Open Access Case Study

Effect of Preventive Maintenance on the Production Line Machines and Systems Reliability: Case Study

A. M. Badiea, A. A. Adel, H. A. Aamer

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130648

The aims of this study are to introduce the appropriate preventive maintenance to the production line machines at the company to increase their reliability and reduction the shutdown, and to obtain more safety. Mean time between failure, mean down time and availability are investigated as the best indicators to generally evaluate all type of maintenance. Pareto diagram and Effect-Cause techniques both have been used for identifying where and what are the problems in the production lines. The big and serious way that the company staff was using was maintenance of run to failure. Many solutions in this paper are introduced to the company to follow the proper preventive maintenance. After one year monitoring to those production lines, their productivity increases by 15.47% and the reliability becomes high.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil CO2 Emission under Different Tillage Practices in Major Soils of Kerala

S. Toufeeq, D. Dhalin, Seena R. Subhagan, Dipak S. Khatawkar, B. Aparna, M. Ameena

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130639

International responsibility is increasing in India to adopt a more pro-active role in greenhouse gas emission. Hence, it is important to develop a clear understanding of our emission inventory towards reducing Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Soils are an important pool of active carbon and tillage can lead to carbon emission from agricultural soils. This study assess the quantity of CO2 release from three major soils (red loam, coastal sandy and paddy field soil) of Kerala under different tillage practices(conventional, with cultivator and with rotovator) and to optimize the tillage practices with minimum CO2 emission. The CO2emission from soil surfaces was measured using base trap method with Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as base. The influence of soil temperature, soil moisture content, organic matter in soil, soil pH, bulk density, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity on CO2 emission was assessed. The conventional tillage resulted in the maximum CO2 emission followed by the tillage with cultivator and the least value was observed when tilled with rotovator. The maximum CO2 emission was observed in the paddy field soil followed by red loam and the least value was observed from the coastal sandy. The major quantity of CO2 was released just after the breakage of soil in all kind of tillage methods and became almost equal to the undisturbed condition after two hours of ploughing. The bulk density of soil was negatively correlated, organic carbon content was positively correlated, soil temperature was positively correlated and atmospheric temperature was positively correlated with CO2 emission from the red loam soil in all the tillage practices. No significant correlation was obtained between relative humidity and soil moisture with CO2emission.Tillage with rotovator contributed the minimum CO2 to atmosphere and significantly affects the concentration of CO2in the atmosphere, ultimately contribute in mitigation of global warming.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Response of Green Manuring of Sesbania aculeate on growth and Yield of Rice in Flood Prone Area of Coastal Odisha

T. R. Sahoo, P. Mishra, F. H. Rahman, N. M. Mohapatra, S. N. Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 13-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130640

A field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field at Ratanpur village of Marshaghai block of Kendrapara, Odisha to evaluate effect of green manuring and other nutrient management on yield and economics of rice. The village is an adopted village by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kendrapara, in which various activities in agriculture are going on under National innovations in climate-resilient agriculture (NICRA) program to combat the flood-affected area of the locality. The experiment consists of five treatments like green manuring + NPK (60: 30: 30 Kg/ha), green manuring + NPK (80: 40: 40 Kg/ha), green manuring + FYM (2.5 t/ha) + NPK (60: 30: 30 Kg/ha), green maturing + FYM (5 t/ha) + NPK (60: 30: 30 Kg/ha) and farmer’s practice i.e., NPK (80: 40: 40 Kg/ha). Results revealed that green manuring of Dhaincha along with application of FYM @ 5 t/ha clubbed with NPK @ 60: 30: 30 Kg/ha recorded highest grain yield (3.95 t/ha), straw yield (4.86 t/ha) and other yield attributing characters. The same treatment resulted in the highest economic return i.e., B:Cratio of 1.51.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technological Gap Analysis of Cauliflower Growers towards Quality Production in Western Uttar Pradesh

Satya Prakash, B. Singh, K. G. Yadav, S. K. Lodhi, Rajat Singh, A. R. Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130641

