Open Access Short Research Article

An Assessment of Educators’ Level of Concern on the Adoption of Education 5.0: A Case of One University in Zimbabwe

Dumisani Rumbidzai Muzira, Robert Muzira

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730749

Background: This study was an assessment of educators’ levels of concern on the adoption of Education 5.0: A case of a State University in Zimbabwe. Education 5.0 being a new curriculum reform in Zimbabwe which focuses on five pillars namely, research, teaching, community service, innovation and industrialisation. Educators are directly involved in implementing education reforms hence the importance of an assessment of their stages of concern towards the adoption of Education 5.0.

Methodology: A survey using 35 questionnaire items adapted from the Concerns-Based Adoption model was used to collect data from a sample of 28 lecturers derived from a population of 30. The researcher completed a score sheet using the responses from the questionnaires. Data on stages of concern was coded using Likert scale of 0 to 3. Data was analysed to measure stages of concern among the educators who are implementors of Education 5.0. by averaging the five items per stage to determine the level of concern among the educators. Standard deviation for each stage of concern was also calculated to determine variations among the educators’ level of concern.

Results: The study revealed that the educators had their highest intensity of concern under stage 2 (personal), followed by stage 5 (collaboration), and their least concern on stage 6 (refocusing), followed by stage 3 (management). These findings indicate that these educators are on the self-level of concern, much concerned about how they would personally be affected by Education 5.0 and least concerned about the task at hand, which is the implementation of Education 5.0.

Conclusion: The high intensity scores of educators’ concern at the personal and collaboration stages suggest that educators are more worried about how Education 5.0 adoption would affect them personally and also their significant others, students being part of this group. It is expected of educators to be concerned about how their students will be affected because students are part of lecturers’ most valued clients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Rainwater Resource Management (iRaM) Model for Coastal South Gujarat

P. K. Shrivastava, Dileswar Nayak, D. P. Patel, S. V. Viyol, H. S. Thakare

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730747

The South Gujarat region has ample water availability, but, water shortage is being experienced during summer and water logging during monsoon. Also, due to large scale industrialization of south Gujarat, problems of air and water pollution have arisen which have become more complex because of over exploitation of natural resources ‘ground water’. In many areas, due to continuous pumping of sweet water, sea water ingress has taken place and bores have become defunct as the water quality deteriorated drastically, due to which many cultivable farm lands have become uncultivable and are lying as wasteland. The water quality had deteriorated to such an extent that neither it could be used for drinking purposes nor for irrigation of crops. High intensity rains occur during the monsoon allowing very little opportune time for the water to infiltrate into the aquifers. All the rainwater during monsoon directly goes as runoff ultimately reaching the sea. Also, where ponds exist, catchment areas are disappearing due to construction work and ponds no longer receive rain water. So, an attempt was made to conserve the “rain water” natural resource while evaluating the potential of raising fish in small pond through harvested rain water. The water balance study was carried out in which meteorological and hydrological parameters like rainfall, evaporation, infiltration and runoff were measured and then using the water balance equation, the recharge amount was calculated and it was compared with the estimated recharge. It was concluded from the study that the rain water harvesting in small or big ponds not only replenishes aquifers but also checks deteriorating water quality in addition to providing sweet water fish harvest for economic gain

Open Access Original Research Article

Fatigue Behaviour Study of a Cement Matrix Composite Reinforced by Sugar Cane Bagasse Short Fibers

Acodji V. Pamphile, Doko K. Valery, Olodo E. T. Emmanuel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730750

This work is devoted to the study of the fatigue behaviour of a cement matrix composite reinforced by sugar cane bagasse short fibers. The objective is analysis of the fatigue behaviour in order to assess its ability to withstand use on wall structures, in bracing, false ceiling of this material. Some series of tests carried out in compression and flexion characterized the material mechanical properties, the tests in monotonic and cyclic three-point bending showed the material behaviour in use. For the composite, another fairly conventionally used representation is to visualize the variations in material properties as a function of the number of cycles. The Wöhler curves is plotted from the strain stresses and the number of cycles for the end of test criteria. It shows the influence of increase in stress on the material service life face of breaking. The Fatigue limit corresponds to the line s =26.40 MPa, stress for which no breaking is observed after an infinite number of cycles, and the Endurance limit corresponds to the line of stress 26.79 MPa, the limit value towards which the stress amplitude tends when the number of cycles becomes very large.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Coagulation-Flocculation and Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP: Fenton) for Textile Wastewater Treatment

