Open Access Short Communication

Bee Keeping as a Source of Supplementary Income for Improved Livelihoods: A Success Story of ARYA Project in East Champaran

Arvind Kumar Singh, Neelam Kumari, Ram Babu Sharma, Shri Kant, Jitendra Rajput, Ashish Rai, Satish Kumar Singh, Anshu Gangwar, Vikas Kumar Rai, Manish Kumar, Anand Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830763

Mostly the people of the villages in Mehsi block of East Champaran are engaged in farming and animal husbandry and farm labour. The farmers of this village are also engaged in growing vegetables and spice crops for sale in the nearest markets. Mr Vijay Kumar was not able to maintain his family with farming occupation alone earlier. He earned 2-3 lakhs rupees annually by selling honey and bee colonies in nearby markets and at district level market. He set good example for enabling extra income along with agriculture. He established bee keeping unit in his farm along with agricultural crops. After establishing his venture, he is able to meet the local demand by providing good quality of honey and bee colonies to villagers. Despite earlier challenges like lack of market for his honey and difficulty in managing his colonies during the summer, Mr. Kumar has dramatically changed his life and that of his family through the sale of honey and honeybee colonies

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Institutional Credit on Cropping Pattern and Farm Structure in Fakharpur Block of Bahraich District of Uttar Pradesh

Harendra Pratap Singh Choudhri, G. P. Singh, Supriya ., Ajeet Kumar, P. Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 4-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830766

Finance in agriculture is as important as development of technology because new technology of farming cannot be adopted at field level by resource poor farmers. This view is also supported by Banerjee [1], Jugale [2] and Kalhon & Karam [3]. But the real picture of Bahraich district of Uttar Pradesh was unavailable in this regard. Having the importance of financial support in agriculture in view a sample study was conducted in Fakharpur block of Bahraich district of U.P. Purposive cum proportionate  random sampling technique was applied to select the sample respondents. Personal interview technique was used to collect the primary data. Simple tabular analysis (percentages and averages) were done to present the result. The study was conducted during 2017-19 and the final result obtained from this study in dicate that financial support from institutional credit agencies are quite helpful in the study area to improve the position of crop production and financial upliftment of rural poors through additional generation of finance and employment in agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Co-integration of Groundnut Markets in India with Special Reference to Karnataka State

Akshata Nayak, H. Lokesha, C. P. Gracy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830767

Aims: Market integration is an indicator that explains how different markets are related to each other. The main aim of the paper is to examine the market integration of groundnut seed and oil markets in India. 

Study Design: This paper examines the market integration in six major groundnut oil markets and four groundnut pod markets using monthly wholesale prices of groundnut.

Methodology: Test for stationarity was done using Dickey Fuller Test. The Engle-Granger two-step method is used to test for co-integration between the variables. Johansen co-integration test was applied to analyse the long run equilibrium among the groundnut markets.

Results: Unit root test indicated that the price series in each location are non-stationary at their levels and stationary at their first differences. The Granger causality test indicated that all the market pairs are well co-integrated, some of the markets have bidirectional relationship and some have unidirectional relationship at five per cent level of significance, which implies that the groundnut prices have an equally long run association.

Conclusion: In overall, the study suggests that regional markets for groundnut in India are strongly co-integrated. Therefore, the Government can stabilize the price in one key market and rely on commercialization to produce a similar outcome in other markets. This reduces the cost of stabilization considerably.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Wilt (Fusarium udum) and the Cyst Nematode (Heterodera cajani) Incidence on Pigeonpea of Prayagraj District

Amit Kumar Maurya, Sobita Simon, Vinny John, Abhilasha A. Lal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830768

