Open Access Original Research Article

An Estimate of Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Ranjana Jaiswal, S. C. Gaur, Sunil K. Jaiswal, Anil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230657

Problem: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the principal cereal crops grown worldwide and one of the important staples of nearly 2.5 billion of world population. India ranks second position in terms of both in area and production after china. The substantial improvement in production is utmost necessary to feed the growing population.

Objective: In India, wheat requirement by 2030 has been estimated at 100 million metric tons and to achieve this target, wheat production can be increased either through horizontal approach i.e. by the increasing area under cultivation or through vertical approach i.e. varietal/ hybrid improvement. For effective selection and utilization of superior genotype in the germplasm lines, knowledge of genetic parameters such as genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance is essential.

Materials and Methods: The experimental material comprised of ten parents, their 45 F1s and 45 F2s developed by the crossing of 10 parents viz. HUW 510, HUW 234, HUW 468, UP 2338, HD 2402, RAJ 1972, HD 2329, LOK-1, SONALIKA and K 65 in half-diallel programme to study the fourteen characters. The final trial of F1, F2 including parents was conducted during Rabi 2014-15 with three replications employing Randomized Complete Block Design at Research Farm, BRDPG College, Deoria, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Result: Wider range of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was observed for all the traits in F1 generation ranged from 2.19 (days to 50% flowering) to 13.47 (leaf area index) while, genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) ranged from 1.50 (days to 50% flowering) to 11.28 (leaf area index). High heritability was observed in both F1 and F2 generation for leaf area index and day to maturity while, moderate to low level of heritability was recorded for other characters. The high value of genetic advance was not recorded in both F1 and F2 generation. Only moderate to the low value of genetic advance was observed for all the fourteen characters under study.

Conclusion: Estimate of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation of fourteen characters in both generations reveals sufficient variability indicating ample scope for genetic improvement of these traits through selection. Moderate level of heritability accompanied with a moderate level of genetic advance was observed for plant height, leaf area index, days to maturity and grain yield per plant in both F1 and F2 generation indicates additive gene effect and selection may be effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Fungicides against Ustilaginoidea virens Pathogen Causing False Smut Disease of Rice

Uday Kumar, C. S. Azad, Sumit Shekhar, Jyoti Kumari, Sanjeev Kumar, Amarendra Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230658

False smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is most destructive disease of rice causing 5-85 per cent yield losses in India. In the present investigations, six novel fungicides viz., Flusilazole 25% + Carbendazim 12.5% SE, Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% WG, Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP, Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenoconazole 11.4% SC, Azoxystrobin 11% + Tebuconazole 18.3% W/W and Copper hydroxide 50% WP were tested in vitro against the false smut of rice pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens. The maximum mycelial growth was observed in case of Copper hydroxide 50% WP (21.20 mm) as compare to control (60.70 mm) after 21 days incubation. All the fungicides significantly inhibited the fungal mycelial growth in all concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm). Among six fungicides evaluated under in vitro condition Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% WG showed highest mycelial growth inhibition (86.66%) at 100 ppm followed by Flusilazole 25% + Carbendazim 12.5% SE (78.91%) whereas least mycelial inhibition was recorded in case of Copper hydroxide 50% WP (65.07%) after 21 days of incubation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Foliar Applied Growth Regulators on Yield and Quality Traits of Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Laxmi Prajapati, S. P. Kushwaha, Ram Bharose

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 16-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230659

Growth regulators is a chemical compound, which is either synthesized by the plants or exogenously applied. It affects the growth and metabolic rate thus affecting the yield and quality ofcrop. In this  investigation, the  Basmati rice plants were foliar sprayed with growth regulators (IAA, Kinetin, CCC, SADH and Ascorbic Acid) at tillering and before anthesis stage. Results showed a conspicuous increase in yield and quality traits in treated plants. The yield attributing traits like grain weight per plant,straw weight/plant, 1000 grain weight/test weight and Harvest Index (HI) was improved by the treatment of IAA. The quality trait viz. Grain Starch and Uncoocked and cooked grain size were significantly improved by IAA, while Grain Protein content was by Kinetin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Pigeonpea Genotypes for Waterlogging Tolerance Based on Morpho-physiological and Molecular Traits

Deepak Kumar, Rafat Sultana, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Megha Kirti

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 21-33
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230660

Aim: To screen and characterize pigeonpea genotypes using morpho-physiological, biochemical and molecular traits.

