Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zn and B on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Groundnut

Ramprosad Nandi, Hasim Reja, Nitin Chatterjee, Animesh Ghosh Bag, Gora Chand Hazra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130475

Aims: To investigate the effect of combination between foliar zinc and boron on groundnut growth, yield, nutrient uptake and its accumulation in pods.

Study Design:  Completely random design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal, India during 2016.

Methodology: The pot experiment was comprised of three levels of Zn (0, 0.5 and 0.75% Zn), three levels of B (0, 0.3 and 0.45% B) and their combinations. The treatments were replicated thrice. Zn and B were applied through foliar spray twice at vegetative and flower initiation stage. Chlorophyll content, leaf area, root–shoot dry biomass, plant height, nutrient uptake and nutrient concentrations in pods were studied.

Results: Foliar spray of Zn and B jointly increased the leaf area to the tune of 55% and 29% at flowering and pod formation stages, respectively. Despite sole application of B and Zn increased the leaf chlorophyll content in groundnut; the combined applications were much more prominent. Moreover, lower level of Zn combined with higher level of B significantly (p<0.05) had higher uptake of N (18.8%), P (11.5%) and K (5.9%) over higher level of sole Zn application. The improved biomass accumulation of groundnut amplified the efficient utilization of primary nutrients and resulted in higher nutrient uptake as well as their concentration in pods. Groundnut when sprayed with elevated doses of Zn and B produced the maximum yield (30.8 g/plant).

Conclusion: Spraying of Zn and B increased plant biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll content noticeably and with the increase in concentration of Zn and B in spray, the increment became quite intense. The combined spray of Zn and B at critical growth stages promoted better growth and productivity of groundnut.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution to Improving the Quality of Traffic in Mobile Networks

Onyonkiton Théophile Aballo, Roland Déguénonvo, Antoine Vianou

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130477

Today, mobile networks are faced with congestion which results in regular slowness given the variation in the actual speed of the network, that is to say the time required to transmit all of the data from a point to another. In third and fourth generation mobile networks, actual throughput is not directly measurable, it actually consists of three separate indicators, latency, jitter and loss rate. Many studies have shown that these parameters have a particular influence on congestion problems. In practice, the effective speed on the network is inversely proportional to the latency. However, the bit rate is four times the latency. Next, jitter is the variation of latency over time, impacting the flow by influencing latency. In this article, we have examined the analysis of traffic congestion in third and fourth generation networks in order to make a comparative study of the congestion rate for good decision-making.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Automatic Generation System for Traffic Organization Scheme

Lijing Ren, Kai Lu, Zhengxu Zhao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130478

This paper presents a novel system of generating traffic organization scheme of the work area. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of China’s economic level, the transportation industry is also in rapid development. Due to the characteristics of fast speed, large capacity, safe and comfortable driving, and obvious economic benefits, the highway has become an important part of the transportation system. The highway brings conveniences to people’s travel. However, it is suffering road surface damage and traffic facilities breakage which results from long-term use. The cost of highway maintenance and repair work has been increasing. Previously proposed systems for generating the scheme has problems such as the difficulty of operation and complexity of the formation process for the traffic organization. We have developed an automatic generation system for traffic organization schemes in the operation area which improve the level of maintenance management of highway operation areas. This system can quickly form traffic organization solutions and drawings of traffic organization plan, thus effectively improving the efficiency of highway maintenance management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Fertilization of Boron, Zinc and Iron on Fruit Quality and Leaf Nutrients Content of Peach cv. Shan-e-Punjab

Besmellah Muradi, Anil Kumar Godara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130479

Aims: To study the effect of different micronutrients and number of foliar spray on fruit quality and leaf nutrient content of peach.

Study Design: The experiment comprised of seven treatments and conducted on seven years old plants in Randomized Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the experimental orchard of Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the year 2018.

Methodology: The treatments included in the study consisted of three micro-nutrients [T1- ZnSO4 @ 0.2%, T2- ZnSO4 @ 0.3%, T3- FeSO4 @ 0.2%, T4- FeSO4 @ 0.3%, T5- Boric acid @ 0.1%, T6- Boric acid @ 0.2%, T7- Control (water spray)] each applied as foliar spray at different concentration as single and double spray.