Atkeeya Tasneem, Protima Sarker, Md. Khabir Uddin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730751

Textile effluent contains dye and harmful chemicals which are difficult to remove. This study was conducted to find out the cost effective and efficient textile effluent treatment process. In this regard, coagulation-flocculation and Fenton treatment process were applied in which pH, Dissolve Oxygen, TOC (Total Organic Carbon), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TDS (Total Dissolve Solid) and EC (Electro-conductivity) were analyzed before and after the treatment. Conventional Jar test was used for coagulation and flocculation process where chemical coagulants (FeSO4 and Ca(OH)2) were added to different doses. On the other hand, Hydroxyl (OH.) radical, a byproduct of reaction between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) was used in Fenton treatment processas a strong oxidant capable of oxidizing various organic compounds. In coagulation-flocculation process the maximum reduction of pH (6.3-6.8), TDS (400 mg/l), EC (1110 µs/cm), COD (86.56%) and TOC (97.81%) was found after using dose 1 (1 g of FeSO4 and 1 g of Ca(OH)2) which was within Bangladesh standard value. And DO (Dissolves Oxygen) was increased maximum 4.4 mg/L than the untreated (1.2 mg/L) effluent. In Fenton treatment process, maximum TOC removal efficiency was found at pH-1 as 89.45%. The COD content was also remarkably reduced as 63.98% at pH-2. It was observed that in comparison of removal efficiency coagulation-flocculation process was more efficient than Fenton treatment process. Concurrently both processes were proved very cost effective, time saving and easily operative for industrial use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis for Yield Parameters in Rice (Oryza sativa. L) Genotypes

B. Soundharya, Ramya Rathod, Firdoz Shahana, Y. Swathi, P. Jalender Naik, M. Venkataiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 52-56
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730752

The present investigation was conducted during Kharif, 2019 at Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur, Nizamabad. Twenty rice genotypes were studied to assess genetic diversity analysis for days to fifty percent flowering, plant height (cm), ear bearing tillers per m2, panicle length (cm), number of filled grains per panicle, test weight (g) and plot yield (kg/ha). Based on the analysis, the genotypes were grouped into four clusters. The maximum number of genotypes (14 genotypes) was grouped in cluster I. Cluster II and III consists of three and two genotypes respectively. Remaining cluster was represented by a single genotype. Maximum inter cluster distance was observed between I and II (27.46) followed by between cluster I and IV (23.19) and between cluster II and IV (20.43) indicating wider genetic diversity between genotypes. Hence these lines may be utilized in a further breeding programme for the exploitation of hybrid vigour. Among the seven traits studied, the number of filled grains per panicle contributed maximum divergence (42.68%) followed by days to 50% flowering (32.04%), grain yield per plot (12.01%) and ear bearing tillers per m2 (8.12%). Hence these altogether contribute more than ninety per cent towards total divergence. Therefore, these characters may be given importance during hybridization programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis on Knowledge and Adoption Level of Farmwomen Regarding Fruit and Vegetable Preservation Technologies: A Micro Study by KVK, Ganjam-I

Santosh Kumar Samantaray, Chitrotpala Devadarshini, Anita Patro, Prasanta Kumar Panda, Bishnupada Giri, Anil Kumar Chaudhary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730753

The study was conducted during 2017-2019 in Ganjam district with the objective to find out the effectiveness of training programme of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Ganjam-I, on knowledge and adoption level of trainee farmwomen regarding fruit and vegetables preservation technologies. A total 400 respondents were selected for the study which  includes 200 trainee farmwomen from the adopted villages, where Krishi Vigyan Kendra Ganjam-I, had conducted  training programmes in the area of fruit and vegetables preservation technologies and 200 non-trainee farmwomen selected from villages which were not covered by the KVK. The data revealed that majority, (i.e., 72.50 percent) of Trainee Farm-Women were having medium level of knowledge regarding Fruit and Vegetable Preservation technology, followed by those (20.00 percent and 7.50 percent) having high and low level of knowledge, respectively. Whereas, in case of Non-trainee farmwomen, all of them had low level of knowledge regarding Fruit And Vegetable Preservation technologies. Further the analysis of adoption scores of Trainee Farm-women revealed that (79.50 percent) of Trainee Farmwomen had medium level of adoption, followed by (20.50 percent) those having high level of adoption and (18.50 percent) are having low level of adoption as far as Fruit and Vegetable Production technologies are concerned, while in case of Non-Trainee Farm-women, all of them were having low level of adoption. This indicates that there has been significant difference between the trainees & non-trainees with regard to their Knowledge and Adoption of fruit and vegetables preservation technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Demulsification of Water-in-oil Emulsion by Eliminating Trace Value of Percentage Residual Water

