Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Certain Rootstocks on Vegetative, Reproductive Growth and Yield of Cashew Cultivars

P. Janani, J. D. Adiga, D. Kalaivanan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630728

Vigour reduction through dwarf rootstocks is an essential element of high density planting systems. Cashew is a vigorous evergreen perennial woody plant that is traditionally cultivated in a low density planting system. The present investigations were carried out at ICAR-Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur, Karnataka, India to find out the effects of vigour controlling rootstocks on vegetative growth and yield of cashew cultivars. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with twelve combinations of scion/rootstock with three replications. Different growth habits of four cashew varieties scions (Ullal-3, VRI-3, NRCSel-2 and Vengurla-4) grafted on two dwarfing rootstocks (NRC-492 and Taliparamba-1) and one vigorous rootstock (Vengurla-4) were studied. The results revealed that various stionic combinations varied to growth and yield parameters. Significant interactions indicated that Taliparamba-1 (dwarfing rootstock) with VRI-3 consistently reduced the growth and vigour based on their lower mean tree height, plant volume, TCSA and canopy spread. Stionic combination of VRI-3/ NRC 492 recorded the highest cumulative nut yield of 16.77 kg/ tree (5 seasons of cropping). Based on observation on growth and yield of various stionic combinations revealed that NRC 492 could be used as a rootstock to induce semi dwarfism with a higher nut yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Analysis by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry of Heroin Traded in Kuwait during 2016 – 2017, and Its Comparison with Results of Analyzing Heroin Traded during 2012 and Addicts Death Rate Statistics during 2011 – 2018

N. A. Al-Abkal, E. Kh. Metwally, S. R. Alezzbawy, Kh. Y. Orabi, Sh. H. Alshammari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630729

Aim: To compare the main and additive components of heroin trafficked in the Stateof Kuwait during 2012 with those components of heroin traded recently in the country during 2016 and 2017, and to provide a satisfactory explanation for the increase in deaths among heroin addicts during the period2011 -2018.

Study Design: Selected samples of non-pure powder heroin seized in Kuwait during 2016 and 2017, with pure heroin and a set of10 pure different heroin component standards, all have been quantitatively analyzed in the Forensic Laboratories.

Place and Duration of Study: All qualitative and quantitative analyses for 2016 and 2017 samples were conducted in the Forensic Laboratories of the General Department of Criminal Evidences – Ministry of Interior – State of Kuwait.

Methodology: By using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to qualitative and quantitative analysis have been made on a total of hundred samples of non-pure powder heroin seized in Kuwait during the years 2016 and 2017, in addition to ten pure standards.

Results: The concentration of the diacetylmorphine (active substance of heroin) in Kuwait during the year 2017 are much higher than the concentration during the year 2016. The additive substances (adulterants) for the years 2016 and 2017, are shared with the year 2012 by the component's paracetamol, caffeine and diazepam with different concentrations. But new adulterants in recent years are recorded in samples 2016 and 2017, including methamphetamine, dextromethorphan, and methylphenidate which is absent in 2016 samples.

Conclusion: The concentration % of illicit heroin traded in Kuwait as diacetylmorphine has increase from 10% to 50% for year 2016, and further from 30% - 70% for year 2017, which marks identified a substantial rising in the purity of heroin. In addition, additive substances in the two years include paracetamol (acetaminophen), caffeine and diazepam, previously recorded in 2012. However, totally different new adulterates are recorded in 2016 and 2017 samples, including methamphetamine, dextromethorphan, and methylphenidate. All new three adulterates are detected in quite a few numbers of samples with methylphenidate recorded in a very low concentration of 0. 01 mg. Both new adulterates and higher purity of heroin constitute the main reasons for rising the rate of deaths between heroin addicts in recent years. Also, recent UN reports (12,18) provide evidence that the GC countries Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan are still manufacturing and trading the above mentioned new adulterates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of ISSR Primers to Study the Genetic Diversity of Myrciaria floribunda O. Berg