Results: The results showed that foliar spray of micronutrients significantly improved quality and leaf nutrient status in peach cv. Shan-e-Punjab. The foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.2% (T3) found to be the best treatment with respect to TSS (11.06%), ascorbic acid (8.18 mg/100 g pulp) and leaf iron content (345.51 ppm). The highest TSS: ratio (23.88), leaf zinc content (35.42 ppm) and lowest acidic fruits (0.45%) was observed from the plants sprayed with T1 (ZnSO4 @ 0.2%), whereas, highest leaf boron content (91.02 ppm) was recorded with T6 (Boric acid @ 0.2%). Double foliar spray of micronutrients (Fe, Zn and B) at first week of March + April significantly TSS, TSS: acidity, ascorbic acid, leaf zinc, iron, and boron content and reduced acidity fruits then single foliar spray in first week of March.

Conclusion: The foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.2% (T1) proved to be best treatment in terms of quality. A double spray of micronutrients (Fe, Zn and B) significantly increased total soluble solids, TSS: acidity, ascorbic acid, leaf (zinc, iron, and boron) content and reduced fruit acidity as compared to single spray.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids for Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits Using Eberhart and Russel Model

B. Arunkumar, E. Gangapp, S. Ramesh, D. L. Savithramma, N. Nagaraju, R. Lokesha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 52-63
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130480

A genotype is considered to be most adaptive / stable, when it registers high mean yield but show a minimum interaction with the environment. Knowledge of genotype × environment interaction and yield stability are important parameters in breeding new cultivars with improved adaptation to environmental constraints prevailing in the target environments. Therefore, an effort was made to know the genotype - environment interaction and to identify stable single cross hybrids across the environments. Eight newly synthesized single cross maize hybrids and 7 checks were evaluated in a Randomized Block Design with three replications during Rabi-2016 across three locations spread over different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka state, India. Different stability parameters as suggested by Eberhart and Russell [1] were estimated. Joint analysis of variance revealed significant differences among environments, hybrids and environments × hybrids interactions advocating the adequacy of stability analysis. Hybrids, viz., MAI 349×MAI 283, KDMI 16×BGUDI 118 were stable for days to anthesis and silking, respectively. Whereas, hybrids viz., KDMI 16×BGUDI 118, BGUDI 120×VL 109252 and MAI 283× KDMI 16 registered mean values lower than the overall mean with bi value nearer to unity and non significant S2di for anthesis silking interval. Hybrid, MAI 349×MAI 283 for plant height and cob length, KDMI 16×MAI 283 for cob length, number of kernel rows-1 and 100 grain weight, BGUDI 88×MAI 349 for cob diameter, MAI 394×BGUDI 88  for shelling % and KDMI 16×BGUDI 118 for grain yield plant-1 registered stable performance across the environments. Based on the positive and negative environmental indices, production environment at location 1 (K Block UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru), was most favorable for expression of majority of characters studied. Hybrid KDMI 16×MAI 283 was found stable across the environments for most of the characters studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Salinity on Growth and Some Photosynthetic Pigments of Improved Population in Puccinellia ciliata (Poaceae)

Ilkay Yavas, Yelda Emek, Aydin Unay

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130481

Puccinellia (Puccinellia ciliata Bor.) fairly resistant to salinity and used as forage for livestock in China, Australia, and Turkey. In this study, our objective was to determine the effects of salinity on growth and various photosynthetic pigments of an improved population of Puccinellia via recurrent selection. To accomplish this, effects of salinity on seedlings growth of homogenous Puccinellia was examined, one week after emerging of radicle from seeds. Seeds were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 6% agar. Seedling growth was studied under different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 μS/cm). Salinity applications were carried out for 6 weeks. Cultures were maintained in growth chambers at 24±2ºC and 16/8 light/dark conditions. Germination was scored during 2 weeks after culture initiation. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Plant growth parameters such as the number of radicle and tillers, maximum radicle and shoot length, plants fresh and dry weights were investigated. Photosynthetic pigments such as total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, b, chlorophyll a/b ratio, total carotenoid, β- carotene, lutein and neoxanthin were examined. The maximum values for tiller number per plant, the maximum length of shoot and chlorophyll b were found in the 20 µs/cm, while the maximum length of the radicle was recorded at 10 µs/cm NaCl treatment. It was concluded that low salinity levels (10-20 μS/cm) increased seedling growth, while high salinity levels (30 and 40 μS/cm) inhibited the growth significantly. These results indicate that P. ciliata is a promising salt-tolerant and can be grown productively under low to moderate saline conditions between 10-20 µs/cm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence Studies for Anaerobic Germination Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

