Open Access Short Research Article

Acute Oral Toxicity of a Herbal Gut Function Modulator

Sunil Hajare, Ranjit Suresh Ingole, Sunidhi ., Ravikanth Kotagiri, Bhaskar Ganguly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-61
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430530

The current study was designed to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potential of AV/AGP/30 (M/s Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, India) according to OECD 423 guidelines. AV/AGP/30 is a polyherbal gut function modulator in swine and poultry. Nine female Swiss albino mice were used for the study. Each animal served as its own control. Following the oral administration of the test substance, the animals were observed for manifestation of toxic effects and deaths. No toxic effects or mortalities were observed. The estimation of biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP and creatinine) and histopathological studies also did not reveal any significant findings. Hence, AV/AGP/30 was found to be safe for use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Inoculation of Microbial Consortia on Soil Physicochemical and Nutrient Status

Y. Kavya, N. Trimurtulu, A. Vijaya Gopal, P. Madhu Vani, N. V. V. S. D. Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430524

The experiment was conducted in kharif, 2018 at ARS, Amaravathi, Guntur district, to find the efficiency of carrier based microbial consortia. In sorghum carrier based microbial consortia was applied along with different doses of chemical fertilizers. Microbial consortium-1 (Azospirillium, P-solubilizer, K-releaser, Zn-solubilizer and PGPR isolate), Microbial consortium-2 (Azotobacter, Azospirillium, P-solubilizer, K-releaser, Zn-solubilizer and PGPR isolate) were used in the study. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium were recorded during different intervals of crop growth. The treatments with microbial consortia and 75% Recommended Dose of Fertilizers (RDF) showed increased available nutrients content. Soil pH was neutralized in the microbial consortia added treatments, while in treatments with RDF alone the pH was more. There was a significant increase in organic carbon content in treatments with microbial consortia and 75% RDF. Highest available nutrients and organic carbon content was observed in T10 (75% RDF+ Microbial consortium-2). The organic carbon content improved gradually during the crop period and highest was at harvesting stage. All the soil physicochemical properties were improved by the microbial consortia with decreased doses of chemical fertilizers compared to the treatments added with chemical fertilizers alone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Climate Change Adaptation Intention in North Eastern Hill Region of India

Mayanglambam Victoria Devi, R. J. Singh, L. Devarani, L. Hemochandra, Ram Singh, Binodini Sethi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430525

Climate change is real. Production and productivity are affected by the variability in climate. Adaptation measures to climate change are needed to tackle by the farmers. To know the adaptation intention measures practices by the vulnerable farmers of North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India, the study was conducted in three states of NEHR viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Meghalaya. The most vulnerable district to climate change from each selected states were purposively selected. With α at 0.05% level of significant and effect size of 0.40, a total of 257 farmers were selected by proportionate random sampling without replacement. The respondent farmers have medium ‘Mass media exposure’, low ‘Extension contact, medium ‘Exposure to long term stress or shocks and low ‘Access to climate change mitigation & adaptation services. The majority farmers practiced Crop and variety diversification and ‘Adjusting planting calendar’ as ‘Climate change adaptation intention’. ‘Mass media exposure’ and ‘Extension contact’ were found significant with the ‘Climate change adaptation intension’ of farmers. From the Multinomial Logistic Regression model, there exist a relationship between the independent variables of the study and the dependent variable, ‘Climate Change adaptation intention’ of farmers in Agriculture and allied ventures. The study suggested improvement of accessibility and usefulness of local services like agricultural extension deemed a necessity for successful adaptation strategies in the North Eastern Hill Region of India.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Flowering and in-vivo Sex Expression of Micropropagated Parthenocarpic Gynoecious Cucumber