A survey was conducted in selected villages of Prayagraj district to evaluate the disease incidence of Fusarium (Fusarium udum) wilt and cyst nematode (Heterodera cajani) of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Soil and roots were collected from the rhizosphere of infested pigeonpea plants. The maximum wilt incidence was recorded (57.6%) in Dari village followed by Pump House (56%), Pahlu ka Purwa (51.2%) and the lowest incidence of wilt was recorded in Chaka (12.8%), Naini (11.2%) and Jhusi (9.6%) in the year 2016. For cyst nematode, soil samples was collected from selected fields, the soil was mixed thoroughly and 500 g of the soil was processed following Cobb’s sieving and decanting method where cyst and J2’s were separated in separate mesh size sieves. It was observed that infestation of Heterodera cajani was very high in Jari (51%) followed by Naini (41%). The minimum infestation of Heterodera cajani was found in Meza village which was responsible for wilt disease in pigeonpea concluding that Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea is a major problem in Prayagraj district of U.P. India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence and Variability Studies for Yield and Quality Traits in Elite Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

K. Rukmini Devi, B. Satish Chandra, Y. Hari, K. Rajendra Prasad, N. Lingaiah, P. Jagan Mohan Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830769

Genetic divergence and variability was assessed among 33 elite germplasm lines which were evaluated in RBD at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Warangal with an objective to classify  and understand the nature and magnitude of genetic diversity and variability  with regard to grain yield, yield components and quality traits using Mahalanobis D2 statistics. Genotypes were grouped into eight clusters and cluster I was the largest comprised of 23 genotypes followed by cluster II which consists of 4 genotypes and rest of the clusters from cluster III to cluster VIII contain one genotype each. The maximum cluster distance was found between cluster II and cluster IV (2178.98) followed by cluster III and cluster VIII (2160.16). The minimum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster I and cluster III (540.96). The intra cluster distance was maximum for cluster II (354.1) indicating existence of variability within the cluster. A perusal of results on cluster means revealed that cluster VIII recorded highest cluster mean for yield/plant, panicle length, test weight, plant height, volume expansion ratio, kernel length after cooking, length/breadth ratio, kernel length and kernel width, The most important trait causing maximum divergence was plant height (31.8) which ranked 168 times first followed by alkali spreading value, days to 50% flowering and test weight were responsible for differentiating the genotypes studied. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was slightly higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits. Moderate GCV and PCV estimates were observed for filled seeds/panicle, test weight, alkali spreading value, volume expansion ratio, yield/plant, water uptake and head rice recovery. High heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for test weight (98.5:46.62), filled seeds/panicle (92.6:46.26), alkali spreading value (90.9:43.15), yield/plant (78;35.30), head rice recovery (78.9:27.46) and volume expansion ratio (69.1:37.3). In this study the genotypes WGL 1143, WGL 1150, WGL 1149, Tellahamsa in cluster II and WGL 1062 in cluster IV and WGL 915 in cluster VIII were widely divergent and crosses may be effected among the genotypes of the clusters to get more heterosis and subsequently better recombinants in segregating generations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agrometeorological Advisory Service: A Key to Enhance the Farmers’ Income in Red and Lateritic Zone of Purulia District of West Bengal

S. Thakur, F. H. Rahman, S. K. Bhattacharjya, A. Chakraborty, B. Mahato, C. Ghosh, P. Biswas, L. Maity, D. Dutta, S. Patra, S. Rath, M. K. Bhattacharjya, V. Pradhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 55-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830771

Weather and climate affect the production of an agricultural system as it influences growth and development of crops before and during the cropping season. The Agro-meteorological Advisory Service (AAS) rendered by India Meteorological Department implemented through establishment of District Agromet Unit (DAMU) in different Krishi Vigyan Kendras across the country mainly aims to enhance the farmers’ income by proper utilization of inputs and adopting suitable management practices according to the weather condition. The present study was undertaken to know the usefulness of AAS and assessing the economic benefit through its adoption in day to day farming operation by the farmers. The study was conducted at Jambad village of Purulia district under Red and Lateritic Zone of West Bengal for Kharif rice, groundnut and mustard crop which are predominantly grown in the region during 2019 Kharif and 2019-20 Rabi season. A group of farmers following AAS regularly provided through DAMU were selected randomly from the target village and farmers not following the same were also identified for the study. The economic impact and usefulness of block level AAS has been assessed through analysing the data collected from the selected farmers using suitable statistical technique. The result showed from the study that most of the cases forecasted data is well matched with actual data and hence those farmers who have adopted AAS timely in their farming operation realized more net income as compared to non AAS farmers having the same crop grown in the target village. Thus it can be concluded from the study that AAS is an effective tool for minimizing the crop losses caused due to aberrant weather and played a significant role in enhancing the production and farmers’ income.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Visual Acuity of Commercial Vehicle Drivers in Makurdi, Benue State, North-Central Nigeria

