-75
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930792

Aim: The present study was conducted to study the difference between the dietary intake and hydration habits of collegiate athletes with or without sports dietician.

Methods: A total of 120 athletes participating in 5 sports viz. hockey, basketball, handball, football and volleyball from two Universities were selected. Sixty athletes (30 males and 30 females) from Punjab Agricultural University without provision of sports dietician were treated as control group and sixty athletes (30 males and 30 females) from Punjabi University following sports dietician were treated as experimental group.

Results: The findings suggested that the athletes of experimental group had a normal Body Mass Index (BMI). The overall nutrient intake findings revealed that the macronutrient as well as micronutrient intake of experimental group athletes was significantly (p≤0.01) higher than the athletes of control group. Experimental group athletes followed better nutritional habits during team trips, before and after exercise, during in-season and off-season of their workout and followed proper hydration guidelines.

Conclusion: The athletes following sports dietician have better nutritional status and hydration habits.

##### Energy Use Efficacy of Different Sprayers on Crop Pest Management

V. Aneesha, D. Dhalin, K. Ajith Kumar, Xavier K. Jacob

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 76-85
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930793

Pesticide application plays a major role in environmental hazards associated with over application and off-target movement of toxic pesticides from inefficient spray application. The introduction of electrically charged sprays for agricultural application can provide greater control of droplet transport with impending reduction of wastage. The study aims to compare the efficacy of electrostatic sprayer on pest control in comparison with mist blower (air assisted sprayer) and air compression sprayer (hydraulic sprayer). Six pests were viz. pumpkin beetle, cowpea aphid, cucurbit fruit fly, brinjal mealy bug, caterpillar and chilli mite were selected based on specific characteristics viz. integumental, movement and ecological niche. Energy use efficiency in production and application of pesticides used by different sprayers for the control of selected pests were quantified based on application efficiency of sprayers, Pre and Post pest count and the reoccurrence of pest infestation after spray. The energy use efficiency of electrostatic sprayer was found to be 1.5 times more than that of mist blower and 2 times more than that of air compression sprayers. In the chemical usage by electrostatic sprayer was reduced by 65 per cent and that of knapsack mist blower was 35 per cent with air compression sprayers. The post pest count was almost nil in all the categories of pest while applying with electrostatic sprayer and the reoccurrence of the pest to the threshold level was minimum. This contributed a significant increase in energy use efficiency of electrostatic sprayer, when it considered globally.

##### FPOs in Telangana – Status and Strategies

D. A. Rajini Devi, R. Vijaya Kumari, T. Lavanya, D. Srinivasa Chary, G. Samuel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 86-90
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930795

The concept of FPOs was started in the year 2011-12. In Telangana in 2013, ten FPOs were registered, in 2015, five FPOs were registered and in 2016, five FPOs were registered which were promoted by Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC). The current study offers insights on the status of these 20 FPOs and revealed that high levels of indebtedness, increasing unemployment and resultant migration are the serious problems confronting agricultural sector. The strategy of FPOs is innovative institutional support to the farmers to prevent the exploitation of farmers by the middlemen. The major reasons for the success of FPOs include group approach, strengthened linkages and increased income levels among the group members. The lack of financial support was the major hindrance for the functioning of FPOs in Telangana.

##### Methodology Applied for Thickness Selection and Stored Heat Evaluation in Non-producer Geothermal Wells in Order to Its Investment Rescue

Alfonso Aragon- Aguilar, Georgina Izquierdo- Montalvo, Dominic A. Becerra- Serrato, Victor M. Monrroy- Mar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 91-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930796

An assessment methodology of stored heat in rock formation surrounding to wellbore in geothermal systems is shown. Due to geothermal systems generally are nested in volcanic rock, it is characteristic its heterogeneous behavior. Proposed methodology starts since zone selection with possibilities of heat store. This methodology is focused to be applied in geothermal reservoirs with tendency to production decline, due to low permeability and unbalance between exploitation and water recharge. Because the high costs of drilling geothermal wells, methodology shown in this work is proposed to be applied in those with production decline or non-producers, in order to rescue its investment. The objective is to select the thickness with heat, evaluate its storage, design the appropriate instrumentation for its recovery, its energy conversion and rescue its investment done. The different designs for energy recovery using non-conventional methods to those, used habitually are reviewed. Each one of the variables for stored heat calculation was determined using technical tools of reservoir engineering. A parametric analysis about variables sensitivity (porosity and drainage radius) for determining thermal energy and corresponding electric energy of analyzed rock volume is done. Practical application of this methodology was carried out using data of one of wells of Los Humeros Mexican geothermal field.

