Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Biofertilizers and Primary Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in New Alluvial Soil of West Bengal

S. Das, F. H. Rahman, S. Mukherjee, K. Nag

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030622

The experiment was carried out at Horticulture Research Station, Mondouri, BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal during the years 2014-15 and 2015-16. The cloves were planted during middle of the October in 2.0 x1.5 m plot at 20 x15 cm spacing in with three replications. Two nitrogen fixing biofertilizers (Azospirillum lipoferum and Azotobacter chrococcum), two phosphatic biofertilizers (Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza - Glomus fasciculatum) and phosphate solubilising bacteria (Bacillus polymixa) and one potassic solubilizer (Fraturia aurantea) were included. Biofertilizers were applied @ 6 g per plot with 250 g well rotten Farm yard manure. Three levels of recommended dose of NPK i.e., 100%, 75% and 50% were included. Two way combinations of both nitrogenous and phosphatic biofertilizers were followed in Total 12 treatments along with control. Quantitative attributes like plot yield (2.85 kg/3 m2) and projected yield (7.12 t/ha) were noticed in NPK (100%) + Azospirillium + PSB +K solubilizer. Looking to economics of various treatments, maximum net return (Rs 165,043) and B:C ratio (1.55) was obtained from NPK (100%) + Azospirillium + PSB + K solubilizer. Whereas, minimum B:C ratio (0.60) was recorded under NPK (50%) +Azotobacter + VAM + K solubilizer. These results suggested that the optimum production of garlic can be obtained with combined application of 100% NPK and biofertilizers (Azotobacter @ 5 kg/ha +PSB @ 5 kg/ha). The results also indicate the scope of reduction of 25% of inorganic fertilizer through inoculations of biofertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Analysis of Growth and Instability of Rabi Food Grain Production in Coastal Districts of Odisha, India

Abhiram Dash, Priyanka Pradhan, Subrat Kumar Mahapatra, Pradeep Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030623

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Odisha, India. Food grain production in the state is mainly confined in the coastal areas. Coastal land, one of the important production systems occupying an area of about 10.78 million ha, has a significant contribution to the food grain production of the state. Food grains include both cereals and pulses. To study the variation in production of Rabi food grains, a study is made about the area and yield of rabi food grains in these coastal districts from the year 1993-94 to 2014-15. For this purpose, the whole period of study (1993-94 to 2014-15) is divided into two sub-periods i.e. Period-I (1993-94 to 2002-03) and Period-II (2003-04 to 2014-15) on the basis of scatter plot of area, yield and production of Rabi food grains of Odisha. The Indian cropping season is classified into two main seasons-(i) Kharif and (ii) Rabi based on the monsoon. This study includes test of significance of change in mean and variance of area, yield and production of Rabi food grains from Period-I to Period-II. To test the significance of change in mean and variance of area, yield and production of rabi food grains from Period-I to Period-II, Fisher′s t-test and Snedecor’s F-test have been used respectively. No significant change in mean area from Period-I to Period-II was found but there is high variation in mean yield and mean production of Rabi food grains. High variation in mean yield and mean production of Rabi food grains is marked which may be due to uneven spread of technologies. The results of the study revealed that the variability (variance) in production of Rabi food grains of Odisha increased from Period-I to Period-II. Change in coefficient of variation of area, yield and production of Rabi food grains show significant decrease from Period-I to Period-II.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Fructooligosaccharide Fortified Low Calorie Apple-Whey Based RTS Beverage and Its Quality Evaluation during Storage

Rakesh Sharma, Richa Choudhary, N. S. Thakur, Rohit Bishist, Abhimanyu Thakur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 17-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030625