Ajay Bhardwaj, T. Pradeepkumar, C. Varun Roch

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430526

A micropropagation protocol for parthenocarpic gynoecious cucumber reduces the burden of producing the seeds for each generation and their maintenance in-vivo. Thus an experiment was conducted in order to regenerate the plants in-vitro to check their performance after micropropagation. The micropropagation resulted in maximum shoot initiation (100%) from seedling excised cotyledonary explants with half strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA and 2 mg/l BAP along with half strength MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l IAA for rooting and from stem nodal explants with Full MS + 1.5 mg/l IAA + 2 mg/l BAP media whereas half strength MS media without any hormones resulted in rooting and in both cases there were in-vitro flowers and change in their sex expression while grown in in-vivo conditions. On an average 61.11 and 48.15 percent survival was recorded from the plants regenerated through cotyledonary explants and stem nodal explants respectively. Out of five survived plants from regenerated parthenocarpic genotype CS 131 three showed monoecious sex expression and two exhibited gynoecious (parthenocarpic) sex expression. Mixed response of sex expression was evident in the regenerated parthenocarpic and gynoecious genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption Potentials of Alfisol on Glyphosate and Cadmium Contaminants

F. B. Okanlawon, O. O. Awotoye, P. O. Ogunbamowo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430527

Aims: This study aimed at demonstrating the adsorption capacity as well as the removal of glyphosate and cadmium unto Alfisols.

Place and Duration of Study: Research was carried out in Analytical Laboratory of Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The soil sample was collected from an undisturbed forest land, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methodology: The soil sample was air dried for 72 hours under ambient temperature and allowed to pass through 2 mm sieve before use. All solutions and soil dispersions were prepared using de-ionised water. The pH, organic carbon, particle size, exchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity, available phosphorus and soil total nitrogen were all analysed for in the soil sample following the standard procedures likewise the cadmium and glyphosate adsorption/adsorbent studied.

Results: The pH of the soil is slightly acidic with high total organic carbon, while the cation exchange capacity is on the lower side. The textural class of the soil greatly influences its water retention capacity, thus the soil under study is predominantly sandy. A decrease in the equilibrium adsorption capacity was observed when the adsorbent dose was increased from 0.2 – 0.8 g however, with a sharp increase at a dose of 1 g.

An increase in the percentage cadmium removal was observed with increase in pH from 48.80% to a maximum of 91.10% at neutral pH. The result also indicates that increasing the initial concentration of the cadmium ions and glyphosate lead to an increase in the uptake capacity of the soil for both adsorbate. At higher ionic strength of 0.1 M, the peak removal was obtained at initial concentration of 10 ppm which eventually attains equilibrium at other concentration level.

Conclusion: Alfisol can therefore concluded to be an adsorbent provided some conditions like a low cadmium concentration, a neutral pH and a higher adsorbent dosage are adhere too. While glyphosate removal, a pH of 5 and higher ionic strength of KNO3. is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Diversity for Yield and Its Component Traits in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

Thota Gopi Krishna, Anil Kumar, Fariha Adan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430528

The current experiment was held in Summer season, 2018 at rice upland 1, near rice bore well of Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India. The experiment was done by 36 Mungbean genotypes at rice upland 1, near rice bore well of Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur in 2018. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) disclosed highly significant differences for all the traits studied in the experiment among all the genotypes. The genetic diversity was estimated by D2 analysis. The 36 genotypes were grouped into 11 distinct clusters with cluster 4 to cluster 11 consisting of one genotype each. The maximum inter-cluster distance was found between cluster 11 and cluster 3 where maximum intracluster distance was found within cluster 2. The characters like Harvest index, the number of clusters per plant, seed yield per plant and days to maturity contribute maximum towards genetic divergence. The hybridization between the clusters 11 & 3 could give maximum heterosis and better desirable segregants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mitigation of Interference in Impressed Current Cathodic Protection

Adeoye I. Okunoye, Tobinson A. Briggs

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 42-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430529