Luiz Sergio Costa Duarte Filho, Danielson Ramos Ribeiro, Allison Vieira da Silva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630730

The species Myrciaria floridunda O. Berg, popularly known as cambuí, belongs to the Myrtaceae family. Cambui is a native, non-endemic species that occur in diverse environments in Central America and South America. They are slow-growing plants with a shrub or sub-shrub habit. The fruits, the product of interest of the species, are small, spherical berries orange or red in colorturning to wine colorwhen they are ripe. The exploitation of the species is still mostly extractivist, carried out by traditional local families who, in times of fruiting of the species, leverage their income by selling fruits at fairs. The fruits can be eaten fresh, in the form of jellies, liquor or wine. To study the genetic diversity of the species using ISSR-type molecular markers, it is necessary to first isolate DNA in sufficient quality and quantity. Here, leaves for DNA extraction were collected from the active germplasm bank of the Federal University of Alagoas, Brazil. The DNA of the species was extracted using CTAB detergent methodology with modifications adapted to the species. Twelve ISSR primers were tested on DNA from two cambui genotypes. Of the twelve primers, eight were selected due to their polymorphism index above 50%, namely: UFAL-2, UFAL-3, UFAL-5, UFAL-6, UFAL-7, UFAL-8, UFAL-9 and UFAL-10.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Barrier and Intercrops in the Management of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) Disease in Jharkhand, India

Praveen Kumar, S. M. Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630731

Field trials were carried out during 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 autumn seasons to study the role of barrier and intercrops against whitefly - borne Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. In the  treatment (T2) two rows of Maize sown after 15 rows of Mungbean, the lowest mean population of whitefly 7.03 per plant was recorded which was followed by 7.42 whitefly per plant in the treatment (T4) with two rows of Sorghum after 15 rows of Mungbean. In barrier crops, the lowest disease incidence of 28.94% was recorded in the treatment (T2), two rows of maize after 15 rows of Mungbean. The mean seed yield recorded was 6.75 q/ha. The treatment (T2), two rows of Maize after 15 rows of Mungbean was recorded to be effective in the management of MYMV disease. The lowest mean whitefly population of 4.71 per plant was recorded in the above treatment, Mungbean sown with Maize in 4:2 ratio. Mungbean sown with Maize in 4:2 ratio was recorded to be efficacious in the management of MYMV disease. The results indicated that the barrier crop of maize interfered with the movement of vector whiteflies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Source of Nitrogen on Growth, Yield and Economics of Baby Corn

P. P. Kharche, T. S. Bhondave, A. C. Sawant

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 66-75
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630737

The experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2016-17 at Agronomy Organic Farm, College of Agriculture, Pune and experiment layout was randomized block design with twelve treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of 6 different organic manures, i.e. FYM, vermicompost, poultry manure, seed cake, castor seed cake and cotton seed cake and their combinations. Growth characters like plant height (176.67 cm), leaf area plant-1 (87.33dm2), dry matter plant-1 (452.13 g), days to silk initiation (77.33) were significantly the very best recorded in 100% RDN through poultry manure. The yield and yield attributing characters that are cob yield, green fodder yield, number of baby cobs plant-1, length (with husk and without husk), weight (with husk and without husk) and girth (with husk and without husk) of baby corn were maximum with the applying of 100% RDN through poultry manure. Among various treatments maximum gross (3, 41,667 Rs. ha-1) and net monetary returns (2, 55,397 Rs. ha-1) were obtained by application of 100% RDN through poultry manure. The utmost benefit-cost ratio (3.96) was recorded with the applying of 100% RDN through poultry manure, whereas, minimum B: C ratio (1.50) was registered in absolute control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints in Coconut Value Chain – A Framework for Analysis Using Response Priority Index

K. Kalidas, K. Mahendran, K. Akila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 76-82
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630738