Apple based beverages are rich source of sugars and dietary fibres but deficit in proteins and some minerals like calcium. Whey- a major environmental pollutant from dairy industry is an excellent source of proteins and calcium. Non-nutritive sweeteners can be used for the development of low calorie hypoglycaemic beverages. Therefore, the present work was planned to optimize and evaluate the effect of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) incorporation on physico-chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of apple-whey blended ready-to-serve beverage. Herbal apple-whey blended beverage was prepared by using 75% apple juice+25% whey with 2.5% jaljeera extract and 13oB TSS. Results revealed that the beverage with 75% sweetos (mixture of fructooligosaccharide and sucralose) was found most acceptable with overall acceptability score of 8.59±0.26. Selected beverage had 12.20±0.01oBrix TSS, 0.30±0.01% acidity, 6.28±0.03% reducing sugar, 9.43±0.06% total sugars, 10.57±0.05 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 37.84±0.03 mg/100 g total phenols, 15.64±0.02 mg/100 mL calcium, 0.28±0.03% protein and 1.59±0.03% FOS thus depicting enhanced nutritional value. Beverages were stored successfully for a period of 60 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. However, various quality parameters of RTS beverage were retained higher under refrigerated storage conditions. Conclusively, this creates a scope for better health beverage as well as efficient utilization of whey.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Morphometric Diversity for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Tolerance to Heat Stress

S. Sandeep, M. Sujatha, L. V. Subbarao, C. N. Neeraja

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-49
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030626

The present investigation entitled “Assessment of morphometric diversity for yield and yield attributing traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for tolerance to heat stress” was carried out with objective of assessing genetic divergence in 200 germplasm of rice for eleven characters at ICRISAT, Patencheru, Hyderabad. The genotypes were grouped into fifteen clusters in Tocher’s method, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, out of the 11 characters studied, number of grains per panicle, plant height, pollen viability and spikelet fertility contributed 96.73 per cent of the total divergence and these traits were found to be important potent factors for genetic differentiation in genotypes. Principal component analysis identified five principal components, which contributed for 78.66 percent % of cumulative variance. The overall results of the study revealed that crossing using the genotypes under cluster V and XI and cluster XI and XIII could be exploited by hybridization programme to yield good recombinants because they had maximum inter cluster distance and possessing high genetic diversity for the characters viz. panicle length, number of grains per panicle and single plant yield. The genotypes of cluster I, II, IV, VI, VII, VIII, XI, XII and XIII showed high spikelet fertility percentage. Hence the genotypes of these clusters can be used in breeding programmes for development of heat tolerant varieties. Euclidean2 method indicated that genotypes of cluster III and IX exhibited high spikelet fertility percentage which can be utilized in development of heat tolerant cultivars. The results of principal component analysis revealed that genotypes of cluster I, cluster IV, cluster V, cluster VIII, cluster IX, cluster XI, cluster XII and cluster XV exhibited highest spikelet fertility percentage. Hence, the genotypes of the clusters can be used in breeding programmes for the development of heat tolerant varieties. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Aqueous Extract of Botanical Herbicides on the Performance of Transplanted Rice during Boro Season

Chandan Karmakar, Poulomi Nandy, Dibyendu Mondal, Anannya Ghosh, Ratikanta Ghosh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030627

A field experiment was conducted in humid sub-tropics of West Bengal at the Instructional Farm, Jaguli of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Nadia, India during 2016-17 to study some growth and yield parameters, also the economic advantages of various weed management treatments of summer transplanted paddy. The experiment was conducted with 8 treatments [T1- & T2 - Pre–emergence (PE) sole aqueous organic botanical extracts (AOBE) of Tectona grandis & Bambusa vulgaris respectively @ 100 mL/L water; T3 - PE sole synthetic organic chemical herbicides (SOCH) Pretilachlor 30.7 EC @ 500 g/ha;T4 – PE mixture of AOBE of Bambusa vulgaris & Tectona grandis @ 100 mL/L water; T5 – PE mixture of AOBE of Tectona grandis @ 100 mL/L water & SOCH Pretilachlor 30.7 EC @ 500 g/ha; T6 -PE mixture of AOBE Bambusa vulgaris of @ 100 mL/L water & SOCH Pretilachlor 30.7 EC @ 500 g/ha; T7 – Hand weeding (HW) at 25 & 45 days after transplanting (DAT) and T8 – Weedy check with three replications following randomised block design (RBD). The results revealed that the treatments T7 recorded the maximum biological yield (grain – 4.76 & straw 5.95 t/ha) and was statistically at par with the mixture of botanical and chemical treatments (T5 - 4.35 and 5.52 t/ha respectively) and T6 - 4.42 and 5.54 t/ha, respectively). The T6 recorded the highest benefit – cost ratio (BCR) value of 2.41 followed by T5 with 2.38. But in case of treatment T7, maximum cost of cultivation was incurred over all treatments due to higher expenditure on labour wages for that reason BCR was comparatively lower (2.02) and the lowest BCR was obtained against weedy check (T8) 1.85. Therefore, considering the crop growth, rice productivity, economics and farmers‟ easy availability the mixture treatments of AOBE Bamboosa vulgaris or Tectona grandis with SOCH Pretilachlor may be the best option and is an alternative to traditional HW treatment for increasing rice productivity through ecosafe weed management in transplanted paddy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Yield Related Traits in F3 Populations of Brinjal from Intra-specific Hybridization

