Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of the Efficiency of Rice Husk Biochar and Conventional Water Treatment Method to Remove Chlorpyrifos from Pesticide Polluted Water

Aderonke A. Okoya, Oyeyemi S. Adegbaju, Oyindamola E. Akinola, Abimbola B. Akinyele, Omotayo S. Amuda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230491

Nigeria is currently the largest rice producing country in Africa. High volumes of waste such as rice husk are inevitable with high production. Also pesticides used to rid of pests, diseases and improve crop yield find their ways into available surface water that serves domestic purpose. This study therefore determined the efficiency of conventional water treatment procedure for pesticide/pesticide residue removal and evaluated the performance of rice husk-based biochar as adsorbent to remove chlorpyrifos from domestic water supply with a view to manage  solid waste (rice husk) for treating pesticide polluted water. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to assess the adsorption efficiency of rice husk biochar (RHB) for chlorpyrifos pesticide removal from surface water. Adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, contact time and dosage were optimized during simulation experiment. RHB and commercial activated carbon (CAC) were used for the removal of chlorpyrifos from surface water sample using the optimum condition from the simulation experiment after which the concentrations were determined using Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry detector. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were investigated. RHB gave percentage moisture (5.27±0.94), carbon yield (39.44±0.47), ash (41.96±0.96), fixed carbon (35.24±0.55), volatile matter (35.67±1.01 mg/g), Iodine number (85.57±0.81), surface area (97.20 m2/g), pH (7.90±0.14) and Electrical conductivity (298.8±1.14). Of the elements present in the char, Carbon has the highest percentage of 59.14%. Best adsorption conditions for RHB in this study were 2.8 mg/L initial concentration; 0.8 g of adsorbent dosage; pH of 5 and contact time of 30 min. The data fitted Freundlich than Langmuir model (R2 0.996 and 0.8315 respectively). Percentage removal of chlorpyrifos for CAC and RHB was 93.7±3.96 and 94.5±5.23 respectively for the surface water sample. Results concluded that RHB was efficient for removal of chlorpyrifos present in water and could be used as alternative for CAC in water treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct and Residual Effect of Boron Application on Yield and Nutrients Content under Rice–wheat Cropping System

Ankesh Chanchal, Satish Kumar Singh, Abhik Patra, Surendra Singh Jatav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230492

Aims: To investigate the direct and residual effect of boron application on yield and nutrient content under rice-wheat cropping system in middle Gangatic alluvial plan.

Study Design: Completely random design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Net-house of the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India during 2017-18.

Methodology: The pot experiment was comprised with ten treatments among them eight for boron (ranges from 0.5 to 4.0 mg B kg-1) along with control and recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). Rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety ARIZE 6444 was used as test crop and after harvesting of rice crop, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety HUW 468 was grown in the same pot without fresh application B. The yield data was recorded after harvesting of rice and wheat. The nutrient content in grain and straw and post-harvest soil properties were analyzed using standard protocol.

Results: The maximum grain yield in rice (44.07 g pot-1) was recorded in T5 (RDF + 1.5 kg B ha-1), whereas in wheat (19.70 g pot-1) was observed in T8 (RDF + 3 kg B ha-1). The maximum straw yield in rice (24.35 g pot-1) was recorded in T5 (RDF+ 1.5 kg B ka-1), whereas in wheat (48.65 g pot-1) was in T8 (RDF + 3 kg B ha-1). Application of RDF along with 1.5 kg B ha-1 was recorded the maximum (48.99%) harvest index in rice, whereas its (B) residual effect in wheat crop was maximum in RDF + 2 kg B ha-1. Application of B @ 1.5 kg B ha-1 significantly enhanced the Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn content in rice grain, whereas residual effect of 3 kg ha-1 B application has significantly improved the Fe, Cu and Mn content in wheat grain.

Conclusion: It was found that application of B did not increased grain yield of rice and wheat significantly over RDF. A significant residual effect of B application in rice was noticed even after the harvest of wheat crop particularly at highest doses of B application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Herbicides against Broad-spectrum Weed Floras and Their Effect on Non-target Soil Micro-organisms and Productivity in Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.)