Cauliflower is the main crop among the Cole crops. It is grown in all states of India. The Leading Cauliflower producing states are Karnataka, West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In Uttar Pradesh it is grown from June to March according suitability of their varieties. The varieties are recommended according the grown season. Some varieties are suitable to show in month of May and June and some varieties are suitable to show in the month of October and November, according to its growing season. To get the higher yield and good quality curds production technologies have been developed by the scientists. But due to some reasons the Farmers are not adapting the recommended practices during cultivation. They are facing many problems for quality curd production. Some physical disorder and disease decline the yield and quality both. Resulting y Cauliflower growers are not getting good returns. Keeping in view this study on Technological gap analysis of cauliflower growers towards quality production in western Uttar Pradesh was carried out .study revealed that for higher yield and quality production technological practices should be adapted by the cauliflower growers. Bedre [1] also agreed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Early Weaning on the Litter Traits of Pigs

Hemant Kumar, Basant Kumar, Ram Narayan Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130642

The present study was carried out with 444 crossbred piglets from 60 sows belonging to various genetic groups viz., ½ Landrace (LR) X ½ desi (D), ½ Tamworth (T) X ½ D, ½ LR X ¼T X ¼ D and ½ T X ¼ LRX ¼ D maintained at Pig Breeding Farm of Ranchi Veterinary College, Birsa agricultural University, Ranchi. The 60 sows under examination were randomly allocated into 5 weaning groups; weaned at 3 weeks (W3), 4 weeks (W4), 5 weeks (W5), 6 weeks (W6) and 8 weeks (W8). Piglets of each weaning group offered 4 types of weaning diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 as creep feed from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Effect of diet and weaning time had non-significant influence on litter size at the 8th and 12th week of age. Weaning time significantly affected the litter weight at the 8th and the 12th week of age; litter weight was greater in piglets weaned at the 5th, 6th and 8th than at the 3rd and 4th week of age (P<0.05). Although weaner diet had non- significant effect on litter weight, numerically higher values for litter weight at the 12th week was observed in T1 (63.25 ± 8.21 kg) than that of T3 (56.63 ± 6.38 kg) followed by T2 (53.74 ± 6.30 kg) and T4 (52.98 ± 5.58 kg). The present study suggested weaning of piglets either at 5th or 6th week of age instead of 8th week that in the conventional weaning time in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Urban Forest in Flood Risks Management in Yaoundé VII, Centre Region of Cameroon

Samba Gideon, Z. Mofor Gilbert, Chianebeng Japhet Kuma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130643

The alarming rate of flooding in urban centres continues to inflict untold suffering and placed the urban poor in precarious living conditions across most Cameroon towns and cities. In the diverse metropolis of the country's urban cities like Yaoundé, Douala, and Limbe, peoples of basic living standards are living in non-habitable flood-prone environment where their vulnerability remains to worsen at any given flooding event. The study examines the role of urban forest in preventing flood risk and management in Yaoundé VII. To achieve the aim of the study, sub-objectives where inevitably of utmost importance, the objectives included: To ascertain the causes and environmental hazards of flooding in Yaoundé VII Municipality; to identify measures put in place to control flooding; to examine the level of preparedness by the urban dwellers of Yaoundé VII to cope with increased exposure to flooding events and hazard mitigation. The primary data sources constituted direct information from structured and unstructured questionnaire, key informants interviews included most stakeholders of the municipality such as the Divisional Officer, the Mayor of the municipal council and those directly involved in flood hazards. A cross-sectional and descriptive research design was employed in the study. Purposive, stratified, and systematic sampling techniques were used as platform for questionnaire administration of which a sample of 400 was drawn from the population using Taro Yamane sample determination method. The data generated were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A null hypothesis was formulated and stated as follow: There exist no significant measures put in place to control flooding in Yaoundé VII Municipality. The hypothesis was tested using a One Way ANOVA test at 0.05 levels of significance. The major findings showed that there is significant flood measures put in place to control flooding in Yaoundé VII Municipality and also there exist a significant level of preparedness by the urban dwellers of Yaoundé VII to cope with increased flooding events. Based on the findings, the study recommended that the Urban Municipality of Yaoundé VII should organize massive campaign to sensitize the urban populace of the study area against improper dumping of refuse in the drainage systems while severe fines should be placed on violators. The government through the municipal council should Channelized and dredge the River Mefou which has tributaries in the study area so that the river can accommodate more volume of water whenever there is excess rainfall. The government should provide more funding for studies on hazards management in Cameroon as a whole; and for disaster management bodies and agencies in order to carry out their duties when necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of NICRA Projecton Farm Income and Farm Productivity of Participant Farmers in Lakhimpur District of Assam