Kasireddy Sivasankarreddy, Prabalee Sarmah, Debojit Sarma, Purna Kanta Barua, Sailen Gogoi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030628

In the present experiment the selected progenies of F2 population [MLC-1 x Longai (oblong)] i.e. plant number 2, 12, 10, 3, 11, 19 and progenies of F2 population [MLC-3 x Longai (oblong)] i.e. plant number 22, 26, 28, 105, 107, 109 along with their respective bulk populations evaluated based on eight quantitative traits. There was a significant difference among the genotypes for all the characters studied at 1% level of significance. The phenotypic variance, phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than the genotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variation respectively in all the traits studied. Among all the genotypes high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean except fruit length which indicating that all the traits were governed by additive gene action except fruit length. Characters viz., number of fruits per plant, plant height, fruit weight, number of branches per plant recorded positive and significant association with yield per plant in the genotypes. Path coefficient analysis revealed that number of fruits per plant is important yield attributing trait because of their high direct effect and indirectly influencing number of branches per plant is another most important yield attributing trait.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological and Biochemical Assesement of Chickpea and Lentil Grown in Different Agroclimatic Zones of Bihar

Kumari Rajani, Vikash Kumar, Shashi Bhusan Kumar, Anand Kumar, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Anil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030629

The present study was conducted to evaluate the seed quality of chickpea (cv. PG-186) and lentil (cv. HUL-57) seed samples collected from randomly selected districts of different agroclimatic zones of Bihar. The seed quality was assessed based on their physiological (seed moisture, seed germination, seedling length, vigour index, etc.) and biochemical enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) parameters. Based on the physiological and biochemical evaluation, the chickpea seed sample collected from the Sheikhpura district was found significantly high quality (96.3% germination percentage) among all, while seeds collected from Begusarai (76.7%) and Darbhanga (77.7%) districts exhibited lowest germination percentage. The germination and vigour of lentil seed revealed that the sample of Patna district was having the highest germination percentage (98.7%) while seeds collected from Katihar and Rohtas district exhibited lowest germination percentage (66% and 74.3% respectively). In the case of biochemical analysis of both chickpea and lentil seed samples, higher SOD, POX and CAT activities were observed in seeds in which the highest germination percentage was recorded. On the basis of the results of chickpea and lentil seed samples, the seed lots were categorized into high, mid and low vigour. Among chickpea, the seed samples of Sheikhpura, Patna, Munger, Bhagalpur, Lakhisarai, and Jehanabad were categorized as high vigour; while seeds of Darbhanga and Begusarai district were categorized as low vigor. Similarly, in case of lentil the seed samples of Patna, Munger, Bhagalpur, Sheikhpura, Lakhisarai, and Khagaria were categorized as high vigour; while seeds of Rohtas and Kathiahr district were categorized into low vigor. This study will be helpful to the farmers and pulses growers in order to enhance the seed quality for getting higher production in respective districts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effect of Plastic Mulching and Irrigation Amount on Soil Moisture Distribution

A. Selvaperumal, S. Thangamani, E. Sujitha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-85
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030630