This paper considers the strategies for the mitigation of the interference of Stray Current (SC) on Impressed Current Cathodic Protection of the American Petroleum Institute specification API 5L grade B pipeline carrying liquefied gas. SC shifts cathodic protection from its designated negative value, and hence expose the pipeline to corrosion. A model for SC was developed and then applied in MATLAB. From the given conditions of operation, an SC of 0.74 mA was obtained, with parametric simulation indicating a rise in SC as anode current output rises. On the other hand, the consequence of the distance of different pipeline from the ground level shows an inverse relationship, which is attributed to the resistance offered by the ground. In order to mitigate the influence of SC interference, two methods have been proposed in this study, the first being anode current reduction or source removal and the second option is increasing distance from the ground bed. To effectively mitigate against the stray current, the pipeline should be sufficiently buried over a distance of 5 m away from the ground bed, while the anode current should be operated as low as 3.5 mA, or better still the interfering source should be removed on the ground that the interfering source was installed after the installation of the protected pipeline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spinoffs in Mechano - Chemical Approach of Weed Management Practices in Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorious)

Ananya Chakraborty, Sritama Biswas, Rajarshi Banerjee, Srijani Maji, Pintoo Bandopadhyay

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 62-72
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430531

One of the most important pre-kharif crop in eastern plains is jute. Weed can deplete 70-80% of the crop yield. An experiment was conducted at Mondouri Research Farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, India, during summer season of 2018 and 2019. The design of experiment was Randomized block design with 3 replications and 7 treatments with variety JRO-524 (Navin) for weed control comprised –T1: Pretilachlor 50 EC at 900 ml/ha with irrigation after 48 hrs of sowing + one hand weeding at 15 days after sowing, T2: Quizalofop ethyl 10 EC at 38 g/ha at 15 days after sowing + one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing, T3: Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC at 60 g/ha + Ethoxysulfuron 10 EC at 100 g/ha at 15 days after sowing, T4: Propaquizafop 10 EC at 90 g/ha at 15 days after sowing+ one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing, T5: Nail weeder at 7 days after sowing + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC at 60 g/ha at 30 days after sowing, T6: Un-weeded check and T7: Two hand weeding at 15 and 30 days after sowing. Sowing was done on 28th April 2018 and 30th April in 2019. Predominant monocot weeds were Digiteria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colona, Elusine indica, Cyperus rotundus and dicot weeds were–Digera arvense, Cleome viscose and Physalis minima. Among the treatments, twice hand weeding gave the highest fibre yield alongwith maximum Weed control efficiency, Weed control index, Crop resistance index, Herbicide efficiency index followed by nail weeder induced weed management at 7 days after sowing coupled with herbicide spray of Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC at 60 g/ha at 30 days after sowing which resulted in maximum net return (Rs. 110222/- per ha) with a corresponding highest benefit cost ratio (2.40) and enriched soil microbes population. Considering bio-efficacy of applied treatment, economics and microbial study, nail weeder along with post emergence herbicide application at 30 days after sowing can be advocated for higher revenue as well as better soil health replenishment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Entrepreneurial Behaviour and the Current Entrepreneurial Status of the Women Entrepreneurs of Self Help Groups in Andhra Pradesh

G. K. Siddeswari, P. V. Sathya Gopal, V. Sailaja, B. Ravindra Reddy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 73-77
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430532

SHG is a novel and innovative organizational setup in India for women upliftment and welfare. All women in India are given a chance to join any one of the SHGs for training and development to be prospective entrepreneurs and skilled workers. The current entrepreneurial status of the women is crucially dependent on economic empowerment; these SHGs could generate income and employment to build their empowerment through entrepreneurship. So it is necessary to know the association between the entrepreneurial behaviour and current entrepreneurial status of women entrepreneurs. The present investigation was carried out in three districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Chittoor (from Rayalaseema region), East Godavari (from Coastal region) and Srikakulam (from North Coastal region) during 2016-18. The current entrepreneurial status viz., net income from the enterprise, employment generation, monthly saving, monthly expenditure, social recognition and skill in paraprofessional work were significantly associated with the entrepreneurial behaviour of women entrepreneurs of self-help groups. Whereas, debt status was not significantly associated with the entrepreneurial behaviour of women entrepreneurs. Hence, there is every need to focus more on enhancing the entrepreneurial behaviour of the women entrepreneurs of SHGs through different capacity building activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Functional Characterization of Xanthomonas oryzae Pv. oryzae Isolates

Diksha Kumari, Bishun Deo Parasad, Sangita Sahni, Abhijeet Ghatak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 78-84
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430533

