Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Agri-input Dealers in Providing Extension Services to the Farmers of Bihar (India) and Their Role Expectation from Government Institutions

Subodh Kumar, Ravi Atal, Sonam Roy, C. K. Panda, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530539

The present study was undertaken in Bhagalpur and Vaishali districts of Bihar (India) during 2017-19.The study focused on the farm extension services by agri-input dealers. The data was collected from 120 agri-input dealers through structured schedule. Findings of the study regarding after sale services information showed that the agri-input dealers do farmer’s field visits very often. The agri-input dealers facilitate demonstration of new varieties of seeds, pesticides and herbicides in farmers’ fields in collaboration with the company. They efficiently provide information related to new technologies. Governments’ role in farm extension services to the farmer is unsatisfactory. Dissemination of latest technological information and farm implements through agri-input dealers will reduce the cost of cultivation. Thus agri-input dealers play a significant role in providing information to the farmers. However, most agri-input dealers have in sufficient knowledge so they need training and exposure from government institutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Non-preference Mechanism and Biochemical Aspects of Resistance to BPH Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) on Resistant Rice Genotypes

M. Udayasree, P. Rajanikanth, N. R. G. Varma, M. Sreedhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530540

Aims: To conduct studies on non-preference mechanism and biochemical aspects of resistance to BPH on resistant rice genotype.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Poly-house, Department of Entomology, Rice Research Centre, Agriculture Research Institute (ARI), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India, between June 2017 and May 2018.

Methodology: The selected rice entries were selected including PTB33 (resistant check) and TN1 (susceptible check), this was replicated thrice. After 30 days, about hundred first instar nymphs were released in the pots. The number of nymphs settled on each entry was counted from randomly selected 10 hills at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after release. Number of probing marks made by a day old single female insect during 24 hours of its feeding was recorded on all the selected entries along with resistant and susceptible rice cultures. Estimation of total phenols, total sugars and proteins was done for selected rice genotypes.

Results: Among all the test cultures, KNM 2305, KNM 2307, JGL 24423 and Sabita recorded lowest number of nymphal settlement. Biochemical aspects of resistance like total phenols, total sugars and protein content in selected rice genotypes was done. The amount of total phenol was observed to be maximum in the leaf sheath of moderately resistant JGL 24423 (2.70 mg/g). The amount of total sugars was lowest in RNR 26111 (0.33 mg/ g), RNR 21571(0.86 mg/g) followed by JGL 24423 (1.40 mg/g) and highest in susceptible check TN-1 (2.97 mg/g). Least amount of protein was observed in JGL 24423 (0.76 mg/g) followed by IET 23993 (1.43 mg/g).

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Iodide and Fluoride in Brassica Oleraceae Var. Acephale with Ion Selective Electrodes

Şükrü Kalaycı

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530541

Black dandelion is widely grown in the Black Sea region, consumption as food is quite high. There are many trace elements important in terms of nutritional value. Goitre disease, which is common in this region, is caused by iodide deficiency. Fluoride is of great importance for the health of the teeth. Therefore, in our study, we wanted to measure the iodide and fluoride found in the most consumed dandelions in this region with iodide and fluoride selective electrodes.

The black cabbage samples were dried to constant weighing. It was made soluble by wet burning method. Iodide and fluoride ions were determined by dilution. Our electrode consisting of ion exchange, PVC and plasticizer has a sensitivity of 59 mV to 10-5 - 10-1 M iodide. Our electrode, which is composed of calcium fluoride and less soluble silver salts, shows a sensitivity of 28 mV to 10-5 - 10-1 M fluoride. Iodide and fluoride measurements can be made with our electrodes which are not sensitive to any other anion and cation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Fermentation Time for Foxtail Millet to Black Gram

P. Harichandana, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, M. Tejashree

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 21-26
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530542