Study Design: The field trial was conducted using the Randomized Block Design (RBD) while Completely Randomized Design was used for laboratory and pot screening experiments.

Place and Duration of Study: The research trial was conducted at Laboratory and Pulse Research Farm, Model Bhitti, BAU, Sabour, which lies between 25°15’40” N latitude to 87°2’42” E longitude and 46 meters above sea level. Study was undertaken between July, 2018 to March, 2019.

Methodology: Sixty pigeonpea genotypes were screened for submergence tolerance at seed stage in the laboratory. Based on results of laboratory screening, 40 genotypes with sufficient genotypic variability for waterlogging tolerance were further taken for seedling stage screening at field, finally 20 genotypes were taken to pots for waterlogging tolerance evaluation and characterization on the basis of morpho-physiological, biochemical and molecular traits. According to pot results, six contrasting genotypes were considered for RAPD primers amplification.

Results: The three levels of sieving of genotypes fetched results directing the opportunity of particular genotypes to be sown inlow land areas. Character like seed colour varied from brown, dark brown to black, which showed significant relationship with level of tolerance. Significant (p=0.01) higher germination with less reduction due to waterlogging stress was observed in genotypes such as ICP-11809, ICPL-20098, NDA-1 and ICP-5028. Maximum survival percent was found in ICP-5028 (62.28%) while least survival percent was observed in ICP-7035 (10.98%). At the field stage, genotypes such as ICP-5028, ICPL-990985, ICPL-20238 were best performing genotypes. SPAD Chlorophyll Content results exhibited significant reduction among the susceptible genotypes. However, there was least reduction among tolerant genotypes such as LRG-30, Mal-9, Pusa-992 and ICP-5028.Genotypes namely: Manak, Pusa-991 and Pusa-992 faced hastened senescence under waterlogging condition as compared to ICP-5028, Mal-15, Mal-9, LRG-30. Molecular evaluation results of six genotypes chosen across screening showed that ICP-7035 and Manak were clubed together in one cluster. Nevertheless, ICP-5028 and Mal-9 were grouped in another cluster of Dendrogram, constructed using Jaccard similarity coefficient. In the present investigation two unique amplicons were amplified by primers OPA-13 and OPC-01.  OPA-13 amplified unique band was linked with susceptible genotypes of size ~1240 bp while the unique amplicon given by OPC-01 was of ~980 bp size linked with tolerant genotypes.

Conclusion: Available waterlogging tolerance in pigeonpea gene pool to some extent can provide source for breeding waterlogging tolerant cultivars. Physiological and genetic approach involving efficient screening techniques and evaluation of breeding material/lines under targeted environment for the traits linked to tolerance is likely to lead to the identification of specific component traits and high yielding varieties with improved stress tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Combining Ability for Yield Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Sodic Soil

Durgesh Kumar Shukla, S. N. Singh, S. C. Gaur, Anil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230661

Information on combining ability is derived from data on twelve yield and yield contributing characters in fifteen male and three female parents utilised in line x tester fashion to estimate combining ability of rice genotypes under coastal saline condition. Forty Five hybrids generated from crossing three lines with fifteen testers were studied along with their parents for combining ability and gene action involved in the expression of characters in rice. The gca and sca effects were significant for all the characters. The magnitude of sca variance was higher than the gca variance for all the characters revealed the presence of predominance of non-additive gene action for all the characters under study. Halchal (-12.29) was found to be good general combiners for days to 50% flowering and early maturity, Halchal (-13.39). However, IR-24 (1.88) was good general combiners with significant positive effect for tallness. Magic (-12.05) good general combiners for dwarfness and Shriram 434 (1.57) was good general combiners for test weight however, Moti was best general combiner with gca estimates of 7.07 for harvest index and Kuber (3.48) was the good general combiners for yield/hill. Cross combinations RHR 27 x IR 24 (4.04) was significant and positive effect for yield/hill, performance for ear bearing tillers per plant were RHR 27 x IR 24 (1.88). In general, the crosses showing significant and desirable combining ability effects were associated with better per se performance for the respective traits. These hybrids could be utilized in heterosis breeding to exploit hybrid vigour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Restorable WA-CMS Rice Genotypes for Bacterial Blight (BB) Resistance