Sobnam Sultana, Pabitra K. Das, Dipankar Saikia, Indrajit Barman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130644

The present study was conducted in Lakhimpur district of Assam to measure the impact of the interventions of the National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Project on farm income and farm productivity of the participant farmers. A total of 160 farmers (80 NICRA participant farmers and 80 non-participant farmers) were selected randomly for the purpose. The data were collected by a personal interview with the help of a structured schedule. The data collected were classified, tabulated and statistically analyzed. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the participant farmers (68.75%) were in the medium farm income category, while non-participant farmers (81.25%) were in the low farm income category. Majority of both participant farmers and non-participant farmers (63.75%) had a medium level of rice productivity. Majority of the participant farmers (62.50%) had a medium level of productivity of potato crop while most of the non-participant farmers (56.25%) had a medium level of productivity of potato crop Majority of the participant farmers (56.25%) had a medium level of productivity of rapeseed crop while the majority of the non-participant's farmers (67.50%) had a low level of productivity of rapeseed crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall Intensity and Evapotranspiration Patterns Nexus over Nigeria in Different Solar Cycles

O. O. Ajileye, J. O. Otu, Najib Yusuf, O. O Akinola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 43-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130647

The study employed Mass – Transfer Model (MTM) to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) from 12 selected locations spread across three climatic zones over Nigeria at intervals of 30 years (1988 and 2018) depicted by different solar cycles. Based on this finding the impacts of rainfall intensity on evapotranspiration patterns over Nigeria were investigated. Daily averaged values of wind speed at 2 m from soil, air temperature and relative humidity for 12 selected stations across Nigeria were employed for 1988 and 2018. The actual vapour pressure and saturated vapour pressure were estimated. A correlation between evapotranspiration with rainfall intensity was established to determine impacts of rainfall intensity on evapotranspiration patterns over Nigeria in solar maxima and minima scenarios. The results showed that ET was higher in 2018 than 1988 in 3 out of 4 stations in tropical monsoon; in tropical savannah and only Ibadan and Akure had a reduction in these values when 1988 was compared with 2018. Lowest values of ET was observed between August and October corresponding to the peak of rainy season. 7 stations out of 12 were influenced by solar minima phenomenon namely Port Harcourt, Owerri, Enugu, Ibadan, Minna, Borno and Gusau. The lowest values of ET were recorded at Calabar and Port Harcourt for both 1988 and 2018 while the highest values were observed at Borno for 1988 and Sokoto for 2018. Rainfall intensity had greater impacts on ET values in tropical monsoon than any other climatic zone in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Association of Profile Characteristics with Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Commercial Floriculture Nursery Owners in Kadiyam

M. Uday Bhaskar, M. Srinivasa Rao, P. V. Sathya Gopal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 66-75
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130649

Study on association of profile characteristics with entrepreneurial behaviour of commercial floriculture nursery owners aimed to bring out a strategy for the policymakers and implementing agencies for entrepreneurship development in the study area. The present investigation was carried out at Kadiyam Mandal in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The present study revealed that the independent variables viz., education, land holding, experience in nursery business, training undergone, annual turnover, marketing pattern, credit acquisition and utilization, mass media exposure, material possession, social participation, extension contact, and level of aspiration have close association with entrepreneurial behaviour of commercial floriculture nursery owners. All the selected fourteen independent variables put together explained about 69.90 percent variation in the entrepreneurial behaviour of nursery owners. The partial regression coefficients implied that annual turnover, credit acquisition and utilization, land holding, material possession and education were the most important variables contributing to most of the variation in the entrepreneurial behaviour of nursery owners. Hence it is concluded that the policy makers and planners need to take up need-based efforts that help in improving those characteristics which contribute to the development of the entrepreneurial behaviour of nursery owners.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metallic Health Risk through Consumption of Different Rice Varieties Cultivated in Industrial Wastewater Irrigated Farmers’ Fields of Bhaluka Area, Bangladesh