Fermentation is a household procedure used to preserve and produce diversified products enriched with bioactive components. Different combinations of instant or ready to use dosa mixes were prepared using foxtail millet, rice and pulses like black gram and green gram dals by fermenting at 37°C for 6, 12 and 18 hours depending upon the pulse used. The results revealed that 12 hours of fermentation was necessary to give best dosa for all combinations similar to control. The combination of 70% foxtail millet, 20% black gram and 10% green gram gave better results when compared with control and the percentage increase in appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptance were 3.66%, 2.41%, 1.18% and 1.19% respectively with decrease in taste by 7.53% and no change in sourness for both samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of Macro and Micronutrients on Quality of Kinnow Mandarin

Reetika ., G. S. Rana, Komal ., Pooja ., M. K. Rana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530543

Aims: To determine the suitable combination of fertilizers for obtaining high quality fruits from Kinnow orchard.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications per treatment on Kinnow mandarin.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted on seven years old earmarked plants at Experimental Orchard and in Post-harvest Technology Laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India during the year 2016-17.

Methodology: The treatments comprising of 11 combinations of Urea, K2SO4, ZnSO4, FeSO4 and boric acid which were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Seven years old uniformly grown trees spaced at 6x6 m were selected for the present study and analyzed for yield and quality parameters such astotal soluble solids (%), acidity (%), ascorbic acid (mg/100 ml juice), juice content (%), TSS to acid ratio etc.

Results: In comparison to other fertilizers combinations, the maximum fruit yield per plant (97.83 kg/plant), juice content (49.47%), total soluble solids (9.80%), TSS to acid ratio (11.95) and ascorbic acid content (32.30mg/100ml) and minimum acidity (0.83%), rag (24.00%) and peel content (25.60%) and peel thickness (3.42 mm) were registered with foliar application of Urea 1.0% + K2SO4 1.0% + ZnSO4 0.5% + FeSO4 0.5% + H3BO3 0.2%, however, the foliar spray of Urea, K2SO4, ZnSO4, FeSO4 and boric acid had no effect on number of seeds per fruit in Kinnow mandarin. Thus it is clear from results that foliar nutrient application showed a stimulating influence on yield and quality parameters of Kinnow fruits.

Conclusion: From the research findings it can be concluded that the maximum potential of Kinnow mandarin plants in respect of fruit yield per plant, juice content, total soluble solids, TSS to acid ratio and ascorbic acid content was exploited to a maximum level and the acidity, rag and peel content and peel thickness to a minimum level with foliar application of Urea 1.0% + K2SO4 1.0% + ZnSO4 0.5% + FeSO4 0.5% + H3BO3 0.2%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transient Slug Flow Modelling of Subsea Riser Flowline System

Akin-Taylor Akinbowale Moses, Tobinson A. Briggs

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 34-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530544

A gas-water system slug velocity was modelled with slug flow like a train of slug units streaming through a steel flowline riser of roughness 0.025 was modelled, the flowline was 2700 m, and the riser was 100 m with a diameter of 0.254 m, with each slug unit having a liquid slug of 100 m and its gas bubble of 200 m. Presumptuously the liquid phase was not compressible; that is, no gas was entrapped in the liquid; there is also no liquid was trapped within the gas. Unsteady state flow was modelled as a mass-spring system with damping. Liquid phase represented the mass, whereas the gas represented the spring and damping as the force of friction that acts on the fluids in motion by the wall. A quasi-steady-state model having a slug velocity of 4 ms-1 was used to simplify the numerical correlations and algorithm and to relate with outcomes of the unsteady state model.  Outputs from both models show that pressure and rate vary sinusoidally at fixed points in the system. Both models are unconcealed that the velocity of every slug unit was most at the end of flowline to the separator. The result from the transient state model is complex for weighing up with other results from the literature. This procedure was as a product of over-simplification owing to some assumptions made. Also, simultaneous solutions to the differential equations were solved with hand. It is determined that quasi-steady-state outputs are more reliable than the unsteady state model for flowlines that are not situated on heaving surfaces because the model is less complicated and follows the predictable trend.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Selection of Thin-layer Drying Models for Paddy Dried in Static Flat-bed Batch Dryer

Lubna Sadaf Anchal, Abhinav Dubey, Prassana Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 55-65
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530546