K. Sudeepthi, T. Srinivas, B. N. V. S. R. Ravi Kumar, D. P. B. Jyothula, Sk. Nafeez Umar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 71-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130482

The present investigation was carried out to study the inherent genetic diversity of 107 rice genotypes towards development of rice varieties with tolerance for germination under anaerobic conditions for use in wet direct seeded rice cultivation system. The diversity was evaluated using multivariate analysis technique of Mahalanobis D2. The 107 rice genotypes studied were grouped into nine clusters. Twenty nine genotypes were grouped in cluster II followed by 27, 22, 10, 11 and 5 genotypes each in clusters I, III, IV, VI and cluster VII, respectively. The pattern of distribution of genotypes into various clusters was observed to be at random with no relation to geographical diversity. Results on inter-cluster distances revealed maximum diversity between genotypes of cluster VII and cluster IX, while intra-cluster distance was noticed to be maximum for cluster VI. Cluster IX had recorded higher cluster mean values for all the traits studied. Further, the traits, namely, shoot length, seedling dry weight and anaerobic response index together accounted for 62.45 per cent of the total genetic divergence in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Balanites aegyptiaca, Securidaca longepedunculata and Acacia gourmaensis Used against Seed-borne Fungi in Burkina Faso

Léon W. Nitiema, Pierre A. E. D. Sombié, Moumouni Koala, Antonella Del Fiore

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-87
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130483

Aims: Hydro-ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Securidaca longepedunculata and Acacia gourmaensis from Burkina Faso were investigated for their phytochemical composition and their antioxidant activities.

Methods: High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for phytochemical screening. The total phenolic, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of extracts were assessed. The antioxidant potentials of the extracts were also evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-l­picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).

Results: Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins were present in all these plant extracts. Tannins were only found in Acacia gourmaensis extract. Acacia gourmaensis extract exhibited the highest total phenolics ( mg GAE/g), total flavonoids ( mg QE/100 g), total anthocyanins () contents and had the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH ( and FRAP methods). Balanites aegyptiaca and Securidaca longepedunculata showed the lowest phenolic compounds ( mg GAE/g and 76.69±1.84 mg GAE/g respectively); total flavonoids ( mg QE/100 g and  mg QE/100 g respectively), anthocyanins (24.49±1.43 µg/g and 24.57±0.52 µg/g respectively) contents and had the lowest antioxidant activity for DPPH method ( and  µg AAE/g respectively) and FRAP method ( and  µg AAE/g respectively).

Conclusion: Balanites aegyptiaca, Securidaca longepedunculata and Acacia gourmaensis represent natural sources of phenolic antioxidant compounds that can be used as a bio-fungicide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Narrow Lanes to Big Markets: An Overview of Traditional Printed Handloom Industry of Pilkhuwa (U.P.)

Hema Upadhayay, Alka Goel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 88-99
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130484

Handloom industry is one of the important segments of the textile industry in India. There are a number of centres that are specifically engaged in the production and adornment of handloom textiles. Pilkhuwa, a small town in Ghaziabad (U.P) situated on the NH24, 51 km from Delhi border, is also carrying its legacy of printed handloom textiles. Furnishings, specially bed sheets in beautiful designs and vibrating colours in a wide variety of fabrics and thread density are the main attraction of Pilkhuwa market. The prepared products are sold in local markets to the retailer in wholesale whereas some large manufacturers export the quality products to other parts of the country as well as abroad. The present study aims to identify the prevailing practises, current status, changing scenario and SWOT analysis of the selected cluster of Pilkhuwa (U.P.) that produces printed home furnishings. The information on handloom printing, designing and marketing was obtained through questionnaires, complemented by free interview and informal conversations with printers and local shopkeepers. The result revealed that many local communities i.e. dhobis, luhaar, weavers and their families directly and indirectly linked to this home furnishing industry for their livelihood. There is a growing opportunity for product diversification in the domestic market as well as in the export market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Urdbean Germplasm for High Seed Yield Coupled with Resistance to Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV)