Surabhi Sinha, Sweta Sinha, Mankesh Kumar, Suresh Prasad Singh, Anand Kumar, Amarendra Kumar, Satyendra .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230662

Aim: To screen and evaluate rice genotypes which were found to be having restorability for WA-CMS cytoplasm for their further use in the hybrid breeding program.

Study Design: Laboratory-experimental design was used in the study.

Place and Duration of the Study: The genotypes used in the study were comprised of promising lines from various experiments, local varieties and landraces, etc. The study was conducted during June 2017 to May 2018.

Methodology: In the present study, 55 rice lines which were found to have restorable capacity for WA-CMS system were screened for 4 Bacterial Blight resistance genes viz. Xa4, xa5, xa13, Xa21, against most prevalent races of the pathogen throughout the country, using PCR based molecular markers namely, MP1+MP2, xa5 multiplex, xa13 prom and pTA248, respectively.

Results: Bacterial Blight (BB) is considered to be one of the most important diseases of the rice crop. As hybrids are one of the most viable options to increase rice yields, the parental material used for the development of hybrids, must be having genes which show resistance against BB. Out of 55 restorer lines, 43 genotypes amplified for Xa4, 7 genotypes namely R. Bhagwati, IRBB5-9, Narendra Usar Dhan 3, Pratikhya, IR 88964-24-2-1-4, IR 94314-20-2-1B, HHZ 5-DT8-DT1-Y1 showed positive bands for xa5, 3 genotypes namely PAU 3220, N. Usar Dhan 3 and Pratikhya showed positive bands for xa13. However, only one genotype namely Pratikhya amplified for Xa21. In combinations, Narendra Usar Dhan 3 amplified for xa5 and xa13. Pratikhya was the only genotype found to have all 4 BB (Xa4, xa5, xa13, Xa21) resistance genes under consideration. 

Conclusion: Genotypes having different BB resistant genes in combinations along with good capability of restoration for prevalent WA-CMS system can further be used as male parent in the hybrid breeding programme for development of BB resistant hybrids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Heterosis for Yield and Yield Contributing Characters in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Sodic Soil

Durgesh Kumar Shukla, S. N. Singh, S. C. Gaur, Anil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-63
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230663

Aim: The current experiment was conducted to know the genetic architecture of 12 physio-morphological traits under sodic soil through Line × Tester analysis.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications adopting a recommended spacing of 20 x 15 cm in the field. Recommended package of practices was followed to establish the crop.

Place and Duration of Study: Present investigation was conducted at Farmer Field of village Amwa Bhaluhi of Bhathat Block District: Gorakhpur, India.

Methodology: The hybrids along with parental lines and checks were evaluated through Line × Tester analysis. Lines were used as female while testers were used as male parents where the climate is semi-arid with hot summer and cold winter (sub-tropical) and the soil of experimental field was sodic [ECe = 2.21 (dSm-1 ); pH =9.2]. The water used for irrigating the experimental field was taken from the bore well with pH 9.00 and RSC is 10 meq/L.

Results: An outset on perusal of data for hybrids based on the cross combinations Jhona x Pusa 169 resulted from crossing between parents having high genetic distance showed high positive significant standard heterosis for seed yield. However, the crosses viz., Shriram 434 x PB 1, Halchal x IR 24, Magic x Pusa 169 and Super Moti x Pusa 169, gives sparingly high significant negative standard heterosis for seed yield although their parents having high genetic distance.