Coconut, a versatile crop with multifaceted uses of its products, hence it is eulogized as “Kalpavriksha” (Tree of Heaven). Coconut is one of the most important commercial crops in many tropical countries and contributes significantly to its economy. India, with the rich biodiversity of coconut, is the largest producer with 33.02 percent share or 22167 million nuts of the world's production. Even though it leads in area, production and productivity, farmers were facing many problems in production and marketing of coconut. Hence a clear understanding on problems from production to marketing with the involvement of various stakeholders (farmers, harvest contractors, commission agents, exporters, processors, wholesalers, retailers) in coconut value chain to help the policy makers for better decision making. Constraints faced by the various stakeholders in coconut production and marketing were elicited and analyzed to find out the significance and priority of the constraints using responses priority index. It was evident that in coconut production, yield decrease due to pest and disease occurrence ranked first with a response priority index value of 2.69. Interventions are required from the state department of agriculture and agricultural university on the management of pests and diseases. In marketing, high fluctuation in coconut prices ranked first with RPI score of 2.39. Daily price fluctuation resulted from an unstable market was the major problem regarding coconut marketing. It is the need of hour to set up an institutional body which would foresee the price movements and availability of coconut and bridges the gap between demand and supply and develop innovative models for upgrading the technology and market information. So, the above suggestions can be generalized to other parts of the country to reap maximum production and systematic marketing of coconut which will surely benefit to coconut growers and also to India’s economy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Impact of Climate Change, Adaptation and Determinants of Willingness to Pay for Crop Insurance in Central Agro-climatic Zone of Afghanistan

Meraj Sarwary, S. Senthilnathan, A. Vidhyavathi, S. Kokilavani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 83-92
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630739

Afghanistan is frequently affected by drought and other climate change related hazards due to increased temperature and reduced precipitation over most parts of the country. The present study was undertaken to analyze the climate change preparedness measures for adaptation and willingness to pay for crop insurance to mitigate the climate change impacts. This study was conducted in central agro-climatic zone of Afghanistan to collect the primary data through the random sampling technique with a total sample of 105 respondents from the seven provinces located in this zone. Likert type responses were used to assess the climate change adaptation and binary log it regression model was used to identify the factors affecting the willingness to pay for crop insurance to mitigate the climate change impacts on agriculture. The results of the study indicated that changing cropping pattern (74%) followed by receiving technical information from experts (70%) and keeping the land as fallow (60%) were rated as very high to high preparedness measures to mitigate the climate change impacts. Logit regression model revealed that the education and technical information received from experts were positively significant and their marginal effects implied that the probabilities of willing to pay for crop insurance were increased by 1.3 and 15.9 percent, respectively. The establishment of crop insurance agencies at province level may help reducing the impact of climate change and increasing the income and livelihood of the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variations in Soil Urease and Dehydrogenase Activities as Determined by Diuron, Pyrithiobac Sodium and Quizalofop Ethyl Applied to Cotton Cultivated in Red and Black Soils

Md. Mifta Faizullah, T. Ramprakash, T. Anjaiah, M. Madhavi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 103-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630742

Activities of soil enzymes viz., urease and dehydrogenase were studied in two field experiments conducted in red and black soils at Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar during kharif, 2018. Different doses of diuron in combination with postemergence tank-mix application of pyrithiobac sodium + quizalofop ethyl were tested. Soil urease activity showed an increasing trend and it increased from the day of PE herbicide application to flowering. Highest urease activity was noticed at flowering stage and then after the activity decreased upto harvest. In diuron treatments, the urease activity decreased substantially upto 5 DAHS, which later increased at flowering. Significant differences were observed in urease activity among all the treatments from the day of PE application to the day of postemergence spray in both red and black soils. No significant difference was observed in urease activity due to application of postemergence herbicide in both red and black soils. No significant difference was observed due to the application of pre and postemergence herbicides on the activity of dehydrogenase in both red and black soils but the activity of dehydrogenase increased from the day of PE herbicide application to flowering, exhibited highest activity at flowering stage and there after the activity decreased at harvest in both red and black soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Selected Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistant Varieties of Okra in Rabi Season of Chatra District in Jharkhand, India