C. O. Ojabo, O. S. Adeniyi, B. A. Ojo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830772

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the visual acuity and the relationship between visual acuity and rate of road traffic accident (RTAs) among commercial (private and government transport companies) vehicle drivers in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria.

Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to each driver by face-to-face interview in four major motor parks in Makurdi metropolis. The documented information included driver’s demographic data, duration of driving, history of previous ophthalmic examination, past ophthalmic disease and history of involvement in road traffic accident. Participants were taken through a comprehensive eye examination.

Results: One hundred and twenty-two (122) male commercial vehicle drivers were enrolled for this study with a mean age of 33.8 + 0.81 years. 98.4% (n=120) of the drivers had normal visual acuity in both eyes. Analysis showed that there was no correlation between visual acuity of the drivers and the number of road traffic accident.

Conclusion: The prevalence of visual impairment in this study was low. The result also showed that there is no relationship between visual acuity and road traffic accident. Majority of the drivers in this study never had any eye test done before obtaining their driving license.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development, Physical and Sensory Evaluation of Chapathi (Indian Flatbread) Produced by Utilizing Legumes, Nutri-Cereals and Wheat Flour

Mekala Mounika, T. V. Hymavathi, Kuna Aparna, M. Sreedhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-76
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830773

In this study, the development and physicochemical of MMFM (minor millet flour mix) and sensory qualities of  MMFM chapathis (unleavened Indian flatbread) were evaluated at different proportions. Flour mixes were developed blending of minor millet flour and Nutri-cereals flours with wheat flour in different rations V1(75:25:0) (Millets: Other grains: Wheat flour), V2(60:25:15) V3 (50:25:25) V4(45:25:30), V5(30:25:45) V6(0: 75: 25) V7(100) and V8 (100 without gums) respectively and 100% wheat flour used as control. The functional properties of flours mixes were tested and results revealed that swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, gelatinization temperature, water retention capacity and bulk density were increased with an increase in the incorporation of other flours with wheat flour. Further, the color values of millet-based chapathis showed significant changes when the level of millet flour substitution was increased. The L* and b* values decreased while a* value increased. Regarding sensory properties, control wheat chapathis had better acceptability than the composite chapathis. Sensory evaluation revealed that overall acceptability for millet and nutricereals flour-based chapathis was awarded the highest score for V6 followed by V5, V4, and V3 as compared to control Chapathi. All chapathis were coinciding the range of ‘like moderately’ to ‘like very much’ for control chapathis while ‘like slightly’ to like moderately’ for experimental chapathis. Based on the generated results, novel chapathis could be formulated by substituting wheat with more than 50% flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-efficacy of Mineral Oil against Yellow Mite in Dark Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) under Terai Region of West Bengal

Prahlad Sarkar, Srima Das, Shyamal Kheroar, Avijit Kundu, Swapan Kumar Barman, Kausik Mandal, Sabyasachi Mitra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 77-82
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830774

An experiment was conducted during pre-kharif season of 2016 and 2017 to determine the efficacy of relatively cheaper, safer horticultural mineral oil on yellow mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with seven treatments [T1- mineral oil @ 3 ml/litre at 35 and 50 days after sowing, T2- mineral oil @ 6 ml/litre at 35 and 50 DAS, T3- mineral oil @ 9 ml/litre at 35 and 50 DAS, T4-Neem oil @ 3 ml/litre at 35 and 50 DAS, T5- mineral oil @ 3 ml/litre + neem oil @ 3 ml/litre at 35 and 50 DAS and T6- Control] replicated four times. Two scheduled spraying of each treatment was done on standing jute crop at 15 days interval. The effect of treatments was significant on post treatment mite population recorded after spray for both the cropping season. Among the treatments, T5 was found to be the most effective combination. The post treatment observation during 2016 and 2017 at 7 days after treatment indicated significantly less number of mites i.e. (1.08 and 0.84 mites cm-2) and (0.83 and 0.41 mites cm-2) respectively in the treatment T5. Within the treatments, maximum plant height (216.92 and 206.64 cm) and yield (34.68 and 28.28 q ha-1) were also observed in treatment T5. Considering the effectiveness against mite on jute as well as the environmental safety, mineral oil might be suggested as biorational component of IPM for effective management of yellow mite.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of an Eco-material Based on Palmyra Aggregates