Rajib Kundu, Mousumi Mondal, Sourav Garai, Ratneswar Poddar, Sibajee Banerjee

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230493

Weeds pose a major challenge at the initial stages of sugarcane and when uncontrolled cause high yield losses. This study was undertaken to define a better and cost-effective weed management strategy. Field experiment was carried out at District Seed Farm (C Unit) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India (22°97'N latitude and 88°43'E longitude with the 9.75 meters above the mean sea level) under natural weed infestations in sugarcane in 2017–2018 and 2018-19. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides on weed floras, non-target soil organisms and productivity of sugarcane (cv. CoS 98231). The pattern of nutrient uptake by weed species was also itemized. The treatments were comprised of four doses of Atrazine 50% WP (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kg a.i. ha-1), Trifloxysulfuron-Na (10% OD) 30 g a.i. ha-1 and weedy check within a randomized complete block design, replicated four times. The results revealed that among the tested herbicides, the utmost dose of Atrazine was most efficient against grassy as well as broadleaf weeds. The higher weed control efficiency (> 60%) and cane yield (85.41 t ha-1) were recorded from treatment received Atrazine 4000 g a.i. ha-1 followed by its lower doses. Owing to an efficient controller of diversified weeds same herbicide treated plot removed the least amount essential primary nutrients irrespective of all weed species. Herbicides did not show any phytotoxicity symptoms on sugarcane throughout the observation period. Based on overall performance, the Atrazine 50% WP (4000 g a.i. ha-1) may be considered as the best substitute for others post-emergent herbicide against the complex weed floras in sugarcane.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation on Effect of Stroke Length, Cutter Bar Speed, Moisture Content of Crop and Stem Diameter on Cutting Force for Development of Bengal Gram Harvester

S. Ramachandran, D. Asokan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230494

Aims: The effects of crop and machine parameters on cutting force for Bengal gram crop were investigated.

Study Design: Experiments were carried out at two levels by using the standard protocol.

Place: The study was carried out in the farm machinery work shop of Agricultural Engineering College & Research Institute, Kumulur, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: A double knife cutter bar test rig was developed for measuring the cutting force required for harvesting of Bengal gram crop. Experiments were carried out on JG 11 variety of Bengal gram crop at two levels of stroke length of the double knife cutter bar, four levels of cutter bar speeds, three levels of stem diameter and three ranges of moisture content (at harvesting stage, at 5 days before and after harvesting).

Results: The minimum cutting force of 16.14 N was observed at 1.0 ms-1 for cutting 3 to 4.5 mm diameter with 14.08 to 15.1 per cent moisture content of stem. The maximum value of cutting force of 39.83 N was observed at 0.25 m s-1 for cutting more than 6 mm diameter with 20.2 to 20.45 per cent moisture content of stem. The double knife cutter bar with a stroke length of 76.2 mm registered 4.3 to 11.12 percent reduction in cutting force as compared to 50 mm stroke length for the all selected levels of parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profiling Secondary Metabolites of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Endophytic Fungi Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae PAK-7 and Lasiodiplodia theobromae TN-R-3 and Their Antimicrobial Activities

M. Chaithra, S. Vanitha, A. Ramanathan, V. Jegadeeshwari, V. Rajesh, V. Hegde, E. Apshara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-56
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230496

Aims: To determine the chemical composition of secondary metabolite of cocoa endophytic fungi L. pseudotheobromae PAK-7, L. theobromae TN-R-3 and their anti-oomycete activities.

Statistical Design: Multivariate analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Pathology, TNAU, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu from April 2018 to December 2019.

Methodology: Lipophilic extracellular secondary metabolites were extracted using ethyl acetate as a solvent and their chemical composition was detected by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified by NIST library and Pub Chem databases.

Results: Metabolic profiling of cocoa endophytic fungi  L. pseudotheobromae PAK-7  and  L. theobromae TN-R-3  showed the presence of eleven peaks representing nine compounds. The most abundant compound observed were Acetic acid, 3-methyl-6-oxo-9oxabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-yl ester, 2H-Pyran-2-one, tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-pentyl-, Melezitose, Ethyl à-d-glucopyranoside  collectively representing 58.01% area. In comparison to L. pseudotheobromae PAK-7 GC-MS analysis of L. theobromae TN-R-3 exhibited the presence of 29 peaks. The most abundant compounds were dl-Mevalonic acid lactone, Methyl 6-O-[1-methylpropyl]-á-d-galactopyranoside, 2H-Pyran-2-one, tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-pentyl-, Melezitose, Ethyl à-d-glucopyranoside, 1,6-Anhydro-á-d-talopyranose collectively representing 60.47% of the total area.