Dharma Oraon, Anjani Kumar, Ranjay Kumar Singh, U. K. Singh, Zunaid Alam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-115
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630743

An On-Farm Trial (OFT) was conducted in the year 2016-17 and 2017-18 to assess the resistance level of different okra varieties against yellow vein mosaic virus in Kharif season of Chatra district of Jharkhand. The experiment was conducted in vegetable growing village Gidhour in Gidhour block of Chatra district in Jharkhand. The trial was designed in randomized block design consisting of 20 replications with three technological option i.e. TO-I Arka Abhay (N100P60K50), TO-II Arka Anamika (N100P60K50) and-III Pusa Makhmali (N100P60K50). For assessment related to yellow vein mosaic, percentage infestation in 5sqm and yield q/ha and economic was considered. The lowest infestation of yellow vein mosaic virus was observed in Pusa Makhmali variety i.e. (3.8%) with yield of 132.5 q/ha. It was also found superior in terms of Gross Income, Net Income and Benefit: Cost Ratio followed by Arka Anamika and Arka Abhay, respectively. Farmers’ response was also positive in all respects except the availability of varieties in local market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Packaging Materials on Storage Quality of Supplementary Food Mix

S. Arokiamary, R. Senthilkumar, S. Kanchana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 134-145
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630745

Pearl millet based supplementary food mix was prepared with 5.0 per cent incorporation of carrot and araikeerai (Amaranthus dubius) powder. The food mix was packed in polyethylene bags (P1), Metallized Polyethylene Pouches (P2) and Polyethylene terephthalate jars (P3) and stored at room temperature. The initial free fatty acid content of supplementary food mix was 0.231 per cent of oleic acid which had changed to 0.274, 0.257 and 0.248 per cent of oleic acid in P1, P2 and P3, respectively after 180 days of storage. The freshly prepared supplementary food mix contained 1.2 mEq / kg of peroxide value. The corresponding values at the end of the storage were 3.9 (P1), 2.8 (P2) and 2.4 (P3) mEq / kg of peroxide value. Initially the supplementary food mix had 8,048 mg of b-carotene per 100 g and after 180 days of storage period, the b-carotene reduced to 6,586 in P1, 7,236 in P2 and 7,215 mg / 100 g in P3.  The freshly prepared supplementary food mix contained 2.85 mg of ascorbic acid, which had reduced to 2.17 (P1), 2.36 (P2) and 2.51 mg / 100 g (P3) at the end of storage period. The study revealed that the supplementary food mix packed in Polyethylene terephthalate jars had undergone minimum changes in physico-chemical characteristics. Hence, it is concluded that the storage of supplementary mix in Polyethylene terephthalate jars extent the shelf life of the product and reduce the nutrient losses during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Non-destructive Estimation of Spinach Leaf Area: Image Processing and Artificial Neural Network Based Approach

Naveen Kumar Mahanti, Subir Kumar Chakraborty, V. Bhushana Babu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 146-153
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630746

Leaf area (LA) measurement provides valuable key information in understanding the growth and physiology of a plant. Simple, accurate and non-destructive methods are inevitable for leaf area estimation. These methods are important for physiological and agronomic studies. However, the major limitations of existing leaf area measurement techniques are destructive in nature and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to develop ANN and linear regression models along with image processing techniques to estimate spinach leaf area making use of leaf width (LW) and length (LL) and comparison of developed models performance based on the statistical parameters. The spinach leaves were grown under different nitrogen fertilizer doses (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 kg N/ha). The morphological parameters length (LL), width (LW) and area (LA) of leaves were measured using an image-processing software. The performance LA= -0.66+0.64 (LL × LW) (R2 = 0.98, RMSE = 3.25 cm2) equation was better than the other linear models. The performance of the ANN model (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 3.10 cm2) was better than all other linear models. Therefore, developed models along with image processing techniques can be used as a non-destructive technique for estimation of spinach leaf area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Manufacturing Companies in Gurage Zone, Ethiopia

Samuel Gemechu, Sintayehu Fiseha, Minda Yirga

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 154-162
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630780