A Static flat-bed batch dryer was developed for drying paddy from harvesting moisture content (20 – 22%) to 12% for safe storage. The dryer mainly consisted of Blower, Heating chamber, Plenum chamber and drying chamber. Twenty kg paddy was dried in the developed dryer at two different inlet air flow rate (1 m3/min. and 1.26 m3/min). The machine has a capacity of 20 kg and temperature of drying air was 60 and 55°C respectively. The moisture content was recorded at every 15 minutes interval and moisture ratio plots were generated. The experimental data were fit in 8 different thin-layer drying models and statistical parameters along with the model constants were obtained. It was found that the Wang and Singh model with the highest values for R2 and the least values of RMSE in selected drying conditions has the best fit. Henderson & Pabis and Newton models were also found suitable for describing the drying kinetics of paddy in the developed dryer. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Personal Values of Male Adolescents across Different Group with Respect to Their Family Income

Pavithra N., Abha Ahuja, Ritu Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 66-72
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530547

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess and compare the personal values among male adolescents in the families categorized under three group based on their family income as Low-Level Income Group (LLIG), Medium-Level Income Group (MLIG) and High-Level Income Group (HLIG).

Sample: The total sample consisted of 90 male adolescents in the age group of 17-19 years from the two selected colleges of GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (College of Home Science and College of Agriculture), Pantnagar.

Sample Design: From the selected colleges, the students were randomly drawn under three classified groups within the age group irrespective of their degree program.

Sample Selection: The list of male students enrolled in I and II year (of both Agriculture and Home Science within the age group of 17-19 years) made was collected from the office of four colleges and scrutinised under three groups based on their family income. The sample of 30 male adolescent students was randomly selected under each group constituting the total sample of 90 students. The Deans of both the colleges were personally contacted for seeking permission to have rapport and collect the information legally.

Tools: Self-structured general information questionnaire along with the Personal value questionnaire by Sherry and Verma [8] was administered to collect the data.

Results: The results revealed that the family income plays a crucial role in the personal values of adolescents. Except for social and religious values, the students from HLIG are having a significantly high level of personal values when compared to LLIG and MLIG. Hence, the higher the family income, the more focus on personal development and so the improved personal values of the younger generations.

Conclusion: We were able conclude that the family income plays a crucial role in the personal values of adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Viscoelastic Behavior of Ripe Deseeded Tamarind Subjected to Uniaxial Compressive Loading

M. Satankar, A. K. Patil, D. K. Verma, M. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 73-79
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530548

The creep behavior a rheological property of tamarind (Tamarandus indica L.) was studied to characterize the effect of compressive stress and time on volumetric reduction in ripe deseeded tamarind and creep curve developed using Kelvin model. Five different compressive stresses 222.95, 445.90, 668.86, 891.81 and 1114.77 N/m2 were used and deformation was observed at different time intervals  0+, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300  and 360 minutes. Creep curve were plotted to demonstrate the volumetric strain variance for various time intervals. The slope of curve is sharp at the beginning and then with the increase in duration of loading the slope of curve flattened down which shows that the rate of change of volumetric strain for a given sample at a given stress is large at the beginning and with increase in the time, the rate of change becomes less and less. The volumetric strain with respect to variation of loading is maximum in case of maximum stress that was 1114.77 N/m2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electrostatic Induction Spray-charging System (Embedded Electrode) for Knapsack Mist-blower

Dipak S. Khatawkar, D. Dhalin, P. Shaji James, Seena R. Subhagan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530549