Rice is a model crop for studying host - pathogen interaction with one of the most devastating pathogens viz. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). In the present investigation, an attempt was made to isolate a virulent strain of Xathomonas oryzae from infected rice leaves and production of antioxidant enzymes, which are widely used in studying host - pathogen interactions. Among five isolates of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, SboBLB3 showed greater virulence as it showed susceptibility symptoms in infected rice leaves. The NCBI accession number of SboBLB3 was MH986180, which was obtained by sequencing 16s rDNA. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes after SboBLB3 further confirms its virulence. Induction of antioxidant enzymes showed that SboBLB3 is a virulent strain of X. oryzae and can be used in host - pathogen interaction at molecular level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Students’ Motivation towards Science Learning (SMTSL) - An Intervention with Video and Quizzes

B. Spandana, R. Neela Rani, S. Suchiritha Devi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 85-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430534

Science, as a subject is universal and knows no boundaries. The claims of Science for inclusion in the school curriculum came to be recognized after years of active and persistent efforts. Many students find science extremely inspiring and interesting, however when amply motivated. Pre-test and post-test experimental research design, was adopted for the study. A sample of 219, 8th class students (169 female, 50 male students) from six Ashram high schools of Warangal district was selected. Students' Motivation Towards Science Learning (SMTSL) (Tuan et al. [1]) scale was adopted in this study. The sum of SMTSL hiked to 87.38% from 73.28% in post-test. This increase was attributed to the intervention through tutoring students with video lessons and evaluating with quizzes before and after screening video lessons. The variable Performance goal, contributed to the maximum (33.62%). A shift in students from moderately motivated category to highly motivated category was also found in post intervention situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Gap of Agri-input Dealers in Farm Production

Subodh Kumar, Sonam Roy, Ravi Atal, C. K. Panda, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430535

Agri-input dealers are those who sell farm inputs (fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, etc.) to the farmers and also provide extension services to the farmers. Agri-input dealers are playing a most important role in farm productivity. Most of the Indian farmers are small and marginal farmers having small land holdings and limited resource availability. Hence it is very essential that knowledge related to high quality seeds, fertilizers and chemicals should be provided in raising productivity and income of the farmers by Agri-input dealers. The present study was conducted in Bhagalpur and Vaishali district of Bihar (India) during 2017-19. Data was collected from 120 Agri-input dealers through structured schedule. It was reported that most of the respondents were having secondary level of education and was having experience of 10 to 22 years as an Agri-input dealers. Majority (79.17 per cent) of the Agri-input dealers had received training on insect-pest control measure of different crops. 45.83 per cent of the respondents were having a turn over between 20 to 50 lakhs per annum. It was reported that most of the Agri-input dealers were having less knowledge about the pesticides recommendations, doses, banned pesticides and seed recommendations of various vegetables and cereals. As per the revealed data there is a need of various training programme to be conducted by government institutions and private company to increase the knowledge of the Agri-input dealers. Sensitization of Agri-input dealer is needed regarding health and hygiene.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Various Sources of Zinc and Iron on Dry Matter Yield, Nutrient Content and Nutrient Uptake of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana l.)

E. Ajay Kumar, K. Surekha, K. Bhanu Rekha, S. Harish Kumar Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-112
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430536

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2018 at College Farm, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU to evaluate the effect of various sources of zinc and iron on dry matter yield, nutrient content and nutrient uptake of finger millet. This experiment was conducted with randomized block design with 14 treatments and replicated thrice.The results revealed that application of different Zinc and iron sources at different rates significantly influenced the dry matter yield, nutrient content and nutrient uptake of finger millet. The highest dry matter production was reported with T10 - application of  RDF (60:40:30 kg N,P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1)+ foliar application of FeSO4 @ 0.5% twice at 30 and 60 DAS at all the stages followed by T14- (RDF+ foliar application of Fe-humate @ 0.25% twice at 30 and 60 DAS). Nutrient content decreased and Nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, iron and zinc) by the crop steadily increased with advancement in age of the crop upto harvest. The treatment receiving (T10) RDF+ foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5% twice at 30 and 60 DAS recorded the highest nutrient content and (N, P, K & Fe) uptake by crop at 30DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest followed by (T14) RDF+ foliar application of Fe-humate @ 0.25% twice at 30 and 60 DAS. While, the Zinc content and uptake by crop at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest was highest with the treatment receiving (T8) -RDF + Zn-Humate foliar spray @ 0.25% twice at 30 and 60 days after sowing and was followed by treatment T7-RDF + Zn-Humate soil application @ 42 Kg ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Bioactive Compounds in Diverse Eggplant Genotypes