Conclusion: Chemical compositions and anti-oomycete activities of crude secondary metabolites of L. pseudotheobromae PAK-7, L. theobromae TN-R-3 differed entirely depending on the property and abundance of bioactive metabolites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Genetic Diversity on Yield and Yield Attributing Components in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Under Normal and Late Sown Conditions

Fariha Adan, Anil Kumar, Anand Kumar, Chandan Kishore, Ravi Ranjan Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 57-62
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230498

The present investigation was carried out on thirty-six lentil genotypes at the farm of Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur in 2018-19. The genetic divergences were examined using Mahalanobis D2 statistics for two dates of sowing i.e normal sown and late sown condition. The presence of variation among genotypes was revealed by ANOVA for considerable traits which come out as significant for all traits under study except several primary branches per plant, the number of pods per cluster under both normal and late sown condition and the number of seeds per pod in late sown condition. The study on genotypic variability, correlation and path analysis was done to know the direct and indirect relationship on seed yield and yield components for enhancement of economic yield. The total genotypes were grouped into 7 clusters under a timely sown condition such as. Cluster I being the largest comprising 10 genotypes, followed by cluster II with 8 genotypes, cluster III with 7 genotypes, cluster IV had 6 genotypes. Cluster V with 3 genotypes and cluster VI and cluster VII was monogenic. Coming to late sown condition, five clusters were formed displaying cluster II with a maximum number of genotypes (18 genotypes) followed by cluster I (11genotypes), cluster III (5 genotypes) and lastly, cluster IV and V were monogenic. 100 seed weight contributed maximum towards genetic divergence followed by grain yield per plant and number of pods per plant in timely sown and 100 seed weight chased by the number of pods per plant and number of secondary branches per plant under a late sown environment which can be integrated into the enhancement of productivity of lentil. Owing to the results of inter-cluster distance and mean performance of clusters for different traits, the genotypes such as FLIP 2010-86L and X2011S-172-1 under normal sown and likewise, Pusa Vaibhav and IPL-406 under late sown environment are expected to trigger the heterotic combination and obtain the desirable segregants for yield and its determinants. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Prioritization of Constraints of Vegetable Marketing Scenario of South 24 Parganas District of West Bengal

Prasenjit Kundu, Nayan Kishor Adhikary, Abhijit Ghosal, Manidipta Saha, Tapan Mandal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 63-74
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230499

Vegetable marketing has been affected by several production and marketing constraints, among these losses from pests, lack of quality seeds and irrigation facilities and high variation in yields. The post harvest losses are also high due to perishable nature of the product. Most of the vegetables produced in India are sold afresh. The processing structure is inadequate and value addition is low. Due to some inherent problem of poverty and constraints the small vegetable farmers have not been able to derive the same benefit of modern vegetable technologies as compared to bigger farmers. The high volume and perishability of vegetables causes several problems in their marketing. Other problems which already exist in the market are lack of marketing intelligence, price risk, delayed sale and payment, lack of processing and high cost of packaging. The different factors like literacy, fertilizer, institutional credits to agriculture, road density are observed to have positively influencing the marketing of vegetables of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Groundnut Germplasm for Foliar Fungal Diseases and Population Structure Analysis Using Gene Based SSR Markers

Punam Chand Bhawar, Sushma Tiwari, M. K. Tripathi, R. S. Tomar, R. S. Sikarwar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 75-84
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230500

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an excellent cash crop having multipurpose uses of each plant part i.e., direct consumption, cooking oil and a rich source of protein feed for animals. Rust and late leaf spot (LLS) are two major foliar fungal diseases of groundnut and can cause yield loss up to 70%. Use of fungicide is costly approach and it is not environment-friendly also, therefore breeding new cultivars with genetic resistance is sustainable, environment-friendly and cost effective approach. Screening and identification of resistant cultivar is one of the primary objective for groundnut improvement. Use of molecular markers, particularly gene based, are user friendly and cost effective approach to identify groundnut resistant genotypes. The present investigation aimed to screen groundnut germplasm using allele specific primers for foliar fungal diseases (LLS and rust). The study consisted 30 uncharacterized germplasm lines and 4 check varieties of Groundnut. A set of 4 gene based SSR markers were selected for screening of groundnut germplasms for foliar fungal diseases i.e., LLS and rust. A total of 14 alleles were identified with an average of 3.5 alleles per locus for polymorphic SSR markers. The gene diversity and Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values varied between 0.3972-0.5778 with an average of 0.47 respectively. The genetic relationships among Groundnut genotypes are presented in SSR based UPGMA tree. Principle Co-ordinate analysis (PCA) based on origin formed 4 major population groups. The population structure of the 34 Groundnut genotypes was estimated using STRUCTURE v2.3.3 software based on SSR markers. The optimum K value was determined by using Structure Harvester, where the highest peak was observed at delta K = 2. The number of sub populations (K) was identified based on maximum likelihood and delta K (dK) values, with two core and pure groups and an admixture group. Current study identified four germplasms i.e., AH8054, CS21181, CS708, Akola White to be used as foliar disease resistant cultivar for groundnut hybridization and improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Probiotics as a Biocontrol Agent in Management of Post Harvest Diseases of Mango