In India, the irrigated area comprises about 36% of the net sown area. Currently, the agricultural sector accounts for about 83% of all water uses. Drip irrigation system uniformity can maintain a higher crop yield and reduce the initial investment of cost. The study was conducted at precision farming development centre research farm, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to evaluating the effect of plastic mulching and irrigation amount on soil moisture distribution. Two types of black plastic mulch of different thickness and one control without mulch were selected for the study M1: 25 micron thickness Black Plastic mulch, M2: 50 micron thickness Black Plastic mulch, and M3: No mulch (Control). Three levels of fertigation were adopted, namely 80%, 100% and 120% of Recommended Dose of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K) and are denoted as F1, F2 and F3. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) was attained as 0.0308% kept at a constant pressure of 52 kPa, Statistical Uniformity (SU) as 97% and Uniformity coefficient as 0.97. As the elapsed time increased, the rate of increase of wetted diameter decreased. A high Coefficient of Determination (R2) value of 0.97 indicates the goodness of fit for the horizontal movement. The average soil moisture distribution 40% was noticed below the emitter at the depth of 10 cm immediately after irrigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Genetic Variability of Grain Yield and Quality in F2 and F3 Generations of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

L. Krishna, Y. Chandra Mohan, C. H. Surender Raju, D. Bhadru

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 86-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030631

The present investigation was carried out for yield and quality related traits in the F2 and F3 populations of twenty eight rice cross combinations developed from five aromatic (Pusa 1121, Improved Pusa Basmati, Basmati 370, Sumathi and RNR 2354) and three non-aromatic (BPT 5204, Akshyadhan and NLR 145) parents. In F2 generation, among the yield characters, the highest values of phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) were recorded for the number of filled grains/panicle followed by grain yield per plant while the lowest values were recorded for days to 50% flowering. However, for the grain quality characters the highest PCV and GCV values were recorded for head rice recovery and lowest for kernel breadth. In F3 population, higher magnitudes of PCV and GCV were recorded for the number of filled grains/panicle and panicle weight, indicating greater scope of obtaining high selection response for these traits. High heritability in narrow sense along with medium to high genetic advance was noticed for the traits like days to 50% flowering, 1000 grain weight and the kernel traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Mycorrhiza and Phosphorus on Physiological Parameters of Leaves of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Layers

Priyanka Kumari, R. R. Singh, Ruby Rani, Mahendra Singh, Uday Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030632

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), is delicious juicy fruit of India having excellent nutritional quality. It has a great potential to earn foreign exchange in the national and international market through export. Slow plant growth and high rate of mortality in initial stage of plant establishment are the major problem of litchi. Increasing photosynthetic activity through exploiting photosynthetic, components are major target. The carotenoid and chlorophyll content are one of the major components that affect the photosynthetic activity of plant. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are beneficial symbiotic soil microorganisms and AM technology can find its potential application in the nursery of horticultural industry. When AM fungi have been successfully applied to many wood fruit tree species, little information is available in litchi. Therefore, the pot experiment was undertaken to study the influence of phosphorus (50 mg and 75 mg), mycorrhiza (G. mosseae and G. coronatum) alone and in combination. The treatment significantly influenced the changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid content in leaves of litchi samplings in nursery stage. After 120 days of inoculation both the species of mycorrhiza alone and in combination with phosphorus application were very effective with the highest level of total chlorophyll content of (2.474 mg/g fr. wt) in case T5 G. mosseae 10 g + Phosphorus 50 mg. Significantly lowest value of chlorophyll was noted in T0 Control (2.090 mg/g fr.wt). Carotenoid content was also measured maximum in T5 G. mosseae 10 g + Phosphorus 50 mg (0.154 mg/g fr. wt.) as compare to T0 Control with (0.065 mg/g fr. wt.). Relative water content (RWC) after 60, 90 and 120 DAI significantly differentiate. Maximum RWC in case T5 G. mosseae 10 g + Phosphorus 50 mg (31.43%) which was statistically equal with G. coronatum 10 g + P 50 mg (31.14%). Significantly influencing specific leaf weight at different date of observations. The performance was maximum found in T5 G. mosseae 10 g + Phosphorus 50 mg (7.28%) as compare to T0 control (4.44%). Significant effect of treatments on leaf parameters of litchi layers pertaining number of leaves per flush and length of flush is maximum with T5 G. mosseae 10 g + Phosphorus 50 mg (5 - 8) and (10.2 cm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Three Botanicals in Cowpea Field, Oyo State, Nigeria

N. C. Isienyi, O. O. Fadina, O. O. Fayinminnu, O. S. Olubode

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-112
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030633

Aims: To evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the plant extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (EU), Eucalyptus torreliana (ET) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on seed-germination, seedling-growth, weed flora and yield performance of cowpea.