The introduction of electrically charged sprays in agricultural application has become inevitable for better control on droplet transference with reduced drift with less spray chemical requirements.  The study was under taken to develop an electrostatic induction spray charging system as attachment to knapsack mist-blower. A high voltage generator was fabricated on the basis of Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier principle with input of 6 V DC battery. A self-atomizing hydraulic nozzle was developed to deliver the droplet spectrum required for effective electrostatic charge induction.  The prototype was evaluated for charge to mass ratio (mC. kg-1) at five electrode potentials (1 kV, 2 kV, 3 kV, 4 kV and 5 kV) at four electrode placement positions from atomization zone (0, 5, 10 and 15 mm). The charge mass ratio (CMR) value of spray cloud was measured using Faradays Cage at five positions from nozle tip (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 cm). The electrode voltage potential at 5 kV at its position 5 mm from the atomization zone shown the maximum CMR value of 1.088 In contrast with commercial system (ESS-MBP90) it was observed that except at 50 cm distance, the developed charging system, at 4 kV and 5 kV, surpassed commercial system in CMR from 100 cm to 250 cm distances. The droplet spectrum of the developed system was analysed and observed that the size of droplets were 100 to 200 µm.  The developed system found to be cost effective and significantly consistent over the commercial one.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Level of Competency of Rural Women for Professional Homemaking

Deekshita Dutta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-99
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530550

Aims of the Study: To study the background characteristics of the rural women and to determine their level of competency in various homemaking activities.

Study Design: Descriptive research design.

Place and Duration of Study: Place- Jorhat and Lakhimpur districts, Assam, India between January, 2018 to July, 2018.

Methodology: The rural women who were between the age of 18-45 years, members of at least one organization and below poverty line were selected randomly as respondents from the two sample districts. An interview schedule was prepared in order to collect data. The statistical tests and techniques used in the study for analysis of data were frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation (SD).

Results: The findings of the study reveal that majority of the respondents (40%) included in the study were of lower middle age group (27-35 years), of OBC caste (52%), hindu (90%) and married (96%), had nuclear families (62%) with small family sizes (51%). Majority of the respondents (21%) were of middle school level, followed by high school level (18%). Most of the respondents (64%) had farming as their occupation, followed by the daily wage earners (28%), with moderate annual income (31%) followed by high annual income (27%). A large majority (72%) of the respondents did not have any subsidiary income for their families. Large majority of the respondents (86%) had no experience of homemaking at others’ house. Also, the data found revealed that majority of the respondents (74%) were found to be somewhat able to carry out the different categories of homemaking activities, followed by 17 per cent that were not able and 9 per cent of the respondents were fully able to carry out different categories of homemaking activities as perceived by them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Iron and Phytohormones Application on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity, Chlorophyll and Grain Yield of Maize in Iron-deficient Soil

Kavita ., Vipin Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 100-109
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530551

The study investigated the effect of foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3) and cytokinin on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll content and grain yield of maize. Three factor randomized block design (RBD) was used to carry out the investigation in experimental farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar during 2012-13.

The field experiment was laid out in Fe-deficient soil (Fe < 0.5 ppm) with contrasting cultivars of maize. The factors were: i) Fe-efficient (Suwan) vs. inefficient cultivar (Shaktiman-3); ii) ‘control’ (no Fe-spray) vs. one soil application of Fe (20 kg ha-1) + two foliar spray of Fe as 0.5% ferrous sulphate at pre-flowering and 7-days after flowering; and iii) foliar application of phytohormones viz., GA3 at10 and 20 ppm; cytokinin at10 and 20 ppm and their combinations.

Application of Fe and phytohormones significantly increased enzymes activity like catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase. The highest activity was observed with combined application of cytokinin + GA3 at10 ppm. For example, the value of catalase increased from 196.0 to 217.0 µmol/min/g fresh protein, and peroxidase from 90.0 to 103.0 Units mg-1 fresh protein. There were significant increases in chlorophyll content of leaves, and grain yield with combined application of cytokinin + GA3 at 10 ppm. The maximum chlorophyll content was recorded in ‘Suwan’ (32.7 SPAD value) having treatment Fe application plus GA3 + cytokinin at10 ppm each. Grain yield increased significantly from 58.6 to 64.6 q ha-1 in ‘Suwan’ provided with Fe application and GA3+ cytokinin at10 ppm each compared to control (50.3 q ha-1). Results indicated that phytohormones were involved in regulation of nutrient availability and conversely mineral nutrients influenced hormone biosynthesis suggesting a relationship between hormones and nutritional homeostasis.