K. Greeshma, C. D. Deokar, K. S. Raghuwanshi, V. K. Bhalerao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 85-92
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230501

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the most important horticultural crop in Maharashtra as well as in India. However, this crop is well acclimatized to tropical and subtropical climatic regions. Post harvest losses caused by micro organisms are reported as from 30 to 35% losses with reduction in quality and quantity of marketable fruits and accounts for millions of dollars in perishable produce every year. Over the years, the plant protection was achieved by use of synthetic chemicals. However, use of probiotics for control of post harvest diseases has taken momentum in recent years in management of post harvest plant pathogens. The post harvest pathogens like Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Aspergillus, can be checked by post harvest probiotic sprays. Which include use of commercial probiotics (Prowel,Flora and Vbact) and Probiotic isolates, which are isolated and cultured from curd, fermented dosa material, fermented jowar and bajra flour.

The studies on use of probiotics in the management of post-harvest diseases of mango conducted at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeet, Rahuri, Ahmednagar during the period 2017-2019. suggest that the post-harvest pathogens particularly Colletotrichum, Alternaria can be managed as a post-harvest pathogen by sprays of probiotics under in-vitro conditions when the load of inoculums of these post-harvest pathogens are less on the fruits and the probiotic spray resulted in increase in the TSS (Total Soluble Sugars) brix (0.8-3.2) in the fruits and also be used to increase the shelf life of the fruits and to keep them as fresh for long time. The efficacy of probiotics against post-harvested pathogens indicates that probiotics can be used in management of post harvest diseases and they can form an integral part of organic farming system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fuel Material Compositions on Combustion Properties of Wood Chips from Smallhold Farm Plots in a Sudano-Sahelian Environment of Nigeria

O. A. Sotannde, A. M. Dadile, M. Umar, S. M. Idoghor, B. D. Zira

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 93-104
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230502

Aims: The study explored the combustion properties of woods and barks of some selected trees and the mixtures of the two in order to map out how fuel material composition affect the combustion properties of biomass materials.

Study Design: The study is a two-factor factorial experiment in a completely randomized design. The main factors are the tree species and fuel material types.

Place and Duration of Study: Tree samples used for this study were coppiced stems harvested from smallhold farm plots along the Damaturu - Gujba fuelwood corridors in Yobe State. The analytical study was carried out in Wood and Fibre Science Laboratory of the Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria between April 2018 and December 2019.

Methodology: Ten tree species were used for this study. Each species was replicated 3-times, making a total of 30 stems with their dbh between 10 and 15 cm. A sample billet of 20 cm log was cut from each stem at 10 cm below and above dbh. Each billet was debarked, chipped separately and dried to approximately 12% moisture content. From the chips, 100% wood, 95%W-5%B, 90%W-10%B and 100% bark fuel material samples were created, grinded with mechanical grinder and sieved to approximately 0.4 mm particle size based on ASTM D2013-86. The sieved samples obtained were then analyzed for their percentage moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash and gross calorific values using ASTM standard methods. The data obtained were subjected to Analysis of variance from which % variance component and LSD were computed α = 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance.

Results: All the measured parameters varied significantly among the tree species and the compositions of the fuel materials obtained from them. Majority of the variation in the fuelwood properties were attributed to the composition of the fuel materials obtained from the trees rather than the species they were made of. On the average, moisture content of the samples ranged from 27.66 to 40.44%, volatile matter (61.38 to 75.11%), ash (0.52 to 2.42%), fixed carbon (24.19 to 36.20%) and gross calorific value (32.99 to 33.02 MJ.kg-1). The moisture and ash contents of the fuel materials obtained from all the tree species increased with the level of bark inclusion whereas, volatile matter content and gross calorific values decreased significantly with level of bark inclusion (P < 0.05). Also, gross calorific value of the fuel materials correlates positively with volatile matter and fixed carbon contents. But, correlate negatively with moisture and ash contents. Among the studied tree species, chips obtained from A. leiocarpus had the highest energy value, followed by C. arereh and B. aegyptiaca while P. reticulatum, A. sieberiana and C. lamprocarpum had the least energy value in that order.