Study Design: The study was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with eighteen ttreatments replicated three (3) times, totaling fifty-four (54) experimental samples. The whole experiments were repeated in two trials.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was carried out on the roof top garden of department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria from 2015 to 2017.

Methodology: Leaves of EU, ET and LL were harvested, air-dried, milled and assayed for phytochemicals (mg/g) following standard-procedures. Milled samples (144, 108, 72, 36 and 0 g) of each botanical were dissolved in 1 L distilled-water to obtain Aqueous-Leaf-Extracts (ALE) of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% (control) concentrations. Ten seeds of cowpea-Ife brown in petri dishes were treated with the different concentrations. Data were collected on Seed Germination-SG (%). In pots containing 10 kg soil, cowpea-seeds (2 plants/pot) were sown. Each botanical-extract at different concentrations and paraquat (5 mL/L/ha) were applied, before and five Weeks-After-Sowing (WAS). Data were collected on Plant height-PH (cm) at 3,5,7,9 and 11 WAS, while Grain Yield-GY (g/pot) was determined at maturity. Relative Importance Values (RIVs) were determined following standard-procedures. Data were analysed with descriptive-statistics and ANOVA at α0.05.

Results: Total phenols (32.04±0.10), tannins (27.40±0.04) and saponins (20.15±0.03) were significantly higher in EU than in ET and LL. Cowpea SG ranged from 80.0±0.5 (50% LL) to 100.0±1.2 (100% LL). Cowpea PH ranged from 18.2±2.0 (100% ET) to 48.5±3.2 (100% EU) both at 9-WAS. Cowpea GY ranged from 0.1±0.1 (25% LL) to 4.2±0.5 (50% LL). Mitracarpus villosus had highest RIV of 52.3 (100% EU at 3-WAS) but reduced to 28.5 (100% EU at 9-WAS). Aqueous-leaf-extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis at 100% reduced Mitracarpus villosus populations, while Leucaena leucocephala at 50% improved grain yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Agro-morphological Characters among Complete Panicle Emergence Mutants of Samba Mahsuri (BPT-5204)

B. Suneel, P. Gopi, J. Karteek, M. D. Ershad, G. S. Laha, A. P. Padmakumari, R. M. Sundaram, V. Ramesh Sonti, H. K. Patel, P. Sudhakar, A. Krishna Satya, M. S. Madhav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 113-125
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030635

Aims: The aim of the present work was to generate complete panicle emergence mutants of Samba Mahsuri (BPT-5204), using the chemical mutagen, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) 

Place and Duration of Study: The field evaluation was carried out repeatedly in two locations at Indian Institute of Rice Research, Rajendranagar and at ICRISAT Patancheru Hyderabad. The duration of the study was three successive seasons in triplicates namely, june-2014, january-2015 and june-2015.

Methodology: Seedlings of 28-30 days old were transplanted in 5 lines (each line containing 20 plants) into the field. The plant spacing was 20 cm by 15 cm with density of one hill. The field was irrigated throughout the experiment with average of 10 cm water above the soil level. Regular hand weeding was embarked upon to free the plant of inter specific competition. The phenotypic data was recorded for CPE mutants through visual assessment. The characteristics that required measurements were done according to the usual procedure. The Distinctness, Uniformity and stability of the CPE mutant lines have been recorded following (DUS) test guidelines by UPOV guidelines for rice (38) & Yoshida S (44).

Results: The identified stabilized thirteen complete panicle emergence (CPE) mutants showed superior agro morphological characters, compared with wild type (BPT-5204). The mutants CPE-2 and CPE-3 took 100 days to flowering and CPE-4 and CPE-7 mutants showed superiority for panicle length, and CPE-5 exhibited good performance for grain yield. In correlation analysis CPE trait had a significantly positive correlation with PH and TGW and negative correlation with 50%DFF. The CPE mutants used in the present study exhibited variability for most of the studied traits. Significant variation was detected in the identified stabilized CPE mutants for plant height, panicle length, flag leaf length and width, 50% flowering, different grain types and 1000 grain weight.