Conclusion: These cross combinations merit consideration for extensive testing across space and time in the target environment to verify their suitability for commercial exploitation. The reason for this could have been the linkage of alleles in repulsive phase for biomass and yield. As there was dominance gene action involved, inter se matings followed by recombination breeding might be advocated for the improvement of yield under sodicity. The cross combinations Jhona x Pusa 169 emerged as lines to be recommended for exploitation in hybridization programme to enhance the production and productivity of sodic soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Elite Rice Genotypes for Resistant against False Smut Disease of Rice in Bihar

Uday Kumar, Amarendra Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230664

False smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is the most devastating disease of rice in different parts of the world including India. The host resistance approach is most important for the management of this disease. In the present investigation, forty-four elite germplasm were screened epiphytotically in kharif 2019-20 at Bihar Agricultural University research farm, Sabour to know disease reaction against the false smut disease of rice. Out of these, seven germplasms viz. RVK-04, RVK-06, RVK-16, BRR-0057, BRR-0060, BRR-0078 and Rajendra Swasini were found immune or highly resistant (HR). Sabour Ardhjal showed resistance (R) reaction with very less percent of disease infection (0.68 %.). Eight germplasms were found moderately resistance (MR) ranges of disease infection 3.24 - 4.81% and six germplasms were showed maximum percent of disease infection (susceptible) i.e., Arize 6444 Gold, Sahbhagi Dhan, RVK-08, RVK-13, RVK-15, BRR-0071 ranged 25.70-26.26 %. The highly resistant genotypes may be further utilized for the development of resistant variety through the rice breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moisture Dependent Physical Properties of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) Relevant for Design of Processing Machines

K. F. Jaiyeoba, C. A. Ogunlade, O. S. Kwanaki, O. K. Fadele

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 74-85
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230665

This study investigated the degree of influence of moisture content on some physical properties of nutmeg. The nutmeg seeds were subjected to six different levels of moisture content (5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15% db). Moisture content had a significant effect on the physical properties (p <0.05). A decrease in moisture content led to a decrease in length, width, thickness, geometric, arithmetic, square and equivalent mean diameters. Moisture content had a linear relationship with sphericity, projected and surface area, bulk and true density while it had an inverse relationship with porosity and angle of repose. Moisture content had a significant effect on coefficient of friction of nutmeg on the four surfaces considered (glass, stainless steel, plywood and rubber). Glass, stainless steel, plywood and rubber have an increasing coefficient of friction respectively; this implies that materials will move easily with lesser resistance on glass and stainless steel compared to more resistance on plywood. The data obtained will guide engineers, food processors and technicians in accurate selection of machine parts in design and constructions of sorting, separating, cleaning equipment and post harvest machines which will eventually aid commercialization and efficient processing of the spice crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Use of Black Polythene Mulch as a Climate Smart Technology on Performance of Winter Cucumber and Resource Conservation In Terai Agro-climatic Zone of West Bengal

Surajit Sarkar, Ganesh Das, F. H. Rahman, Sujan Biswas, Suraj Sarkar, Sankar Saha, Bikash Roy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 100-106
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230667

Though cucumber is mainly grown during pre-kharifand kharif season, but farmers of Teesta flood plains of Terai region prefer to grow this very crop during rabi season because of its high market demand and price during this period of year. This region experiences extreme cold during January and February, when maximum and minimum temperature falls below 22°C and 8°C respectively, average being around 13°C. As a result fruit setting and development is badly affected in cucumber. In order to cope with this problem of low temperature following study was conducted at Khagribari village (Latitude - 26.3504°N, Longitude - 89.4435°E) of Cooch Behar district of West Bengal, India during 2015-16 and 2016-17 under a National Network Project entitled ‘National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)’ to assess effect of black polythene mulch on winter cucumber and on resource conservation with active participation of fourteen innovative and receptive farmers each having plot size of 0.13 ha. Performance of black polythene mulch was studied against conventional practice of growing winter cucumber without any mulch. Observations were taken on yield and yield attributing parameters of winter cucumber- like days taken to flower, flower drop percentage, fruiting period; net profit, soil temperature, irrigation water requirement etc. Two independent sample t- test were performed to compare two treatments for all parameters. Resulted showed that significantly higher yield (29.1 t/ha) and net return (Rs. 108100/ha) was obtained under black polythene mulch over conventional practice (26.2 t/ha and Rs. 80700/ha) as fruiting advanced by 5 days, fruiting period expanded by 20 days and fruit drop reduced to the extent of 10% due to higher night soil temperature and lesser fluctuation between day and night soil temperature under poly-mulching as against that of plots without mulch. The treatment also marked significant effect in conserving ground water and fuel by cutting down irrigation water requirement and diesel consumption in the tune of 5.38 ha-cm and 18.70 L/ha, respectively. Lower air pollution was also recorded due to 48.62 kg lower emission of CO2 from irrigation pump during irrigation of 1 hectare area.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Theoretical Method for Efficient Design of Power Tiller Rotavator Satisfying Multiple Objectives