Conclusion: Based on their energy value and ash content, minimizing the bark content in wood chips is important from energy and environment point of view. Therefore, chips with 100% wood and those with 5% bark inclusions are recommended for heat generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Genotypes for Morphological, Qualitative and Biochemical Traits for Protected Cultivation

Anuradha Sinha, Paramveer Singh, Ajay Bhardwaj, Randhir Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 105-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230503

Fourteen genotypes of tomato collected from different sources were evaluated inside naturally ventilated polyhouse at Polyhouse Complex, Department of Horticulture (Vegetable and floriculture), BAU, Sabour, Bhagalpur during 2018-2019. The experiment was laid out in RBD with three replications. Data from analysis of variance depicted that mean sum of squares of all genotypes were highly significant for all traits under study except titratable acidity and β-carotene which indicated the existence of ample genetic variability among the genotypes. Genotype NS 4266 had least days to first flowering, days fifty percent flowering, lowest number of locules, highest plant height at 60 DAT along with maximum β- carotene & lycopene content; TODINDVAR-8 had lowest number of nodes to first flower and maximum average fruit weight; Palam Tomato Hybrid-1 displayed maximum no. of flower per truss; Heemshikhar had lowest no. of days to first fruiting; TODINDVAR-5 had highest no. of fruit per truss; Arka Abha showed earliest days to first picking; San Marzano had maximum polar diameter and plant height at final stage of harvesting; TODINDVAR-6 show maximum equatorial diameter and lowest titratable acidity; Arka Samrat had maximum pericarp thickness; Hawaii 7998 was observed with maximum no. of fruit per plant; Arka Vikas had maximum TSS content. However, Pant Polyhouse Tomato-2 contained maximum ascorbic acid. Different types of fruit shapes viz. flat round, oval, round, heart shaped, cylindrical and fruit colour viz. red, pink, yellow-orange was exhibited by various genotypes. All the genotype displayed the absence of green shoulder on fruit except San Marzano. Three genotypes namely Palam Tomato Hybrid-1 (5.72 kg/plant), Heemshikhar (4.85 kg/plant) and NS 4266 (4.82 kg/plant) was identified for higher yield among all the genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Potassium on Yield and Economics of Kharif Maize (Zea mays L.)

Mohd. Zakir Hussain, Ashok Kumar Kumar, Devendra Mandal, Rajeev Singh, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 126-132
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230505

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season at Crop Research Farm of Tirhut College of Agriculture, Dholi in 2017 to observe the effect of different levels of potassium on yield and economics of Kharif maize. The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design with four replications and nine treatments at a different level of potassium (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1) in which three treatments T7, T8 and T9 were along with 5 tons of FYM. There were no marked effect of different treatments on the number of cob plant-1, length of cob, the girth of cob and test weight. However, the number of grains cob-1 was found significantly higher in treatment T9 (T4 + 5 t FYM ha-1). Grain yield, stover yield and stone yield were significantly influenced by different treatments. The maximum grain yield (63.19 q ha-1), stover yield (101.61 q ha-1) and stone yield  (14.61 q ha-1) were recorded under treatment T9 (T4 + 5 t FYM ha-1). Economics of different  treatments indicated  that by higher grain yield, treatment T9 (T4 + 5 t FYM ha-1) exhibited maximum gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio of Rs 90,046 ha-1, Rs 47,987 ha-1 and 1.14, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of PRSV Tolerant Papaya Plants from SBF6 Generation of Intergeneric Population Using Ranking Model System

R. Mohammed Aseef, K. Soorianathasundaram, P. Paramaguru, P. Muthulakshmi, A. John Joel, C. N. Chandrasekhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 133-139
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230506

