Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Response of Rice Seedlings under Cold Conditions

Ramya Rathod, N. Sandyakishore, G. Praveen Kumar, Firdoz Shahana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930600

Rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae) is the primary source of food for billions of people throughout the world and around 90% of the cultivated area under rice is in Asia. Rice is the majorly grown during both seasons and in Rabi season the seedlings are raised in exposure to the cold months and hence, cold tolerant rice varieties are the prerequisite for rice cultivation. Among the districts of Telangana, Nizamabad, records the lowest mean minimum temperature ranging from 11-16°C over past ten years. The main aim of the study was to identify cold tolerant genotypes.  The experiment was conducted to evaluate 35 genotypes of rice for cold tolerance under field conditions. Sprouted seeds of these genotypes were sown in nursery during Rabi 2017-18. The germination percentage was recorded at 15 days after sowing (DAS) and 30 DAS, scoring for cold was done and chlorophyll content through SPAD meter were taken. Akshaydhan and Krishna Hamsa were least affected by cold and scored 1 considering them as cold tolerant and can be used as donors in crossing programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Speed Regulation and Control of Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drives Using Controllers (PI, PID)

Piyush Kumar Ojha, Eeshan Amiy, Apurv Nihal Bhagat, Sumit Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930601

An induction (or asynchronous) motor is an AC electric motor in which runs at the rated condition but there is indeed of variable speed of motor. There are numbers of methods available for speed control, but there is need for selection of proper controller for obtaining the desired result. Simulation was done in the MATLAB Simulink software.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forecasting of Rabi Pulse Production in Odisha (India) by Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Technique

Abhiram Dash, A. Mangaraju, Suman ., Pradeep Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930602

The present study was carried out to forecast the production of rabi pulse in Odisha by using the forecast values of area and yield of rabi pulses obtained from the selected best fit Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The data from 1971-72 to 2010-11 are considered as training set data and used for model building and from 2011-12 to 2015-16 are considered as testing set data and used for cross-validation of the selected model on the basis of the absolute percentage error. The ARIMA models are fitted to the stationary data which may be the original data and/or the differenced data. The different ARIMA models are judged on the basis of Autocorrelation Function (ACF) and Partial autocorrelation Function (PACF) at various lags. The possible ARIMA models are selected on the basis of significant coefficient of autoregressive and moving average components. The best fitted models are selected on the basis of residual diagnostics test and model fit statistics. The ARIMA model found to be best fitted for area under rabi pulse and yield of rabi pulse are ARIMA (2,0,0) with constant and ARIMA (0,1,1) without constant respectively which are successfully cross-validated with the testing set data. The excellent fit ARIMA model has been used to forecast the area and yield of rabi pulse for the years 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19. The forecast value of area shows an increase, where as, the forecast values of yield shows a decrease. The forecast values of production of rabi pulse obtained from the forecast values of area and yield of rabi pulse shows an increase which is due to the increase in forecast value of area. Thus emphasis must be laid on increasing the future yield of rabi pulse so as to achieve sufficient increase in production of rabi pulses which could ensure nutritional security to more extent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Evaluation of Fodder Sorghum Varieties under Different Dates of Sowing

K. Saimaheswari, T. Prathima, D. Subramanyam, P. Latha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930603

A field study conducted during the summer season of 2018 at S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, to evaluate the sowing time and varieties on growth, yield and quality of fodder sorghum. The results revealed that plant height, dry matter production, leaf area, stem diameter, leaf stem ratio significantly decreased with delay in sowing from I FN of January to II FN of February at all stages of plant growth. Significantly higher crude protein and ash contents were observed with the crop sown during I fortnight of January. Late sowing of the crop during II fortnight of February recorded higher crude fibre. Among various varieties tested, higher growth parameters, green and dry fodder yields were recorded with CSV 32 F than rest of varieties. CSV 32 F has recorded highest crude protein and ash content, while the higher crude fibre content was recorded with CSV 21 F. The highest gross returns, net returns and benefit-cost ratio were obtained when the crop is sown during I FN of January which was significantly superior to other times of sowing. Among tested varieties, CSV 32 F variety recorded significantly higher returns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence Analysis of Rice Genotypes under Salt Stress Environment