Valéry K. Doko, Edem Chabi, Sena Peace Hounkpè, Edmond C. Adjovi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 83-96
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830778

This study is part of a project to develop a bio-based material meeting the criteria of sustainable development in the field of construction. A study was then made on a cement matrix composite reinforced by aggregates of Borassus aethopium mart (palmyra).

For this purpose, studies of cement compatibility with this plant aggregate, the physical, mechanical and thermal behavior of the concrete were performed for two granular compositions. The compatibility study revealed that palmyra aggregrates, although not previously treated, are compatible with Portland-limestone cement. The characterization tests focused on the mechanical properties of three-point flexural tensile strength and compressive strength and thermal properties such as effusivity, conductivity and diffusivity. The results obtained are promising: they have very good mechanical and thermal characteristics, considering its use in construction. The mechanical strengths reach 16.25 MPa for a density less than 1500 kg / m3. The thermal conductivity varies between 0.270 and 0.415. They can be used for the manufacture of panels used in the realization of suspended ceilings and tiles for the realization of roofs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Water Quality of a Tropical River with Special Reference to Ions

R. V. Sheeja, A. M. Sheela, S. Jaya, Sabu Joseph

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 97-116
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830779

The role of ions in a tropical river water (Neyyar, Kerala) was assessed. Rock weathering is the dominating mechanism controlling the major ion chemistry of Neyyar river. The dominance of Cl-HCO3-Na during monsoon indicates that geology plays a major role in controlling water chemistry. The presence of mineral varieties of quartz, feldspars, pyroxene, biotite, etc., in the Pre-Cambrian crystalline namely Khondalite and Charnockites, could be the source of major ions. The major ion chemistry of Neyyar river waters show that Na is the dominant cation with lower proportions of Mg and Ca, with HCO3 and Cl as the dominant anions. It belongs to the HCO3 group with significant amounts of Na and Cacations. The dominance of Cl-HCO3-Ca and Ca-HCO3-Cl during post monsoon and pre monsoon respectively indicates that besides geology, the land drainage and anthropogenic activities also control river water. The change in water type observed during monsoon from Na-Cl-HCO3 to Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 almost from the middle portion may be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Hence attention is to be paid to take the control measures to prevent the pollution in this stretch of the river.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nutrient Management through Target Yield Approach on Uptake and Soil Microflora in Maize – Wheat/Chickpea Sequence Cropping System under Different Tillage Practices

K. A. Hiremath, A. S. Halepyati, B. M. Dodamani, M. A. Bellakki, B. M. Chittapur, P. H. Kuchanur, . Amaregouda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 126-137
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830782