Jyotirmay Mahapatra, Vinita Kashyap, Ajay Kumar Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 107-115
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230668

Several advantages of rotavator including negative draft generation make it the most suitable attachment to power tiller. Many factors affect the economy and performance of power tiller which includes specific energy consumption, resourceful use of available power, produced soil conditions and blade durability. Hence a systematic design method was developed for power tiller rotavator while considering all these factors simultaneously. Specific work done by rotavator was equalized with performable work of power tiller for different combination of design and kinematics parameter. The value of design and kinematic parameters included in the previous step were limited by the extremities. These limitations were imposed so as to get desired soil conditions and blade durability. The best combination of parameters that produces the desired soil condition with minimum specific energy consumption while utilizing the available power resourcefully was selected. Other design parameters were calculated using parameters from the selected combination. Rotavator design and kinematic parameters satisfying the above objectives were calculated and found to be velocity ratio of 5.12, forward velocity of 0.41 m/s, rpm of 80.19, operating width of 7.5dm and 30 number of blades mounted in 5 number of flanges. This method of optimisation can be adopted for improved power tiller rotavator design and efficient operation. But as this method is purely theoretical; practical verification of the design is essential before adopting for large scale industrial production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Prices and Profitability in Chilli – A Study in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh

B. Sowjanya, D. V. Subba Rao, R. Vijaya Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 116-126
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230669

The study was undertaken in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh to assess the prices and profitability of chilli marketing. The study used both primary and secondary data collection. The elasticity coefficients for area (1.177) and material costs (3.699) were positively significant in Cobb- Douglas production function. In multiple regression analysis area, expenses on production material and expenses on marketing services were found significantly influencing the income of the farmers. In ARDL model for factors influencing market arrivals of commodities analysis R2 showed that 73 percent of variation and current prices were found significantly influencing the arrivals of the farmers. In ARDL model factors influencing current prices of commodities analysis R2 showed that 84 percent of variation and lagged prices (Pt-1 and Pt-2) were found significantly influencing the current price of the farmers. Also price spread analysis of data indicated that majority of farm produce was routed through two marketing channels, Channel-I (producer-trader-wholesaler-retailer-consumer) and Channel-II (producer-processor-retailer-consumer). Producer’s share in consumer’s rupee was found to be 80.51%, 76.72% and price spread was `1500.67, `1971.92 for Channel-I and Channel-II respectively. Marketing efficiency in channel I and channel II were 3.53, 14.11 and 2.93, 16.87 respectively in Acharya’s and Shepherd’s methods. Low price for the produce at the time of harvest and lack of transportation with scores 78.26 and 63.13 was the most important constraint faced by the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bio-efficacy and Phytotoxicity of Noval Fungicides against Purple Blotch of Onion

M. R. Ravikumar, D. K. Harish, B. H. Kumara, Amarendra Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 127-135
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230670