The overall objective of this study is to assess the practice of corporate social responsibility in the case of manufacturing companies in Gurage Zone. The data analysis was conducted based on 176 employees from sample manufacturing companies. Parametric (SPSS Version 20) and non parametric test (Friedman test) to test the concern of companies in Corporate Social Responsibility implementation towards environment, customer, community, employee, ethical & legal were conducted for analysis. Regarding the factors affects the implementation of corporation social responsibility (71.1%), (64.5%) and (61.2%) of the respondents agreed that government, awareness and media are the factors that can affect the implementation of CSR respectively. The majority, (67.8%) of the respondents said that the organization didn’t encourage employees to develop real skills and long term careers (via Performance Appraisal and Training & Development. The result shows that responsibility of the firms towards environment (55.3%) of the respondents disagree, (46.7%) of the respondents argue positively, (59.2%) of the respondents disagree, the majority of respondents (60.5%) disagree, (46.1%) of the respondents agree, majority of the respondents (62.5%) disagree about the participation of the firms in west reduction, recycling, energy conservation, reduction of water consumption, use environmentally friendly packaging, air pollutant respectively. Therefore, it recommended that the firms should set the direction and scope over the long term with regard to CSR, allowing them to be successful by using their resources within their unique environment to meet market needs and fulfill stakeholder expectations. It is therefore vitally important that the firms should have to design a good CSR strategy that is related with that of their business strategy.

Open Access Review Article

Domesticating and Commercialisation of Indigenous Fruit and Nut Tree Crops for Food Security and Income Generation in the Kingdom of Eswatini

Emmanuel N. Kunene, Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Menzi P. Ngwenya, Michael T. Masarirambi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 37-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630733

Indigenous fruit and nut tree crops are very important to the human diet and subsequent food security and income generation in the Kingdom of Eswatini. Indigenous fruits and nuts are important for the nutritional contribution as sources of Vitamins and minerals. They also provide fibre which is essential for proper digestion of food. Fruits, particularly nuts provide man with unsaturated fats which are good for the heat and the cardio vascular system. Indigenous fruits and nuts are aesthetic as they provide interesting colour, texture and variety. Despite the immense benefits of indigenous fruits and nuts to the people of the Kingdom of Eswatini, there has not been enough effort put towards domesticating the indigenous fruit and nut trees and subsequent commercialising their products. The objective of this paper was to document strategies towards domestication and commercialisation of indigenous fruits and nuts for improved livelihoods of Emaswati citizens, which in turn will help achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs) pertaining to human health and food security in the Kingdom of Eswatini. It can be concluded that domesticating indigenous fruit and nut trees can be achieved through a multi-stakeholder involvement. Domestication can also help in conservation of indigenous fruit and nut trees. Value addition on indigenous fruits and nuts can generate more income.

Open Access Review Article

Soil Carbon Pools, Carbon and Nitrogen Storage Pattern in Soil Aggregate Fractions under Long-term Application of Organic and Synthetic Fertilizers in Rice-Wheat System: A Review

Shipra Yadav, R. K. Naresh, . Vivek, M. Sharath Chandra, N. C. Mahajan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-65
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630734

Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of undecayed plant and animal residues. The preservation of SOM is crucial to ensure long-term sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. OM plays a critical role in the global carbon balance that is thought to be the major factor affecting global warming. Overall, adequate amounts of SOM maintain soil quality and reduce environmental pollution. SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth are significantly influenced due to long-term fertilization. The SOC storage in 0–60 cm in NP+FYM (farmyard manure), NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased as compared to the CK treatment. The concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) in 0–60 cm depth increased linearly with increasing SOC content. Light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) was also significantly higher following the treatments including organic amendment than following applications solely of chemical fertilizers. Application solely of chemical fertilizers had no significant effects on LFOC and KMnO4C fractions compared with unfertilized control plots. Carbon pools were significantly correlated with SOC, which increased with application of organic amendments. Threshold C input of 3.3 MgCha-1 yr-1 was needed to maintain the SOC stock even at the low antecedent level. This review study will be helpful in crafting sustainable nutrient management programs in the future to enhance crop productivity with high efficiency and minimum nutrient loss. Therefore, fertilization strategies that include organic manure can increase the pool of stable C in the surface soil layer, while at the same time increasing concentrations and proportions of labile C. Organic manure use contributes to improved nutrient cycling services and higher soil quality in rice-wheat system. 