##### Trends Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature over Nagwan Watershed, Hazaribagh District, Jharkhand

Raj Bahadur, R. K. Jaiswal, A. K. Nema, Anshu Gangwar, Sandeep Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-128
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930798

Trend analysis is performed to find the pattern that prevails in Nagwan watershed area located in Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand (India) having very high average annual rainfall in the range of 1146 mm. The study aims to investigated the impacts of global warming by examine precipitation and temperature change over a period. Non-parametric MK test and Sen’s Slope estimator were used to assess the trend in long-term rainfall and temperature time series (1981-2019). The analysis has been carried out on monthly, seasonal and annual scale to identify meso-scale climate change effect on hydrological regime. The precipitation in the summer showed an increasing trend (Z value +1.67) and there was increasing trend in the seasonal rainfall which influences the total water availability in the watershed. There was increase in minimum temperature during summer season which shows the impact of global warming and may results in increasing the duration of the summer season. The annual average minimum temperature in the watershed showed an increasing trend (Z value +2.08) at 0.05 level of significance indicated hot nights in the summer. The annual average maximum temperature in the watershed showed a decreasing trend (Z value -1.26). Fluctuation and change in trend of rainfall and temperature possess potential risk hence it is important to understand and identify the pattern of rainfall and temperature for assessing impact of climate change and it is necessary to adopt appropriate steps for agriculture crop planning and improving farmer’s capability to cope with challenging situations due to environmental and climate changes.

##### Immediate Effects of Altered Auditory Feedback on Associated Motor Behaviors of People Who Stutter

Kyriaki Kyriakou, Brenda Seal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 129-146
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930799

Aims: This investigation explored the immediate effects of an altered auditory feedback device on motor behaviors associated with stuttering in monologue and conversation with and without the device and it also investigated the effects of an AAF device on stuttering frequency.

Methods: Fifteen adults with a diagnosis of stuttering and exhibited associated motor behaviors participated in this study. The author analyzed associated motor behaviors by type and frequency and statistically compared associated motor behaviors per frequency of stuttering events during monologue and conversation with and without an altered auditory feedback device.

Results: An analysis of associated motor behaviors during monologue and conversation with and without altered auditory feedback showed a predominance of associated motor behaviors involving the eyes, head, lips and hands. Altered auditory feedback significantly reduced the overall frequency of these four behaviors in monologue and conversation. Altered auditory feedback also decreased the frequency of associated motor behaviors per stuttering event in both monologue and conversation. An analysis of effect sizes associated with the statistical results revealed a larger magnitude of effect on reducing the frequency of associated motor behaviors than on reducing associated motor behaviors per stuttering event in the altered auditory feedback condition. Additionally, the Pearson correlation test designated the following positive correlations between the percentage of syllables stuttered and AMBs (r=.76 and r=.74) and percentage of syllables stuttered and AMBs per stuttering event (r=.56 and r=.41 in monologue and conversation respectively).

Conclusions: People who exhibit motor behaviors associated with their stuttering may more confidently and frequently use an altered auditory feedback device to decrease the associated motor behaviors of their stuttering in order to more easily communicate and socialize and consequently improve the quality of their life.

##### Income and Expenditure of Farm Households: A Micro Perspective

K. R. Hamsa, K. B. Umesh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 147-159
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930800

This micro level study, conducted in the Southern Karnataka to examine the sources of income and pattern of household expenditure, revealed that farm activities are the main sources of income in both progressive and less progressive areas and non-farm and off-farm activity (mainly agricultural labour) contributes only a negligible portion. The smallholders as well as rainfed households during the slack agricultural season depend on rural non-farm activities through non- agricultural labour as the source of earning in progressive area where as in less progressive area, all the categories of farmers had their non-farm income earned majorly from house rent. Percentage of spending on various items varied with category of farmers. With the increase in income, there was increase in expenditure on non-food items, which was observed in both areas. Inequality in income distribution was less than consumption expenditure due to unequal non-food consumption expenditures in both areas. There was a relatively higher income and expenditure inequality has observed in less progressive area compared to progressive area. Overall, it was evident from the results that, even though farm income contribution was more in both areas, still improving off and non-farm employment opportunities that adds to income and helps for further savings.

##### Response of Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to Several Nitrogen Levels during Kharif (Autumn) Season in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal

Rumi Saha, Megha Sana, Subhajit Pal, Krishnendu Mondal, Sukanta Pal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 160-165
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930801

Introduction: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple foods for more than half of the world’s population

Aim: To find out the most suitable nitrogen level for hybrid rice productivity in new alluvial zone of west Bengal.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with 10 treatment combinations and three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Kharif seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Regional-Research Sub-Station (RRSS) Chakdaha of BCKV under new alluvial zone of West Bengal.