An experiment for the management of purple blotch of onion (Allium cepa L.) caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) was carried out in Hanumanamatti research farm, College of Agriculture, Hanumanamatti, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, during 2017-18 and 2018-19.  There were three fungicides combinations tested in vivo, i.e.  Fluxapyroxad 250 g/L  + Pyraclostrobin 250 g/L  500 SC at 75, 100 and 125 a.i, along with individual molecules Pyraclostrobin 20% WG at 100 a.i, Fluxapyroxad 300 g/L SC at 62.5 a.i and Difenconozole 25% EC at 25 g a.i/100 litre of water and Mancozeb 75% WP 1125-1500 g against the purple blotch disease of onion. Out of the seven different fungicides combination or individual molecules, application of Fluxapyroxad 250 g/L  + Pyraclostrobin 250 g/L  500 SC  @ 200 mL/ha has significantly decreased the purple blotch of onion disease. Fluxapyroxad 250 g/L + Pyraclostrobin 250 g/L 500 SC @150 mL/ha was found safer to onion crop without causing any type of phytotoxicity effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Genetic Divergence for Yield and Quality Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

Om Prakash Kumawat, Udit Kumar, Satish Kumar Singh, Sooraj Maurya, Sooraj Maurya, B. M. Sinha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 136-143
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230672

Genetic divergence analysis, using Mahalanobis D2 statistics, was carried out in twenty one cucumber genotypes including one check for fourteen characters. All the characters under study showed considerable divergence and the genotypes were grouped into four clusters. The clustering pattern had no parallelism between genetic diversity and geographical distribution, suggesting that the selection of parental genotypes for hybridization will be more appropriate based on genetic diversity. Cluster III contained the maximum (5) number of genotypes, whereas remaining all clusters I, II and IV contained similar (4) genotypes. The Intra-cluster distance was maximum (306.685) in cluster III whereas, it was minimum (163.11) in cluster II. Maximum average inter-cluster distance (1439.432) was recorded between cluster IV and cluster V, suggesting the greater chances of getting superior hybrids in F1 or transgressive segregants in subsequent generations. Genotypes in cluster IV were superior in node number of first female flower, days to first flowering, shelf-life, TSS, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. Cluster V had superiority in terms of vine length and number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, TSS, number of seeds per fruit, node number of first female flower, shelf-life, days to first harvest and days to first flowering contributed towards genetic divergence.

Open Access Review Article

Aggregate Associated Carbon, Aggregation and Storage of Soil Organic Carbon Respond to Organic and Synthetic Fertilizers in Cereal Systems: A Review

M. Sharath Chandra, R. K. Naresh, B. Chandra Sheker, N. C. Mahajan, J. Vijay

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 86-99
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230666

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and its labile fractions are strong determinants of soil chemical, physical, and biological properties and the recycling of crop residues is an important factor affecting soil organic matter levels and soil quality. This collected review literature specifically aims on soil fertility related to aggregate associated carbon, aggregate-size distribution, aggregation and storage of soil organic carbon trends and their respond towards organic and synthetic fertilizers and also understanding of the effects of diverse soil management regimes on SOC sequestration in cereal systems. Several studies results showed that, with the exception of unfertilized control (CK) and nitrogen fertilizer (N) treatment, the concentration of SOCs in the soil layer 0-20 cm increased. The SOC concentration and storage to depths of 60 cm is significantly affected by long-term fertilization. SOC concentrations and stocks below 60 cm for all treatments were statistically insignificant. The degree of SOC was higher in farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM) at different depths, compared with CK, at 0-60 cm soil profile and followed by straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S) respectively. SOC storage in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) fertilizers treatments increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9% respectively compared to CK treatment in 0–60 cm. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased organic carbon pools of the labile soil at depths of 0–60 cm. Particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) average concentration in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) increased by 64.9–91.9 percent, 42.5–56.9 percent and 74.7–99.4 percent over CK treatment. The average control treatment SOC concentration was 0.54 percent, which increased to 0.65 percent in RDF treatment and 0.82 percent in RDF+FYM treatment and increased enzyme activity, potentially affecting soil nutrient dynamics in field conditions. The RDF+FYM treatment sequestered 0.28 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 compared with the control treatment while the NPK treatment sequestered 0.13 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 respectively. It can be concluded that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects on the production of carbon pools, improve the availability of SOCs and also enhance C sequestration in soils.