Open Access Review Article

Identification and Relevance of E-readiness Assessment Tools for ICT Use in Agriculture

Ayushi Pal, Dharminder Singh, R. K. Dhaliwal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 93-102
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630741

Information and Communication Technology is an indispensable part of modern society. As with everything else, it has a profound impact on various activities in the agriculture sector like research, cyber-extension, marketing and transfer of technologies leading to its sustainable development. The concept of E-readiness provides a unified framework to evaluate ICT infrastructure and the ability of its consumers, businesses, and governments to use ICT to their benefit. E-readiness is a state of preparedness to comply and participate in a networked world, and its assessment is a novel concept that aims to understand the E-skill towards using ICT tools. Analysis of the past researches through journals, book chapters, Research Gate and relevant papers reveals various E-readiness assessment initiatives viz. E-commerce readiness assessment guide, Readiness for the networked world, E-readiness rankings, Ready Net Go, Network Readiness Index, Negotiating the digital divide. The paper aptly identifies and evaluates various tools available for assessing the E-readiness at macro and agricultural extension system. The kind of result tool will provide depends upon the researcher’s goal and comprehensive definition of E-readiness adopted by the user. Hence, the paper helps in understanding the importance of measurement tools of E-readiness so that it can leverage ICT integration in agriculture development and improves the exchange of information between the stakeholders of agriculture by using limited resources wisely.Information and Communication Technology is an indispensable part of modern society. As with everything else, it has a profound impact on various activities in the agriculture sector like research, cyber-extension, marketing and transfer of technologies leading to its sustainable development. The concept of E-readiness provides a unified framework to evaluate ICT infrastructure and the ability of its consumers, businesses, and governments to use ICT to their benefit. E-readiness is a state of preparedness to comply and participate in a networked world, and its assessment is a novel concept that aims to understand the E-skill towards using ICT tools. Analysis of the past researches through journals, book chapters, Research Gate and relevant papers reveals various E-readiness assessment initiatives viz. E-commerce readiness assessment guide, Readiness for the networked world, E-readiness rankings, Ready Net Go, Network Readiness Index, Negotiating the digital divide. The paper aptly identifies and evaluates various tools available for assessing the E-readiness at macro and agricultural extension system. The kind of result tool will provide depends upon the researcher’s goal and comprehensive definition of E-readiness adopted by the user. Hence, the paper helps in understanding the importance of measurement tools of E-readiness so that it can leverage ICT integration in agriculture development and improves the exchange of information between the stakeholders of agriculture by using limited resources wisely.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Advances in Packaging and Edible Coating for Shelf Life Enhancement in Fruit Crops

T. Adhikary, S. Singh, A. Sinha, P. P. S. Gill

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 116-133
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630744

In today’s competitive world, packaging and edible coating play a significant part in producing usefulness user affable products for marketing. Due to several drawbacks of conventional packaging materials (wooden boxes, gunny bags, pallet, pallet bins, Wire-Bound Crates etc.) new technologies of polymeric films (LDPE, HDPE, Shrink film, Cling film) are adopted. By use of polymeric film (non perforated) modified atmosphere is obtain within the package, which subsequently helps to enhance shelf life of fruits. Application of thin layers of edible coating onto fruit surface helps to modify inner environment of fruit which causes similar effect to the modified atmospheric storage. This technological strategies are helpful to retard water loss, reduces skin damage caused by friction, changes in gaseous composition, moisture content, volatile aromas, and transport of solutes from the fruits overly enhance cosmetic appearance, decreasing ripening process and rise shelf life of fruits.