Jude D. Inyang, Julius U. Akpabio, Benjamin R. Etuk

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 64-76
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730754

The elimination of residual free water and Basic Sediments (BS&W) after field demulsification process and characterization is being investigated with a diluent, to enhance field treatment for quality assurance and crude oil custody transfer. The American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 4007 is used as separation technique for three field emulsion samples from two Niger Delta basin oil facilities. After an initial bottle test, free water content in crude oil samples on arrival were 0.65%, 0.70% and 0.55% for samples A, B and C respectively. Tests and analysis were carried out at room temperature of 28°C and a water-bath temperature at 60°C. Maximum water separation efficiency of 91% was achieved at diluent and emulsion concentration ratio of 1:9 in first 60 minutes to 720 minutes. BS&W reduced from an average of 0.6% to 0.25%. Emulsion separation index (ESI) provided emulsion stability measurement of respective samples with a contrast between static-laboratory and field-dynamic conditions. From the study, sample B has API of 39 and ESI=40 while recording greater separation than in A and C crude oil samples. Hence, separation efficiency increased with the amount of xylene added and free water percentages reduced in top dry oil with significant changes in BS&W.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Harvesting Dates on Yield, Color and Quality of Raisin Prepared from Seedless Grape (Vitis vinifera)

A. Venkatram, A. S. Padmavathamma, B. Srinivas Rao, A. Siva Sankar, K. Manorama, D. Vijaya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730755

Aims: To know the effect of harvesting dates on yield, color and quality of raisins prepared from seedless varieties of grapes viz., Thompson Seedless (TS), 2A Clone (2AC), Sonaka (SO), Manik Chaman (MC) and Merbein Seedless (MS).

Study Design: Factorial completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: The present investigation was conducted at Grape Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy district, Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, during 2012–13 and 2013–14.

Methodology: Selected grape varieties viz., TS, 2AC, SO, MC and MS were manually harvested on 9th, 12th, 14th, 17th and 21st March, respectively, chosen as first harvest date i.e. 20 days before local harvest. Succeeding harvests i.e. second, third, fourth and fifth was done with 10 days interval following the first harvest date and used for raisin making. The grape bunches were dried in ventilated rooms after pre-drying treatment with alkaline emulsion of ethyl oleate (2.4% K2CO3 plus 1.5% ethyl oleate) with ascorbic acid 1000 ppm.

Results: Well matured grapes, which are harvested between 19th April to 1st May (20 days after local harvest) recorded lowest brown and mixed colored raisins and correspondingly increased green colored raisins. The grapes dried early in variety MS and it takes only 13.27 days followed by 2AC, TS, MC and SO in order. Raisin yield, size, texture, color homogeneity, total soluble solids, and Hunter color L*, -a* (greenness) and b* values increased with successive harvest dates. TS raisins were superior compared to others. The moisture content of raisins was lowest in fully matured (19th April to 1st May) grapes.

Conclusion: Raisins prepared from fully ripened grapes i.e. harvested between 9th to 19th April for Thompson Seedless and 17th to 27th April for Manik Chaman was superior regarding yield, retention of green color and quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ochratoxin A: A Persistent Menace in Nigerian Stored Cocoa Beans

O. O. Kolawole, A. R. Salawu, A. F. Okunade, S. O. Aroyeun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 86-92
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730756

Aim: To assess the levels of OTA in stored cocoa beans in southwest Nigeria.

Study Design: The cocoa beans samples for this study were collected randomly from seemingly healthy cocoa beans in six cocoa producing states.