Anuj Kumar, D. K. Dwivedi, Pradeep K. Bharti, Shivani ., Preeti Kumari, Archana Devi, N. A. Khan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930604

The present investigations were conducted in randomized block design with three replications within the net house of the department of PMB&GE, A. N.D.U.A.T, Kumar Ganj, Ayodhya to estimate the genetic divergence under normal and salt stress conditions involving 20 rice genotypes during Kharif 2018-19, on the basis of relative parameters of D2 values, the clustering pattern of 20 rice genotypes under normal and salt stress conditions were grouped into five non-overlapped clusters. Under normal condition, Cluster III having highest 7 rice genotypes, Cluster II having 5 genotypes, cluster V having 4 genotypes and IV having highest 3 rice genotype. Cluster I having only one genotype. Under saline condition, Cluster I having highest rice 6 genotypes, cluster III having 5 genotypes and cluster II & IV having 4 genotypes respectively. Cluster V having only one genotype. It means the genetic similarity was found in the genotypes were expressed within the cluster and the pattern of distribution of genotypes in various clusters exhibited that topographical diversity wasn't associated with ancestral diversity as genotypes of same countryside were grouped into different cluster and vice-versa. The highest inter cluster distance was recorded between cluster 2 and cluster 5 (26108.030) followed by between cluster 1 and cluster 5 (18550.010), cluster 3 and cluster 5 (15231.860), cluster 4 and cluster 5 (5335.860) in normal condition and in saline condition the maximum inter cluster distance was existed between cluster 4 and cluster 5 (2344.091) followed by between cluster 3 and cluster 5 (2067.610), cluster 2 and cluster 5 (1447.564), cluster 1 and cluster 5 (1238.095). The results showed extensive variation from one cluster to other in respect of cluster means for all parameters, which represented that genotypes having distinctly different mean performance for various characters were reported into different clusters.Rice

Open Access Original Research Article

Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Using Modified Genetic Algorithm Tuned Fuzzy Controller

Ankit Rawat, Mohd Fazle Azeem

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 54-64
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930606

In the last decade with increasing motor application domain, need towards usage of precisely controlled, noise free, highly efficient and high starting torque motors also increases, as a result dedicated applications has fascinated the researcher toward brushless DC motor. Brushless DC motors can act as suitable alternative to the traditional Brushed direct current motor, Induction Motor etc. This research paper inspects the ease and effectiveness of modified queen bee based GA tuned fuzzy controller and shows the performance of a proposed controller under diverse speed settings. A comparative study with conventional PI controller shows effectiveness of modified queen bee based GA Tuned Fuzzy controller, in terms of parameter like peak overshoot and settling time. MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment is used for optimization and modeling of Brushless DC motor drive.

Open Access Original Research Article

DRAINMOD – Calibration and Validation for Prediction of Drainage Coefficient and Water Table Depth

A. Selvaperumal, G. Thiyagarajan, S. Vallalkannan, I. Muthuchamy, K. Ramaswamy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 65-74
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930607

DRAINMOD model predicts the effects of drainage and associated water management practices on water table depths and drainage coefficients. It simulates the performance of a given system for a long period of weather record. The field evaluation of this model has been carried out by comparing model predicted drain flow and depth to water table with the observed data collected from water table management system installed at A-block of Eastern Farm, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute Kumulur during the year 2015-2016. The comparison between predicted and observed drainage coefficient and depth to water table with treatment of different drain spacing (7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 m) and drain depth (75 and 60 cm) is made. The statistical measures indicated that, there was a close relationship between predicted and observed drainage coefficient during the calibration and validation period as indicated by average root mean square error value ranges from 12.3 to 15.7 and 19.63 to 26.19 and average Chi-squared test value ranges from 0.010 to 0.725 and 0.01 to 0.28. Similarly for water table depth, the average root mean square value ranges from 7.630 to 17.20 and 16.67 to 21.54 and average Chi-squared test value ranges from 1.19 to 2.365 and 3.90 to 5.02.