Conclusion: The present study discovered adequate genetic divergence in the thirteen stabilized CPE mutants for various qualitative and quantitative traits. The promising mutants identified during the current study have the potential to be used in future breeding programs for getting productive and quality results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Integrated Farming System Model for Small and Marginal Farmers of Telangana State

M. Goverdhan, Ch. Pragathi Kumari, S. Sridevi, M. V. Ramana, K. Suresh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 126-134
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030636

The study was conducted to develop Integrated Farming Systems (IFS) model for limited irrigation situation. The land was earmarked for developing 1 ha. land for marginal/small farmers with crops, horticulture, fodders and animal components. This system resulted in total productivity of 41.4 t ha-1 yr-1 Rice Grain equivalent Yield (RGEY) along with employment generation of 830 man days. The net returns from 1 ha of crop + livestock (dairy and goat) + horticulture farming systems model was Rs. 2,17,336/-. Of this total net income, crop component including fodder comprised 27.74%, horticulture component comprised 4.41% and livestock unit shared 67.85%. Besides cash income, IFS generated employment for family labour. Recycling of bi-products from the livestock unit, sustains soil productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio Economics Profile of Chilli Growers in District Baramulla (J&K)

Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer, Tariq Aziz, Irfath Rashid, Sushil Kumar, Sheema Khan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 135-141
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030637

The study was carried out during 2018-2019 to know the socio-economic status of the chilli growers, marketing of chilli and constraints faced by the chilli growers in district Baramulla. A sample size of 50 chilli growers was selected randomly from 5 villages of agricultural zone Nehalpora of district Baramulla. The study reveals that majority (60%) of the respondents were in the age group (35-53 yrs). It was found that 30 per cent of the respondents were illiterate. About 45% of the respondents were having farming as the main occupation. As far as annual income is concerned, major source of income of the growers was from agriculture (72 lakhs), followed by horticulture (39.70 lakhs) and vegetables (3.23 lakhs). About 45% of the area was irrigated in the village, 40.87% under orchards, 9.48% under chilli. Majority of the growers used television (74%) regularly as a source of mass media followed by other means of media like internet (30%). Majority (84%) of the growers had occasional extension contacts. About 56 per cent of the respondents were having medium level of scientific orientation followed by low (30%) and high (14%).  As far as the marketing of the chilli is concerned, majority of the growers (56%) sold their crop in local market while only (44%) of the growers sold their crop at a distant market. The reason might be that the growers preferred their local market rather than going for distant places because of the less time available. The major resource constraints in chilli production technology as mentioned by the respondents were unavailability of improved seeds of vegetables (90%) high cost of pesticides (70%), scattered and small size land holdings (60%) and lack of irrigation facilities (40%) Poor marketing facilities (80%), distantly located markets (30%), bad condition of roads (90%), non-remunerative prices (84%) and lack of transportation facilities and high transportation charges (18%) were the major marketing constraints. 90 per cent of the farmers had a constraint of Lack of training on scientific vegetable production technology and Non-availability of facilities of soil testing (80% ), while as 40 per cent had mentioned Lack of knowledge about improved varieties, seed rate and sowing time as other constraint faced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Management of Foliar Blight of Medicinal Crop (Turmeric) Caused by Alternaria alternata

S. A. Azad, Deepak Kumar, Vikas Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 142-149
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1030638

The infected samples were collected from three districts viz; Kathua, Samba and Jammu for the study of the disease. The causal fungus of the disease was isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata on the basis of morphological characteristics. The cultivars PH-1 and local cultivar of turmeric were sown with three replications in the year 2014 and 2015 respectively, each to study the disease development and its management. During in vitro studies, the five groups of fungicide (Mancozeb, Carbendazim, Copper Oxychloride, Hexaconazole and Propiconazole) were evaluated against Altenaria alternata causing disease, best results were obtained with hexaconazole. The antagonistic activity of two fungal and two bacterial biocontrol agents were studied by dual culture thus Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas flurescens portrayed better results. Under compatibility of fungal bioagents and bacterial bioagents best compatibility was observed between copper oxychloride and Trichoderma viride and hexaconazole and Pseudomonas flurescens. Under the field conditions the best results among all fifteen treatments, with minimum disease intensity was observed in terms of integration i.e (hexaconazole + Trichoderma viride) (4.2%) in PH-1 cultivar and (6.7%) in local cultivar.