Methods: Combinations having two hybrid rice varieties viz., V1 (PAN 2112 Gold), V2 (KRH-2) and five nitrogen levels viz. N1 (0:60:60 N: P2O5: K2O Kg ha-1), N2 (50:60:60 N: P2O5: K2O Kg ha-1), N3 (100:60:60 N: P2O5: K2O Kg ha-1), N4 (150:60:60 N: P2O5: K2O Kg ha-1), N5 (200:60:60 N: P2O5: K2O Kg ha-1) Generally, yield contributing characters were studied at maturity of the crop. For yield analysis samples were taken from each plot and yield attributes were calculated.

Results: Results revealed that almost all yield attributes gave significantly superior performance in the variety PAN 2112 Gold with N4 level of fertilization. The maximum grain yield (5.10 t ha-1) was recorded in the variety V1 in combination with N4 level of nitrogen which was 6.69% more than KRH-2. Highest harvest index (50.86%) was noticed in same treatment combination.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that PAN 2112 Gold with fertilizer dose N: P2O5: K2O 150:60:60 Kg ha-1 can be recommended for South Bengal locations contributing to a yield of 5.10 t ha-1 as an Aman crop.

##### Performance of Planting Methods and Sett Treatments on Quality, Nutrient Uptake and Economics of Bajra Napier Hybrid Grass (Pennisetum glaucum L. X P. purpureum schumach)

S. V. Varshini, C. Jayanthi, S. D. Sivakumar, A. Senthil, P. Malarvizhi, R. Karthikeyan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 166-176
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930823

A field experiment to assess the effect of  planting methods and sett treatments on quality, nutrient uptake and economics of bajra napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 was conducted during 2018-2019 at the Eastern block farm of the Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University – Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The experimental field was laid out in factorial randomized block design. The main plots were vertical planting (M1) and horizontal planting (M2) and sub-plots were 13 sett treatments. The results on some quality parameters viz., crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, total ash contents (%), showed non-significant difference on planting methods, sett treatments and their interaction. Among planting methods, vertical planting had registered higher crude protein yield of 1.23 t ha-1cut-1, nitrogen uptake (151 kg ha-1cut-1), phosphorus uptake (23.4 kg ha-1cut-1) and potassium uptake (87.7 kg ha-1cut-1). Among sett treatments, water soaking for 12 hours and 24 hours incubation (S1) significantly registered higher crude protein yield (1.78 t ha-1cut-1), nitrogen uptake (186.8 kg ha-1cut-1), phosphorus uptake (31.9 kg ha-1cut-1) and potassium uptake (108.4 kg ha-1cut-1). In two planting methods, low cost of cultivation ($629 ha-1), higher gross return ($ 1227 ha-1), net return ($598 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (1.98) were registered with vertical planting (M1). Similarly, among sett treatments, water soaking for 12 hours and 24 hours incubation (S1) recorded lower cost of cultivation ($ 563 ha-1), higher gross return ($1698 ha-1), net return ($ 1135 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (3.02). With this, it can be concluded that for planting method, vertical planting (M1), and for sett treatment, water soaking for 12 hours and 24 hours incubation (S1) are the recommended practices for achieving better quality, nutrient uptake and economics from bajra napier hybrid grass.

##### Effect of Roller Speed and Inclination Angle on the Stem Cutting Efficiency of Shallot Onion

M. Tito Anand, N. Venkatachalapathy, Anandakumar S., Akash Pare

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 177-183
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1930844

Shallot or aggregatum onion (Allium cepaL. var. aggregation.) is one of the oldest bulb crops known to mankind and extensively grown and consumed in Southern states of India. They are one among the most important commercial vegetable and spice crops, widely used in the south Indian kitchen mainly for seasoning of curries. Aggregatum onion invariably forms afresh cluster of bulbs, often as many as 10 or 15 per cluster. In India, presently about 35 to 40 percent of the onion is estimated to be lost by post-harvest practices during various operations including handling and storage. Presently after harvest onions are processed by hand labor to remove the leaves and the roots. Hand topping has obvious disadvantages including both cost and length of time necessary to process a large number of onions. However, in recent times it is becoming increasingly difficult to find sufficient skilled labor to do the job. Farmers and processors need a suitable post-harvest machine for stem cutting of shallot onion. Owing to the practical problem in the processing of shallot onion a stem cutting machine for shallot onion was designed and fabricated. The fabricated machine with different parameters like the slope of the machine and different speeds of the rollers were optimized. Different slopes (100, 200, 300) with two roller speeda (500 to 1500 rpm) were studied, results observed showed that at 200 slope and 1000 rpm, the cutting efficiency was very good (100%) with less damage to bulbs (2%).