Conclusion: Exogenous application of phytohormones could alleviate Fe deficiency stresses in maize and application of Fe and phytohormones acted synergistically. Hence, application of GA3 + cytokinin at 10 ppm may be done to alleviate Fe stress and to improve grain yield of maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability in Some Physical Properties of Vertisols of Three Permanent Bench Mark Sites under Rice-wheat Cropping System in Jabalpur District, Madhya Pradesh, in India

Rohit Kumar Pandey, H. K. Rai, A. K. Upadhyay, A. K. Dwivedi, K. K. Agrawal, R. B. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 110-115
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530552

The study was carried out for vertical characterization of soils at three permanent benchmark sites (Udna, Khamaria and Magarmuha) of Jabalpur district for their physical properties under the Rice-Wheat cropping system. Variability in the proportion of primary soil particles (texture), bulk density, distribution of different sized soil aggregates and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates along the depths were studied as these influence the water and nutrients retention and release behaviour of soil. A total of 45 undisturbed soil samples were collected from selected sites at 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm depths and brought to the laboratory for their characterization and the data thus obtained were analysed in split-plot design taking sites as main plot and depth as sub-plot treatments. Results showed that variability in the sand, silt and clay contents, bulk density, fractions of different size soil aggregate (>5.0, 5.0-2.0, 2.0-1.0, 1.0-0.5,0.5-0.25,0.25-0.1  and <0.10 mm) and mean weight diameter of soil aggregates were significant across the sites and soil depths. However, the interaction effect of sites and soil depth on the above properties was found non-significant except for fraction of < 0.1 mm size aggregate. It has been analysed from the study that sand, silt and clay contents, bulk density, fractions of different size aggregate and mean weight diameter of soil aggregates vary significantly (ρ=0.05)  at spatially and vertically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Juice and Total Soluble Solids Concentration for the Preparation of Wild Jamun Syrup: Effect of Packaging Materials and Temperature Conditions on Nutritional Quality during Storage

Kanchan Bhatt, N. S. Thakur, Hamid ., Abhimanyu Thakur, Chetna Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 116-124
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530553

Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) is a wild fruit with major importance due to its antioxidant activity, anthocyanins content and exotic taste besides high medicinal value. This fruit is known for its antidiabetic properties as its seeds contain glucoside “Jamboline”. Due to its perishable nature and neutraceutical importance present studies have been conducted for the preparation of syrup. Various TSS (65 and 70 °B) and juice (25, 30, 35 and 40%) ratios have been attempted to optimize proper syrup combination. The two packaging materials i.e. glass and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles were used to pack jamun syrup prepared by the best selected combination and stored for 6 months under ambient (18-22°C) and refrigerated temperature conditions (4–7°C). Based on organoleptic and some physico-chemical characteristics, syrup prepared with 35% jamun juice, 65°B TSS and 1.50% acid was considered best among 8 different treatment combinations of juice and TSS. Jamun syrup could be stored safely for a duration of six months under both the ambient and refrigerated conditions without much difference in various quality parameters. Nevertheless, both PET and glass bottles have been considered appropriate as packaging material, with reasonably fewer changes taking place in glass bottles kept in refrigerated conditions.

Open Access Review Article

Electroencephalography for Enhanced Understanding of Consumer Preference

B. Neeharika, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-54
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i530545

Conventional measurements used to study consumer response to food products may be subject to cognitive bias, as measurement data was consumer’s reported thoughts or through questionnaires. Therefore, for an unbiased approach electroencephalography (EEG), an electrophysiological method can provide implicit and extensive data. EEG uses electrical activity of brain to record and explain perceptive, attentive as well as emotional processes of consumer towards foods. The asymmetry of EEG signal between right and left hemispheres of anterior (frontal lobe) or posterior (parietal and occipital lobe) parts of brain can be used to determine acceptability of stimuli in a stimulated person. The accurate measurement through EEG enables marketers to compare consumer response to different marketing stimuli and impact moments associated with particular product or brand for better positioning of product in market.