Vishwanath Bidaramali, Shirin Akhtar, Anupam Das

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 113-121
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430537

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important solanaceous crop of tropics and sub-tropics, having high production potential, and also a rich source of nutrients, particularly, carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre and vitamins like thiamin, niacin, pantothenic acid and folic acid, minerals like calcium, iron, potash, zinc, copper and manganese as well as bioactive compounds. However, eggplant is available in diverse shape and colour and consumer preference varies and the nutrient composition is different. In this investigation, we worked out the proximate nutrient compounds (on dry weight basis) and the bioactive compounds (on a fresh weight basis) in twenty diverse eggplant genotypes varying in colour and shape.  Moisture content in the fruits ranged from 71.54 to 91.36%, while carbohydrate content from 2.80 to 6.82%, crude protein 16.98 to 31.85%, nitrogen 2.49 to 4.35%, phosphorous 0.29 to 0.51%, potassium 1.65 to 4.54%, calcium 0.83 to 0.35%, iron 106.21 to 235.34 mg/kg, manganese 89.01 to 245.54 mg/kg, copper 18.73 to 98.56 mg/kg and zinc 60.73 to 75.77 mg/kg, each on dry weight basis. Biochemical parameters like total soluble solids (TSS) ranged from 1.27 to 3.94 °Brix, total sugar content 2.26 to 4.65%, ascorbic acid 0.66 to 3.53 mg/100 g, total anthocyanin content 0.35 to 18.85 mg/100 g FW, total chlorophyll 0.11 to 2.70 mg/100 g FW, total phenol 1.03 to 15.65 mg catechol equivalent/100 g FW, total antioxidant 1.16 to 2.26 µmol Trolox equivalent/g FW and radical scavenging activity 50.52 to 96.48%. Proximate nutrients were highest in Pusa Uttam, Pant Rituraj and BRBL-01, quality parameters in BRBL-07 and 71-19, while bioactive compounds were highest in Pant Rituraj, Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Cluster and BRBL-01. These genotypes may be utilized in future breeding programmes for developing effective and nutritive cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Low Productivity of Fruits, Its Implications and Combating Strategies in Cold Arid Eco-region of Ladakh (J&K)

Munib Ur Rehman, Barkat Hussain, Mohd Maqbool Mir, Tashi Angmo, Ejaz Parray, Mohd Zubair

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 122-128
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i430538

The present study was undertaken with a vision to study the status of commercially important fruit; Apricot and Apple in Ladakh region of J&K state, India. The study is based on the secondary data. The main source of data collection includes; Economic survey, statistical digest, government official records, books, magazines, articles and journals. The data has been analyzed, arranged and interpreted through tabulation and simple percentage method. It was observed that with the increasing demand for these fruits, the area under cultivation in the region has increased, with the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 1.49% and 5.1% for apricot and apple respectively during the decade (2008 – 2017). But the production remained almost static in case of apple, whereas, it decreased with a compounded rate of 2.77% in apricot. The productivity, which determines the economic feasibility of the crop as profitable enterprise, declined in both crops with a CAGR of -4.91% in apricot and -2.9% in apple, this may be attributed mostly to insect pest infestations, especially Codling moth in apple, and aphid and Brown tail moth in apricot. Low density planting systems with traditional varieties, and poor management of orchards has added to the woes. Thus from the study, it can be interpreted that the enterprise need to be restored by switching to the new innovative technologies adapted worldwide like High density planting. This in addition to the high yields may also prove beneficial in losses due to pest damage by reducing the overwintering sites (bark crevices).