H. M. Zakir, Faisal Islam, Q. F. Quadir, A. Rahman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 76-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130650

A study was conducted to assess metallic health risk for population through consumption of rice grown in industrial wastewater irrigated sites of Bhaluka area, Mymensingh. Total 9 rice samples of 3 different varieties (BR-28, BR-29 and Kalozira) were collected directly from the farmers’ fields of the area and analysed for this study. The mean concentration of Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Mn and Fe in rice grains, straw and husk of different rice varieties were 54.46, 12.56, 5.45, 8.01, 1.37, 14.82 and 94.1 µg g-1; 74.70, 8.38, 5.11, 6.29, 1.17, 594 and 7951 µg g-1, and 112.8, 0.60, 0.68, 3.98, 1.29, 214 and 6568 µg g-1, respectively. Present study results revealed that Cr, Cu and Ni accumulation pattern in rice followed the sequence as grain> straw> husk; Fe and Mn exhibited the order as straw> husk> grain while Zn and Cd showed the sequence as husk> straw> grain and grain> husk> straw, respectively. As regards to varieties, Cr, Cu, Ni and Cd accumulation pattern followed the sequence as Kalozira> BR-29> BR-28, while Zn, Mn and Fe exhibited the order as BR-28> BR-29> Kalozira, BR-29> BR-28> Kalozira and Kalozira> BR-28> BR-29, respectively. As regards to fodder, only Cd contents in straw and husk seem to be harmful for animal health. In context of human health, the calculated target hazard quotient (THQ) values for Cr and Cd of all varieties ranged from 16.12-35.44 and 5.04-11.67, respectively for both male and female, and the same values for Mn surpassed 5.0 for female in 6 sites and for male in 4 sites indicate that the exposed populations are unsafe. Finally, the study concluded that peoples should avoid consumption of rice grown in industrial wastewater irrigated agricultural fields of Bhaluka area until proper remediation strategies along with fresh water irrigation are introduced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of Possibilities to Identify Heterotic Cross Combinations in Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Grain Yield and Quality Parameters

Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Banshidhar ., Avinash Kumar, Aman Tigga, S. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-98
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130651

Twenty eight crosses generated using eight aromatic rice varieties crossed in half diallel fashion were evaluated and analyzed along with parents to investigate combining ability and gene action for grain yield and various grain quality traits. The general combining ability and specific combining ability variances were significant for all the traits that indicated the role of both additive and non-additive genetic components.  Ratio of σ2gca2sca< 1 indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action in the expression of these traits.  Pusa Basmati-1 was the good general combiner showing significantly high GCA effect for a maximum of seven-grain quality traits viz., milling recovery (0.81), kernel length (0.28), kernel breadth (-0.05), kernel length/breadth ratio (0.26), cooked kernel length (0.79), alkali digestion value (0.67) and amylose content (0.60) but not for yield.  Cross PSD-15×Pant Basmati-1 (P7×P8) was the good specific combiner showing high SCA effects for a maximum of eight grain quality traits viz. hulling recovery (2.76), milling recovery (2.06), kernel length (0.89), kernel length/breadth ratio (0.69), cooked kernel length (3.06), kernel elongation ratio (0.12), alkali digestion value (1.11) and amylose content (1.01) but not yield.  None of the top three crosses (Pusa Sugandh-6×PSD-15, Pusa Basmati-1×PSD-15 and Pusa Sugandh-4×Basmati-370) based on high SCA effect for grain yield plant-1exhibited as high SCA effect to fall within top three crosses on that basis for any of the grain quality traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Soil and Plant Health through Adoption of an Organic Package of Practice for Rice Cultivation in New Alluvial Soil of West Bengal

F. H. Rahman, S. Mukherjee, S. Das, K. Mukhopadhyay, R. R. Bera, Antara Seal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 99-108
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130653