Methodology: A solid phase direct enzyme immunoassay in Helica Biosystems kit was used to quantify OTA in 95 cocoa beans samples.

Results: The result showed that 82.1% of the samples were contaminated with OTA with concentration ranging from 1.08 mg/kg - 15.24 mg/kg. Out of 95 samples analyzed, 51.6% exceeded the proposed European Commission 2 mg/kg maximum limit of OTA in cocoa powder. There was significant difference in OTA levels observed in cocoa beans collected in the states surveyed (p = 0.05).

Conclusion: The knowledge of OTA incidences in stored cocoa beans is imperative and insightful to reducing OTA contaminations in cocoa beans through intervention schemes that take into cognizance periodic creation of awareness and training of farmers and other stakeholders on best pre and post-harvest practices that ensure the production of quality cocoa beans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Characterization, Leaf Nutritional Status and Fruit Quality of Acid Lime Orchards in Patur Block of Akola District, Maharashtra

Priya S. Gadge, S. N. Ingle, M. M. Raut, N. M. Konde, D. V. Mali, N. R. Dange, D. N. Nalge

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 93-102
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730757

The present investigation on “Soil characterization, leaf nutritional status and fruit quality of Acid Lime orchards in Patur block of Akola district” was undertaken during the year 2018-19. Twenty healthy lime orchards were selected on the basis of their yield performance and visual observations from five locations of Patur block viz., Wadegaon, Sasti, Patur, Mazod and Goregaon. The study was framed to evaluate the soil characteristics, leaf nutritional status and fruit quality of Acid Lime. Twenty soil samples were collected from 0-30 and 30-60 cm depth in randomly selected acid lime orchards. Similarly, the leaf and fruit samples were collected and analyzed for quality parameters. The results indicated that, the soil reaction was neutral to slightly alkaline with pH value varied from 7.35 to 8.14, EC ranges from 0.23 to 0.32 dS m-1 indicating the non-saline nature of these soils. Free calcium carbonate varied from 5.63 to 9.42%, Organic carbon showed decreasing trend with soil depth and having medium to moderately high in organic carbon. The available nitrogen was found to be low to medium, phosphorus was low, potassium was high to very high and sulphur was low to moderate. The DTPA extractable micronutrients in soil were moderately high in zinc, iron, copper and manganese. The leaf nutrient status was found to be low to optimum in total nitrogen, phosphorus and micronutrient and optimum to high in potassium. Fruits of acid lime were found to be of good quality. Since, the correlations obtained in the present studies did not show any consistent trend.

Open Access Original Research Article

L × T Analysis in F5 Lines of RGR Population Derived through Exploitation of Heterotic Groups in Gossypium Species

Girish Tantuway, Shreekant S. Patil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 115-126
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730759

The combining ability studies assist in choosing the desirable parents for crossing in hybrid development. Forty derived hybrids generated by crossing ten F5 lines to the four testers for assessing combining ability. Hybrids along with the parents were planted in randomized block design and analysis of variance suggested that lines had significant differences for all the characters studied except number of monopodia per plant, reproductive points on sympodia and ginning outturn. Significant line effect of seed cotton yield and lint yield was revealed by ANOVA for combining ability. Variance of sca was higher than Variance of gca for all characters apart from seed cotton yield and lint yield. RGR F6 9 and RGR F6 7 lines were recorded to be the highest seed cotton yielding lines. The gca effects were highly significant for seed cotton yield and lint yield in RGR F5 1 and RGR F5 5 lines. RGR F5 1 x DR-8, RGR F5 7 x DR-8 and RGR F5 8 x DR-8 were the top three hybrids for seed cotton yield. The sca effect was positively significant in hybrids RGR F5 7 × DR-8 and RGR F5 1 × DR-8 for seed cotton yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Property of the Extract and Fractions of Hannoa klaineana against the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

Ifeoma Chioma Ibe, Eze Elijah Ajaegbu, Lame Younoussa, Simon Pierre Yinyang Danga, Christopher Obidike Ezugwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 127-132
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730760