A field trial was carried out during July month of kharif and October month of rabi seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at Agricultural Research Station, Bheemarayanagudi to study the effect of nutrient management through target yield approach on uptake and soil microflora in maize – wheat/chickpea sequence cropping system under different tillage practices. The results indicated that the yield parameters of maize, wheat and chickpea at harvest did not influence due to tillage practices. All these yield parameters were relatively higher in zero tillage with mulch at 5 t ha-1 when compared to conventional tillage. Grain and stover yield of maize did not differ significantly due to different tillage management practices. But, zero tillage with mulch at 5 t ha-1 produced relatively higher yield (65.9 q ha-1) than the zero tillage (64.3 q ha-1) followed by conventional tillage (55.8 q ha-1). The higher organic carbon and soil microflora at different stages were noticed with zero tillage with mulch at 5 t ha-1. The higher available NPK and their uptake by maize crop were also recorded in zero tillage with mulch at 5 t ha-1 followed by zero tillage compared to conventional tillage and zero tillage. The lower available NPK and their uptake by maize crop were recorded in conventional tillage and RDF. Further, due to nutrient management through target yield approach, the yield parameters of maize were differed significantly. Target yield of 10 t ha-1 exhibited significantly higher yield attributes at harvest when compared to other treatments except the targeted yield of 8 t ha-1 and 150% RDF. The lowest values of these attributes were recorded in farmer’s practice of nutrient management followed by RDF. The grain yield and stover yield (69.9 q ha-1and 89.5 q ha-1, respectively) of maize was significantly higher with a targeted yield of 10 t ha-1 followed by targeted yield of 8 t ha-1 and 150% RDF. The lowest grain and stover yield (53.6 q ha-1 and 74.3 q ha-1, respectively) was recorded in farmers practice followed by RDF. Significantly higher soil microflora, available NPK and their uptake by the maize crop was noticed in target yield of 10 t ha-1 followed by targeted yield of 8 t ha-1 and 150% RDF as compared to other treatments. The lowest soil microflora, available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) and their uptake by the maize was recorded in farmers practice followed by RDF. The same trend was followed statistically for organic carbon due to different treatments. Non significant differences for grain and stover yield of maize was recorded due to interaction of tillage and nutrient management practices. Similar trend was also followed due to interaction of tillage and nutrient management practices for succeeding wheat and chickpea. The yield and yield parameters of wheat and chickpea did not differ due to tillage practices and target yield approaches followed for maize. Maize equivalent yield of wheat and chickpea and system productivity were followed same trend as that of maize yield. Among different tillage practices, zero tillage and zero tillage with mulch at 5 t ha-1 were recorded maximum net returns and higher BC ratio. Similarly, among different nutrient management practices, the target yield of 10 t ha-1 followed by targeted yield of 8 t ha-1 was recorded maximum net returns and higher BC ratio as compare to other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Contribution and Inequality Mitigation of Wicker Handicraft Entrepreneurship in Rural Kashmir, India

M. A. Islam, A. A. Wani, G. M. Bhat, A. A. Gatoo, Shah Murtaza, Ummar Atta, S. S. G. Sheikh Shah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 138-149
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830783

Wicker handicraft entrepreneurship is a unique world-famous small-scale forest-based cottage industry of indigenous people of Kashmir Himalaya which plays a prominent role in livelihood security, socioeconomic development, traditional handcraftsmanship and rural industrialization in the region. The study investigated the economic contribution, income inequality mitigation and determinant socioeconomic factors of wicker handicraft entrepreneurship in Pulwama district of J&K UT. Multistage random sampling technique was employed to select the sample of 100 wicker handicraft entrepreneurs. Data were collected through structured interviews and focus group discussions. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used in data analysis. Results revealed that collection of withies from Parrotia jacquemontiana, Cotoneaster baciliaris, Indigofera pulchella and Salix spp. was 61.71 t/year for manufacture of 43514 wicker handicrafts/year which generated an income of  5953470/year. Wicker handicraft income contributes 66.97%, whereas farm and non-farm income accounts 23.46% and 9.58% of total household income, respectively. Gini coefficient was 21.85 when wicker handicraft income was considered and 53.14 when it was ignored which indicated that the wicker handicraft income have stronger equalizing effect on local income distribution. Regression analysis showed that all explanatory variables jointly accounted 81.50% (R2=0.815) variation on wicker handicraft income. Among socioeconomic factors, education, family composition, housing status, subsequent occupation and gross annual income were key determinants influencing significantly (p<0.05) the wicker handicraft income. To achieve the socioeconomic development and livelihood diversification objectives, policy must be directed towards the rural industrialization through wicker handicraft entrepreneurship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association and Path Coefficient Study in F2 Population for Yield Attributing and Micronutrient Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Ashutosh Kumar, Avinash Kumar, N. K. Singh, Rajesh Kumar, S. K. Singh, . Nilanjaya, Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Aman Tigga, . Banshidhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 150-157
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830794