The Full-sib mated sixth (SBF6) generation of intergeneric population of papaya from the cross CP 50 x Vasconcellea cauliflora was evaluated to select the progenies with PRSV tolerance coupled with better yield. In order to identify the well performing progenies, the mean performance and genetic parameters were estimated. Interestingly, the results of the variability study revealed that the genotypic coefficient of variation on number of fruits, leaf area and number of leaves were higher and making it as the selectable traits. The correlation analysis was made to understand the degree of relationship between the PRSV tolerance and various morphological traits. The result showed that plant height and number of fruits were significantly and negatively correlated with per cent disease index (PDI) with the r value of -0.273 and -0.261 respectively. By considering the number of fruits as the selectable trait, a ranking model system was developed and the results showed 5 ranks of 53 progenies. Among them, 13 well performing progenies from Rank IV and Rank V were selected for further evaluation. The ranking model system helps the researchers by making the selection process statistically much easier and efficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation among Different Growth Stages on Mineral Nutrient Content in Guava Fruits

Dhyanananda Kumari, Muneshwar Prasad, Feza Ahmad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 140-144
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230634

Guava is one of the most promising fruit crops of India and is considered to be one of the exquisite nutritionally valuable and remunerative crops. We are unaware of any report describing macro and micronutrient dynamics in fruit at different growth stages of guava. For conducting this experiment fruit of variety Allahabad Safeda, L-49, Lalit, Shweta, Arka Kiran, Salithong, Kimchu were collected at different stages like marble, seed hardening and harvest stage for estimation of primary nutrient (N, P, K), secondary nutrient (Ca, Mg) and micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu). As regards the availability of mineral nutrient contents of varieties did not follow definite trend.  The nutrient content particularly N, and K were recorded highest at marble stage while as Mg and Ca was accumulated maximum in stone hardening stage and P, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mg and Mn was in harvesting stage. There was least variation was observed in Mg content. Finally, it may be concluded that for the improvement of yields and quality requirement of specific mineral and nutrients is required at different growth stages.

Open Access Review Article

Small-scale Mushroom Production Unit for the Upliftment of Rural Economy and Women Empowerment in India: A Review

Anwesha Dey, Shubhi Patel, Md. Mahtab Rashid

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230495

India is popularly known as an agriculture driven nation, since the majority of its population is employed in agriculture, thus, making agriculture backbone of the Indian economy. Agriculture is an engine of growth and poverty reduction in the majority of developing nations. Strengthening rural people, directly and indirectly, contributes to nations’ development. As in India, the rural population mostly comprises of marginal and landless farmers, there is a need for a low cost and maximum profit plan to enhance both their income as well as socio-economic status. One such plan is to set up a small-scale mushroom production unit which requires by-products of the agricultural farm as input and occupy less agricultural land space. Mushroom cultivation is a minimum input maximum output venture proving to be an additional source of income. The vegetarian population residing in the urban areas of our country has now accepted mushrooms in their diet because of its nutritional values so the mushroom produced from the nearby rural areas has a good market of selling their products easily and at a good price. Thus, the mushroom is a boon to both producer and consumer giving it the status of superfood. Mushroom cultivation can also be a way to empower the rural women, provide additional income for the sustenance of farming families and tackle the problem of lack of nutritional requirement of the rural people. Rural women are the most productive workforce in the economy, raising the need to strengthen and improve their socio-economic status. A low-cost small-scale mushroom production unit can generate income through the sale of spawns, in addition to the sale of fresh mushroom in a sustainable approach by utilizing farm by-products as their raw material.

Open Access Review Article

Prospects of Precision Farming in Sugarcane Agriculture to Harness the Potential Benefits

Gulzar S. Sanghera, Arvind Kumar, Rajan Bhatt

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-125
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i230504

Sugarcane on one side considered important for crop diversification and important for human civilization while on other sugar industry is facing a long term losses in terms of monetary issues. Moreover, farmer is also not clear about which techniques is to adopt for practising the sugarcane cultivation for precision farming. Therefore, range of new sugarcane cultivation technologies pertaining to its cultivars, fertilization, weed control, insect-pest and disease control needs to be invented and recommended to the cane farmers. Precision farming is an approach where inputs are utilised in precise amounts to get increased average yields, compared to traditional cultivation techniques. Adoption of precision agriculture in sugarcane has been slow due to a wide range of uncertainties and conflicting opinions. There is need to reduce cost of cultivation and to improve the canes yield and quality by adopting precision sugarcane techniques. In developing countries like India, Pakistan etc. precision agricultural techniques if adopted, is a powerful tool and should be started with a basic, affordable and effective integration of technologies and practices. Present article aims to review published and unpublished information on precision sugarcane farming must be applied for improving the cane yield and quality so as to improve livelihoods of the cane farmers.