Open Access Original Research Article

Principal Component Analysis in Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Normal Sown Condition of Bihar

Kumari Rajani, Anand Kumar, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Sadia Perween, Sanjay Kumar, Anil Kumar, Satyendra ., Mankesh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 75-80
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930608

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important food legume crop after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It is one of the most important rabi pulse crop in India and contributes to 20% of the total pulse production in the world. India ranks first in chickpea production in the world followed by Australia, Myanmar and Pakistan. It is one of the major pulse crops in Bihar. The present investigation was undertaken using forty genotypes of desi chickpea sown in a randomized block design with three replications at the Pulse research model Bhitti farm of Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (Bhagalpur) during Rabi, 2016-17 to determine the contribution of six morphological traits to the total variability in desi chickpea using Principal component analysis. In the present investigation PCA was performed for six quantitative traits of chickpea. Out of six, only 2PCs exhibited more than 1.0 Eigen value and showed about 79.86% variability. Therefore, these 2 PCs were given due important for the further explanation. The PC1 showed 28.96% variability among traits, while PC II, PC III and PC IV exhibited 21.93%, 16.35% and 13.87% variability respectively.PC1 contributed 28.96% of the total variation and correlated with days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and 100-seed weight while PC2 explained an additional 21.93% of the total variation and dominated by plant height, grain yield per plot, days to maturity, days to 50% flowering and number of pods per plant. Since, a total of 50.91% of the total variation was contributed by PC1 and PC2, therefore, these two principal components can be allowed for simultaneous selection of yield contributing traits in desi chickpea. Genotype commonly found in more PC, were KWR108, JG2016-44, Sabour chana-1, IPC 2013-21, HI12-63, AKG1303, PG214J and RKG13-380. Similar type of genotypes on a common principal component permitting to designate them as seed yield factors. These genotypes may further be utilized in breeding programmes for improving seed yield and these genotypes can be considered an ideotype breeding material for selection of traits viz. more total number of seed per plant and 100-seed weight further utilization in precise breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Annapurna Krishi Prasara Seva- An Innovative Mobile Based Agro Advisory Service to Mahabubnagar Farmers

P. Archana, K. Sridhar, A. Rama Krishna Babu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930609

The present study entitled “Annapurna Krishi Prasara Seva- an innovative mobile based agro advisory service in Mahabubnagar Districts of Telangana” was carried out to get the feedback of farmers about the services rendered through Interactive Information Dissemination System (IIDS) in the year 2019-20. Random sampling methods followed for drawing a total sample size of ninety farmers from the district. Responses obtained through Pre-tested structured interview schedule was further tabulated and analysed with the help of suitable statistical tools and techniques viz. frequency, percentage, mean and rank order. The findings of the study revealed that 94.44 per cent of the respondents gave priority to pest and disease management and 86.67 per cent of the respondents agreed that IIDS service is providing the farmers with timely information. It will be a good monitoring tool to the scientists of DAATTCs to monitor the farmer’s field and it will be a good knowledge management system for knowledge providers and policy makers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Case Study on CETP Processing in Leather Units of Kanpur

Iti Dubey, Meenu Srivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 88-93
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930610

In Kanpur, CETP units have been installed to treat the enormous effluents discharge from various leather processing units. Researcher collects the data in terms of its location area, year of establishment and number of units attached for treatment effluents and their effluent treatment capacity per day. Result of the study indicate that Majority of leather units were connected to CETP of Bajidpurin Jajmau area of Kanpur. Some remaining large scale leather units were and involved in combined units have their own Chromium effluent treatment plant (CETP).

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamic Analysis of Folded Low Shells by Using Finite Element Analysis

Emmanuel E. T. Olodo, Georges Adjibola A. Ale, Edmond Codjo Adjovi, Antoine Vianou

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 94-103
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930612

Aims: This work is devoted to the development of a finite element algorithm for solving problem in forced vibrations of folded low shells.

Methodology: The differential equations for harmonic analysis are obtained from the Lagrange variational principle. Description of the dynamic behavior is made by the structure discretization into a system of curvilinear iso-parametric finite elements used in modal analysis. The method is implemented by a calculation code on a square-plane folded shell model withnumber of crease edges in both directions k=l=3.