Sunita Kumari, Sangita Sahni, Bishun Deo Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 100-106
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130485

Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is one of the most destructive biotic production constraints in urdbean. Development and introduction of resistant cultivars with high seed yield are considered as the most economical and eco-friendly option to manage YMD, for which availability of stable sources of resistance with high seed yield is a pre-requisite. A set of one hundred twenty eight genotypes of urdbean including a susceptible check were evaluated against MYMV in the field for two consecutive years during summer and kharif 2015-2016 under natural condition of disease incidence. There was considerable variation among the genotypes with respect to disease reaction. Out of 128 genotypes tested, only five genotype namely KU 96-3, NDU 12-1,  NIRB 002,  NIRB 003 & NIRB 004 were found to be disease free, nineteen genotypes (IPU 10-23,  IPU 11-01, KPU 34, KUG 540,  KUG 586, Mash-338, NDU 12-2, NDU 12-300, NDUZ 14-21,OBG 35,  PU 09-35, Shekhar 3,  UH 07-06, Uttara, VBG 10-008, VBG 11-053,VBN (BG) 3, VBN 6 & Vijay) found to be highly resistant and twenty two genotypes (IGKU 02-1, Kopergaon,  KPU 12, KPU 13, KPU 14, KPU 16, KPU 33, KPU 7, KPU 8, KU 363,  NDU 11-01,Palampur 93, Pant U 19,  PU 08-05, PU 20, PU 22, RUG-44, Sekhar 2 , TU 67, UG 218, VBG 09-005 & WBU 108) showed highly resistance or resistance consistently in both the seasons. However, eight genotypes i.e. Uttara, PU-31, KU-363, KUG 540, UH 07-06, KUG 503, WBU 108 & Shekhar 33 were found to be superior for seed yield as well as resistant to MYMV. Among these lines, UH 07-06 and KUG 503 give highest seed yield in Kharif and summer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Perceived by Employed Women of Government Sectors in Their Empowerment

Priyanka ., A. S. Tigga, Shridhar Patil, Dhananjay Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 107-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130486

The main objective of this study is to trace out the constraints perceived by married women employed in government sector. The employed women face various challenges at workplace and at home as well. They deal with home and family issues as well as job stress daily. In this study, a sample of 100 employed married women was selected randomly from Sabour block of Bhagalpur district in Bihar – India, and data were collected using face to face interview.

It was found that major constraints perceived by employed women lack the facility of playschool/crèche, frequent job transfers, inability to pay attention to health and spend time on fitness, non-availability of conveyance in case of any emergency, role conflict and inability to give time for household activities, inability to spend time with family members, feeling of gender bias and under-utilization as compare to their male counterparts at workplace. Finding shows that being employed, women still face problems. For curbing their problems attitudes of the employers, policy makers, family members and relatives and the public at large needs to be changed. The study also suggests policy makers to implement the policy of reducing working hours for the employed women, providing day care/crèche facilities for employed mothers so that they can spend time with their children, elders and take care of their health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Irrigated and Drought Stress Condition

Sadia Perween, Anand Kumar, Bishun Deo Prasad, Mukesh Choudhary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-125
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130487

A set of 48 rice genotypes were evaluated to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity under irrigated (control) and reproductive stage drought stress conditions during Kharif, 2018 at Rice Research Farm, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (Bhagalpur), India. On the basis of D2 statistics, all the genotypes were grouped into nineteen clusters in irrigated condition with cluster I consisting of maximum number of genotypes (24) followed by cluster III (7) and rest of the clusters were represented by single genotype in irrigated condition. Under drought stress condition, forty eight genotypes were grouped into eleven clusters, cluster I consisted of maximum number of genotypes (24) followed by cluster II and III (8 genotypes in each cluster) and rest of the clusters were mono-genotypic. The highest inter-cluster distance was recorded between cluster XVIII and XIX (28.53), followed by cluster X and VIII (24.20), cluster XIII and XVIII (23.98) and cluster VII and XVIII (23.79) in irrigated condition while in drought stress condition the highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster IX and X (31.72), followed by cluster V and IX (28.77), cluster VI and VII (25.98) and cluster IV and IX (25.98) indicating wider genetic diversity among the genotypes between these clusters. The hybridisation programme involving genotype of cluster XVIII and cluster XIX under irrigated condition and the genotypes of cluster IX and X under drought stress condition could be undertaken to isolate high yielding segregants, since these genotypes have high yielding potential, number of effective tillers per hill, relative water content, leaf area, root biomass, panicle length, biological yield, harvest index, plant height, number of fertile grains per panicle, total number of spikelets per panicle, leaf area and proline content with more genetic distances. The parents for hybridisation could be selected on the basis of their large inter-cluster distance for isolating useful recombinants in the segregating generations. Hence, these genotypes might be used in a multiple crossing programme to recover transgressive segregants. Therefore, it is suggested that if the diverse genotypes from these groups along with the other desirable attributes are used in breeding programmes, it is expected to produce better segregants for high grain yield and yield contributing traits due to non-allelic interaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Priming on Growth and Yield of Hybrid Maize-Lathyrus Sequence under Rainfed Situation