Aedes aegypti (Culicidae) is the main vector for dengue which is endemic in Nigeria and Africa at large. Use of synthetic materials for the control of this vector has always proven abortive. The introduction of plant metabolites which is biodegradable maybe successful and safer to the human health in the control programme of this vector since plants are very rich in bioactive secondary metabolites. Hence, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of the crude methanol extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of Hannoa klaineana (Simaroubaceae) against the IV instar larvae of A. aegypti mosquitousing standard protocols. The most active fractions were  n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions with LC50 values of 1.006, 1.479, and 3.198 mg/ml respectively; n-hexane fraction having the highest property with LC50 value of 1.006 mg/ml and followed by chloroform fraction with LC50 value of 1.479 mg/ml. The evaluation has shown that the secondary metabolites of H. klaineana can be used as an alternative for the synthetic larvicides which its use has proven abortive in the vector control programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Association Analysis of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Genotypes for Green Forage Yield and Other Components

Mayuri Sahu, Ajay Tiwari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 133-141
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730762

Fourteen genotypes of fodder oat (Avena sativa L.) were evaluated to assess the genetic variability and association analysis during Rabi 2018-19. The character dry matter yield (q/ha/day) had the highest heritability. GCV and PCV estimate was recorded for the days to 50% flowering. Highest genetic advance was observed for green forage yield (q/ha) were as high as percentage of mean was observed for dry matter yield (q/ha/day). In the present experiment, it is evident for the result that day to 50% flowering has a highly significant negative correlation with green forage yield. The highest positive direct effect contributing to green forage yield (q/ha) was due to low crude protein (q/ha). However indirect effect on improvement in green fodder yield was exerted by most of the traits studied. A direct selection for all these traits will help in the improvement of green fodder yield. Green fodder yield was positively correlated with most of the traits studied except days to 50% flowering and plant height (cm). The study provided the opportunity to identify suitable genotypes to be used in a future breeding programme.

Open Access Review Article

The Novel Coronavirus Disease-COVID-19: Pandemic and Its Impact on Environment

Mayur Gautam, Sneha Kumari, Shrestha Gautam, Ranjay Kumar Singh, R. S. Kureel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 13-21
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730748

The global disturbance caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a number of effects and impacts on human beings and environment. The widespread coronavirus has caused diminishment worldwide in human lives and financial movement, inspite of the fact that typically major cause for concern, the inclining down of human movement and intervention shows a positive effect on the environment and climate. Industrial and transport outflows effluents have decreased measurable data bolsters the clearing of toxins and contamination in the air, soil and water. This impact is additionally in differentiate to carbon outflows, which was shot up by 5 percent after the worldwide financial related crash over a decade prior. As a result of boost investing on fossil fuels utilize to kick begin the worldwide economy. Water bodies have too been clearing and the Yamuna and Ganga as well as other rivers have seen critical advancement since the authorization of across and complete nationwide lockdown from 23rd March to 3rd June, 2020 as well as partial lockdown thereafter. Concurring to the real-time water observing information the normal water quality of 27 focuses of the Ganga seen in later days is reasonable for washing and proliferation of natural life and fisheries.

Apart human lives, it has also been discussed that how to save our nature and environment by lockdown habit and guidelines need to be issued by Central Pollution Control Board disposed of precautionary material like gloves, mask, sanitizers and biomedical waste of medical health centers and quarantine centers.

Open Access Review Article

The Importance of Brassica Vegetables to the Kingdom of Eswatini: A Review

Michael T. Masarirambi, Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Daniel V. Dlamini, Lokadhia Manwa, Molyn Mpofu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 103-114
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1730758

Brassica vegetables are diverse and widely consumed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Although exotic in Southern Africa brassicas are now relatively important vegetables produced and consumed in the region all year round. In their production, postharvest handling, storage and processing chain, employment is created and revenue is generated and thus their contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). Brassicas are not only important economically but by far their greatest contribution is to human nutrition and health. They contain vitamins and cancer preventing phytochemicals. They also contribute fibre which is important for proper digestion and is anticancer preventing material. Brassica vegetables provide interesting colour when incorporated in salads. They are components which add up to achieving food security in the Kingdom of Eswatini. Despite immense importance of brassica vegetables in the Kingdom, there is dearth of information pertaining to their agro-climatological requirements and their nutritional awareness among the citizens. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the agro-climatological needs of the brassica vegetables and to bring awareness of their health and food security contribution through documentation and community education.