The objective of Organic farming is to achieve crop sustainability through restoration of soil dynamics, improvement of plant health through improvement of the soil - plant interactions, nourishment of the environmental resistance and reducing pest interferences. Lack of scientific guidelines and comprehensive organic package of practice (POP) has rendered the objective unachievable. The present study was initiated at Howrah Krishi Vigyan Kendra in 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the potential of Inhana Rational Farming (IRF) Technology, an organic POP, towards increasing crop productivity and restoration of soil quality under rice cultivation under different farming model viz. organic, integrated, non-pesticidal crop management as well as KVK.s recommendation with reduced fertilizer dosage. Treatments with organic plant management practices (IRF technology) showed 5% higher crop productivity (4774 kg/ha) in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice (4537 kg/ha) for Swarna sub-1 rice variety. Where as in case of scented rice varieties like Gobindobhog, the organic practice showed highest crop performance (3194 kg/ha) among all the treatments, and achieved 17% higher yield than that obtained under conventional farmers’ practice (2726 kg/ha).  Also the non-pesticidal crop management, a new concept of synthetic pesticide free crop cultivation under IRF Technology showed higher crop performance (4991 kg/ha and 2978 kg/ha in Swarna sub-1 and Gobindobhog rice varieties respectively) than conventional farmers practice. Organic plant management under IRF aimed at activation of plant physiology was found to have a positive impact towards agronomic development and yield performance as compared to conventional practice. Assessment of soil quality parameters indicated increasing trend of soil quality especially in terms of soil biological parameters for plots receiving Novcom compost.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Extent of Use of Online Utility Services in Punjab, India

Anupriya Nayal, Preeti Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 109-117
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130654

Aim: To analyze the extent of use of online utility services.

Study Design: Descriptive survey research design.

Place and Duration of Study: Rural (Doraha and Sidhwan Bet block), peri-urban (Ayali Kalan, Sunet and Threeke villages of Ludhiana I block) and urban areas of Ludhiana district, between August 2018 to May 2019.

Methodology: Using a structured interview schedule, data was collected randomly from 180 respondents having sixty online utility service users each from rural, peri-urban and urban areas of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India. The statistical tools such as frequency distribution, percentage, arithmetic mean, category interval method, Kruskal Wallis H-test for k independent samples and cumulative cube root frequency method were used for the analysis of data along with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results: Overall, higher percentage of the respondents had moderate to high extent of use of online utility services and were using them for bill payment, online/mobile banking, entertainment, online shopping and for other miscellaneous services.

Conclusion: Extent of use of different online utility services was comparatively higher among urban respondents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Status of Some Lateritic Soils of Birbhum District with Special Reference to Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Sulphur

Mamta Sahu, Suchhanda Mondal, C. P. Mohammed Nisab

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 118-126
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130655

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study soil fertility status of some selected soils of Birbhum district of West Bengal with one hundred soil samples collected from five blocks viz., Mayureswar, Nalhati-1, Bolpur, Md Bazar and Rajnagar. The soils of this zone are characterized by sandy loam to sandy clay loam in texture and strong to moderately acidic in reaction. Total soluble salt content (EC as dSm-1) was found to be under very low level (<1.0) indicating the safe limit for soils, where low to medium organic carbon contents, low to medium in available N, P and K content, while available Sulphur content of all the soil samples was low.

Open Access Original Research Article

Solving Sociological Problems with Qualitative Tools: Options from Perceived Environmental and Health Effects of Charcoal Production among Selected Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria

Philip O. Eniola, Stella O. Odebode

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 127-134
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1130656

Aims: The study discussed some basic participatory tools using a contemporary issue of the perceived environmental and health effects of charcoal production on the studied groups.

Study Design: The study made use of survey.

Methodology: The use of quantitative tools in analyzing social problems has been creating imbalance and arguments in some quarters of knowledge.

Results: The study find out that  charcoal production was a major livelihood activity of respondents in the study area since high income were generated from the activities as a result of low level of education. Data on various issues of involvement, production, quantity, environmental and health effects, flow and distribution of charcoal in Nigeria are not sufficiently available and these have had adverse effects on the various development plans for the energy sector in particular and the country in general. Ranking can be undertaken with the key informants or groups of villages that represent a good mixture of interest. It can also be conducted based on gender to determine different preferences between men and women.