Results: Displacement amplitudesare obtained by decomposition into vibration eigenforms. The maximum values of dynamic stresses are determined taking into account the shell's support conditions.The results of the harmonic analysis show thatimprovement in frequency characteristics and reduction of stresses in the folded shell depend on the constructive and internal damping of the structureand the increase in the number of fold edges k and l in both directions for examplebecause this contributes to decrease in the forced vibration amplitudes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Technique to Forecast the Production of Kharif Cereals in Odisha (India)

Abhiram Dash, A. Mangaraju, Pradeep Mishra, H. Nayak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 104-113
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930619

Cereals are the most important kharif season crop in Odisha. The present study was carried out to forecast the production of kharif cereals in Odisha by using the forecast values of area and yield of kharif cereals obtained from the selected best fit Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The data from 1970-71 to 2010-11 are considered as training set data and used for model building and from 2011-12 to 2015-16 are considered as testing set data and used for cross-validation of the selected model on the basis of the absolute percentage error. The ARIMA models are fitted to the stationary data which may be the original data or the differenced data. The different ARIMA models are evaluated on the basis of Autocorrelation Function (ACF) and Partial Autocorrelation Function (PACF) at various lags. The possible ARIMA models are selected on the basis of significant coefficient of autoregressive and moving average components by using the training set data. The best fitted models are then selected on the basis of residual diagnostics test and model fit statistics. The ARIMA model found to be best fitted for area under kharif cereals and yield of kharif cereals are ARIMA (1,1,0) without constant and ARIMA (0,1,2) without constant respectively which are successfully cross-validated with the testing set data. The respective best fit ARIMA model has been used to forecast the area and yield of kharif cereals for the years 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19. The forecast values of area shows a decrease, whereas, the forecast values of yield shows an increase. The decrease in area might have been the result of limited availability of area for cereals due to shifting towards non-food grain crops. The forecast values of production of kharif cereals obtained from the forecast values of area and yield of kharif cereals shows an increase which is due to the increase in forecast values of yield. Since there is limited scope for area expansion, the future production of kharif cereals can only be increased by increasing the yield to achieve the goal of food security for the growing population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Weed Management Practices on Weed Control, Yield and Economics of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]

R. K. Raj, K. K. Sinha, Shalu Kumari, Anup Kumar Choubey, Ashok Pandit, Dinesh Kumar Yadav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 114-120
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930620

The experiment was laid out Tirhut College of Agriculture, farm Dholi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar during kharif season 2016, to study the effect of weed management practices on weed control, yield and economics of soybean [Glycine max (L.)]. Hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS was found most effective to control weeds in soybean and recorded lowest weed count, weed dry matter and highest weed control efficiency. Among herbicide, application of Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha as PE (Pre-emergance) and Imazethapyr 55 g/ha as PoE (Post-emergance) at 25 DAS was found to be more efficient and cost effective to reduce weed population/m2 (53.94 & 67.22), dry weight of weeds/m2 (21.16 & 45.86 g) an increased weed control efficiency (53.86 & 68.83%) significantly in both the stages 30 and 60 DAS. Beside it, Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + Imazethapyr 55 g/ha at 25 DAS, Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + one hand weeding at 40 DAS and hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS were equally efficient in increasing the grain yield, straw yield, weed index and gross returns than control but net returns (39870/ha) and benefit-cost ratio (1.70) was obtained maximum only with Pendmethalin 1.0 kg/ha and Imazethapyr 55 g/ha at 25 DAS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Zinc and Chromium Supplementation on Blood Biochemical Constituents and Hematological Profiles in Goats

Hemant Kumar, S. P. Tiwari, Basant Kumar, Shikha Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 121-128
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930621

Aims: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing zinc-methionine and chromium-picolinate on blood biochemical constituents and hematological profiles of goats.

Place and Duration of Study: The present studies were carried out at Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg during February 2007 to August 2007. 