In view to overcome the major problem of ‘hidden hunger’ mainly caused by micronutrient deficiency, breeding for micronutrient enriched staple food crops is important. In developing countries, iron and zinc deficiencies are reported to be major health risk factor causing a high mortality rate. So, for overcoming these nutritional deficiencies through genetic improvement, F2 population of two rice crosses obtained by crossing diverse parents for micronutrients (mainly, Fe and Zn) were evaluated using randomised complete block design  during  Kharif, 2019  to study the relationship between different traits and to study the estimates of direct and indirect effect. Among the F2 population of cross-I, grain yield per plant exhibited significant and positive association with seeds per panicle, tillers per plant, flag leaf area, harvest index, test weight, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity while negative and significant correlation with canopy temperature. For cross-II, grain yield per plant exhibited significant and positive association with seeds per panicle, tillers per plant, plant height, flag leaf area, SPAD value, harvest index, test weight and days to maturity while significant and negative correlation with grain Zn content, grain Fe content and canopy temperature. Hence, selection for the traits showing positive and significant association with grain yield in both the crosses will be rewarding. Highest positive direct effect on yield was shown by harvest index in cross-I. So, selection based on harvest index for grain yield per plant would be the most effective strategy for improvement of grain yield. No direct positive or negative effect of grain Fe and Zn content on yield was found.

Open Access Review Papers

Role of Conservation Agriculture for Sustaining Soil Quality and Improving Crop Productivity- A Review

Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, Zahida Rashid, Raies Ahmad Bhat, Waseem Raja, Sadaf Iqbal, Mohd Salim Mir, Seerat Jan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830770

Intensive agriculture and excessive use of external inputs are leading to degradation of soil and water resources and negatively affecting agricultural production. This review article aims to determine the role of conservation agriculture for sustaining soil quality and improving crop productivity. Conservation Agriculture (CA) practices cause prominent changes in physical, chemical and biological properties of soil compared to conventional agricultural practices. The improved bio-physico-chemical qualities of soil in turn, affect the ecosystem services and sustainability of crop production system through counterbalancing the climate variability with the help of increasing sink for carbon sequestration within the soil. There was significant interaction of tillage and cropping system on mineral nitrogen measured at the beginning of the cropping system. Mineral N contents were higher with manual tillage and no tillage systems compared with conventional tillage in the soybean maize rotation system. Conservation agriculture also helps in improving the crop production in a sustainable way hence there is an intense need of conservation agriculture which will not only meet the present and future demand of ever increasing population, but also seize degradation of environmental quality.

Open Access Review Article

Fortification of Wheat Based Instant Noodles with Surimi Powder: A Review

S. Chowdhury, S. Nath, Durba Pal, P. Murmu, K. C. Dora, F. H. Rahman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 117-125
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1830781

Noodles, commonly prepared from hard/soft wheat flour, is popular throughout globe due to its’ versatility, low cost, ease of preparation and nutritional quality. Commercial noodles are rich in carbohydrates, but deficient in essential nutrients, like proteins, dietary fiber and vitamins. Due to scarcity of Essential Amino Acids (EAA) like lysine and methionine in wheat-proteins, incorporation of EAA-rich-protein and fatty-acid-rich-lipids from other sources are important to improve the nutritional quality of noodles. Fish, being an excellent source of high-quality protein, rich in lysine and methionine, omega-3 fatty-acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), along with vitamins like A, D, B6, and B12, minerals like iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, potassium and sodium, protein enrichment can be achieved by fortification of carbohydrate-rich cereal-based-noodle with dried fish surimi powders. This makes the fortified noodles nutritionally significant and the sensory attributes facilitate greater consumption. Attributes like taste, nutrition, convenience, safety, longer shelf-life and reasonable price have increased global acceptance of noodles and admiration by all generations. Thus, instant noodles are used as space and emergency foods. As consumers are becoming health conscious by preferring diet rich in fiber, protein and low fat, readily digestible fish protein incorporated noodles can satisfy their nutritional requirement.