Subhajit Banerjee, Kalyan Jana, Ramyajit Mondal, Krishnendu Mondal, Awindrila Mondal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 126-136
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130488

Seed priming is a low-cost technology and effective way of improving nutrient supply to crops as well as the importance of priming to get a good crop stand of maize. Pre-sowing soaking of seeds with KH2PO4, Na2HPO4 etc. or simple water was earlier reported to improve seed germination, seedling vigor and root growth early in the season, resulting in good establishment, better drought tolerance and more yields of crop plants. In this context a field was conducted at Central Research Farm (CRF), Gayeshpur of BCKV, Nadia Under New alluvial zone of West Bengal during kharif season of 2016 and 2017 and rabi season of 2016-17 and 2017-18. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with nine (9) different treatments of seed priming methods. Seed priming with ZnSO4 @ 0.5% for 12 hrs could be recommended due to higher germination percentage (93.6%), number of leaves per plant (9.6), highest plant height (258.2 cm) at 60 DAS, maximum value of crop growth rate (26.6 g/m2/day) at 46-60 DAS of hybrid maize and highest plant height (19.5 cm & 42.8 cm at 30 & 60 DAS, respectively), highest value of dry matter accumulation (198.4 g/m2 at 60 DAS), maximum value of crop growth rate (4.87 g/m2/day) at 31-60 DAS for lathyrus. On the basis of pooled values of 2 years of experimentation, seed priming with ZnSO4 @ 0.5% for 12 hrs could be recommended due to higher yield (7.94 t ha-1 of kharif hybrid maize and 1682 kg ha-1 of lathyrus).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Synergistic Effects of Vermicompost and Beneficial Microbes on Pea

Mina Kumari, Jharjhari Chakma, Sateyendra Pratap Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 137-147
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130489

This study was conducted during Rabi 2017-18 under net house condition, to evaluate the synergistic effects of vermicompost and beneficial microbes on pea plants. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with three replication and fifteen treatments. The result indicated that among all treatment, a treatment V4 was found to be best in terms of all growth parameters and plant defense-related compounds. The treatment combination of M1V3 has given best results followed by treatment M2V2. The results from this experiment demonstrated the strong synergistic effects between vermicompost and two microbes, as they improved the soil nutrients status by supporting growth and development of plants by producing growth hormones and also protected the plants from diseases by enhancing the production of defense - related compounds.

Open Access Review Article

Etiology, Symptomatology and Management of Black Spot of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) through Botanicals and Biocontrol Agents – A Brief Review

Mina Kumari, P. K. Jha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i130476

Aloe vera is an important medicinal plant of Asphodelaceae (Liliaceae) family. It is widely used owing to its wound healing, anti-inflammatory, immunity, antidiabetic, antioxidant, laxative, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. Similar to other crop plants, Aloe vera is infected by several plant pathogens that deteriorate its yield and quality. Among various fungal diseases, black spot disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. is the most serious disease which not only reduces the crop yield and market value but also the antioxidant properties and other medicinal efficacy of the plant. C. gloeosporioides is commonly controlled by chemical fungicides but due to the limitations of applying chemical control methods on medicinal plants, there is a need to look for some safe alternatives. The objective of this paper is to review the previous work on etiology, symptomatology and management of C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. through botanicals (natural plant extracts), biocontrol agents and some safe and ecofriendly chemicals like Azoxystrobin.