Methods: Twenty-four indigenous non-descript goat kids (3-5 months old, average body weight of 5.1±0.25 Kg) were allocated to four groups Group-I (control) was fed ad libitum basal complete feed which constituted sola (Aeschynomene indica) - hay (60 parts) and concentrate mixture (40 parts). The kids of Group-II, III and IV were fed as in control with a combined supplement of Zn-methionine and Cr-picolinate at the rates of 20 and 0.5 parts per million (ppm), 35 and 1 ppm and 50 and 1.5 ppm, respectively. The experiment lasted for 90 days. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocyte count (TEC) were performed as per the method described by Jain [4]. Blood biochemical study was performed by using Spectrophotometer.

Results: There was progressive increase in total protein, albumin, globulin levels and alkaline phosphatase activity in serum in mineral supplemented group as compare to control. In most of the cases erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (P<0.05) higher with the increase of Cr-picolinate and Zn-methionine concentration in basal diet than control. However, blood glucose and total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in serum were significantly reduced due to mineral supplementation.

Conclusion: On the basis of the present experiment, it may be concluded that dietary supplementation of Zn-methionine and Cr-picolinate at the rates of 50 and 1.5 ppm, respectively had significantly improved their blood biochemical and hematological profile of desi goats.

Open Access Review Article

Precision Agriculture Practices Improves Soil Aggregation, Aggregate Associated Organic Carbon Fractions and Nutrient Dynamics in Cereal-based Systems of North-West India: An Overview

S. K. Gupta, R. K. Naresh, M. Sharath Chandra, Kancheti Mrunalini

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 40-53
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i930605

Precision farming uses proximal and remote sensor surveys to delineate and track in-field variations in soil and crop attributes, directing variable input rate control, such that in-season management can be sensitive, e.g. matching strategic application of nitrogen fertilizer to site-specific conditions. It has the ability to increase productivity in the processing and use of nutrients, ensuring that nutrients do not leach out or accumulate in excessive amounts in areas of the field, causing environmental problems. Tillage systems can change the dynamics of organic carbon in soil and microbial biomass in soil by adjusting aggregate shape and distribution of C within aggregates. The effects of tillage on soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil aggregate nutrient content can differ spatially and temporarily, and for different types of soil and cropping systems. The maximum (19.2 percent) and minimum (8.9 percent) proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained in surface soil, with fractions of 2 mm and 0.1-0.05 mm size respectively. At a depth of 0-7 cm soil MBC under plowing tillage was slightly higher than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had much higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at a depth of 7-14 cm. Nevertheless, under plowing tillage, TOC, DOC, and MBC were significantly higher than rotary tillage except for EOC, at 14-21 cm depth. A significant proportion of the total SOC was found to be captured under both surface (67.1 percent) and sub-surface layers (66.7 percent) by the macro-aggregates (2-0.25 mm), leaving rest in micro-aggregates and particles shaped as "silt + clay."

Fine POC, LFOC and microbial biomass can be useful early signs of alterations in organic topsoil C. Conversely, LFOC and DOC are important subsoil indicators. Under two tillage regimes, surface soil (0-15 cm) was fractionated into aggregate sizes (4.76 mm, 4.76-2.00 mm, 2.00-1.00 mm, 1.00-0.25 mm, 0.25-0.053 mm, 0.053 mm). Tillage substantially decreased the proportion of macro-aggregate fractions (2.00 mm) and thus improved aggregate stability by 35 per cent relative to RNT, indicating that tillage practices for this subtropical soil resulted in structural changes in soil. The highest SOC was in the fraction of 1.00-0.25 mm (35.7 and 30.4 mg / kg respectively for RNT and CT), while the lowest SOC was in fractions of micro-aggregate (0.025 mm) and silt + clay (0.053 mm) (19.5 and 15.7 mg / kg respectively for RNT and CT). Application of inorganic fertilizer may maintain soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations, whereas long-term application of manure alone or in combination with NPK (M and NPK + M) may significantly increase SOC content compared to unfertilized land. Application of manure substantially increased the proportion of large macro-aggregates (2000 μm) relative to the regulation, thus resulting in a corresponding decrease in the percentage of micro-aggregates (53-250 μm). The labile element of organic carbon has been suggested as a delicate predictor of soil organic matter changes. Improving the soil organic carbon pool also increases resilience and eco-efficiency of the agro ecosystems.