Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Wheat Production under Different Paddy Residue Management Methods

Jagjot Singh Gill, Maninder Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630445

A study was conducted to compare wheat production under two previous paddy crop residue management systems by taking into account wheat growth parameters, yield attributes and economics of both systems. Farm testing of wheat production in two methods of management of paddy residue viz: sowing of wheat with happy seeder in previous paddy crop residue (paddy residue retention) and sowing of wheat with normal drill after burning of previous paddy residue (paddy residue burning: farmer practice) done in Ferozepur and Jalandhar districts on 10 farmers’ fields locations in each district during rabi season of 2016-17 and 2017-18. Dataset was analyzed using unpaired T test. Both paddy residue retention and paddy residue burning methods resulted in non-significant effect on growth parameters and yield attributes which resulted similar mean grain yields (5.48 t/ha) and (5.35 t/ha), respectively in both districts during two years of study. Paddy residue retention method reduced the cost of wheat cultivation and put a check on air pollution from burning of paddy residue in the field. It saved fertilizers by adding nutrients to the field.

Open Access Short Research Articles

Comparative Evaluation of Puddling Techniques in Sandy Loam Soil

K. Prasanthkumar, M. Saravanakumar, J. John Gunasekar, S. S. Sivakumar, P. Masilamani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630474

Aims: Puddling is a distinct operation to provide standing water condition for paddy cultivation. There are various puddling techniques conventionally adopted by the farmers. In order to scientifically establish the performance of various puddling techniques in terms of puddling quality, they were evaluated and compared.

Study Design: The results were analyzed statistically using factorial experiment.

Place: The study was carried out in the experimental field of Agricultural Engineering College & Research Institute, Kumulur, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India. The texture of the soil is sandy loam (Clay = 12.5%, silt = 15.6% and sand = 71.9%).

Methodology: The conventionally used puddling techniques (viz., cage wheel, rotavator and power tiller operated rotary tool) were evaluated in terms of puddling index and infiltration rate. The evaluation parameters were determined using standard procedure.

Results: The puddling quality was not significantly affected by increasing number of pass from single to double. The power tiller operated rotary tool registered the highest puddling index of 61.18% and the lowest infiltration rate of 17.00 mm d-1 and the rotavator registered the second highest of 58.29% puddling index and 21.00 mm d-1 of infiltration rate. Area coverage was superior in the case of puddling with rotavator due to the larger width.

Conclusion: The overall performance of the rotavator was concluded to be the best among the various puddling techniques compared in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethephon and Storage Temperature on Physico-chemical Changes during Ripening of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cv. Neelum

Er. K. Lavanya, D. Bhaskara Rao, L. Edukondalu, R. Lakshmypathy, V. Srinivasa Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630387

Mango fruits Cv. Neelum treated with ethephon of different concentrations i.e. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm for five minutes at different temperature conditions viz., 16, 20, 24 and 28ºC with 80% RH ripened in ripening chamber and untreated fruits kept at ambient temperature (30-34ºC). Then the mango fruits were analyzed for physico-chemical changes and sensory qualities. It was found that mango Cv. Neelum ethephon dip treatment placed in the ripening chamber triggered the ripening process and showed that the significant increasing trends in L*, a*, b* values of colour, TSS (°Brix), PLW (%), reducing sugars (%), pH and decreasing trends in firmness (N), acidity during ripening in all the treatment combinations during advancement of storage period in ripening chamber. It was observed that mango fruits Cv. Neelum ripened by ethephon dip treatment of 750 ppm for 5 minutes at 20ºC, 80% RH showed better results in respect of a high overall acceptability score of 8.50.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Proximate and Functional Properties of Flours from Brown Variety of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Seeds

Ijeoma M. Agunwah, Ijeoma A. Olawuni, Juliana C. Ibeabuchi, Anthonia E. Uzoukwu, Serah O. Alagbaoso

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630388

Aim: To create variety of flours through food product development by checking the proximate and functional properties of flours from brown variety of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seeds.

Study Design: This study was made to fit into a one way Analysis of Variance.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at the Department of Food Science and Technology laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, between July 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: Brown coloured variety of African yam bean seeds were sorted, soaked, dehulled and milled to obtain full fat flour. The full fat flour was further processed to obtain defatted flour, protein isolate and protein concentrate. The different flours were analysed to determine their proximate and functional properties.

Results: From the results of the proximate composition, it showed that the protein isolate value 89.1±0.23% was higher than the protein composition of the full fat, defatted and protein concentrates which has 21.8±0.16%, 23.1±0.06% and 61.7±0.21% composition respectively. There were no significant difference (p<0.05) between the protein concentrate, protein isolate, full fat flour and defatted flour. The functional properties revealed high bulk density of (0.50± 0.01) for the defatted flour more than the full fat flour (0.35± 0.10) while the emulsion capacity of the protein concentrate and protein isolate flour was found to be (30.7±0.19%) and (35.3± 0.16%) respectively.

Conclusion: The proximate and functional results obtained indicate that the starches from African yam bean will have useful technological properties for many applications both in food industries and in the production industries such as in paper and textile industries. It can also be said that African yam bean represents a source of alternative protein supplement and its protein isolates possess certain characteristics that will aid in protein enrichment for some food products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Genetic Variability Parameter under Artificial Epiphytotic Condition for Leaf Rust in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Ashutosh Kumar, Yashavantha Kumar Kakanur, Suma Biradar, Srinivas A. Desai, T. N. Satisha, Bhumika N. Patel, D. A. Deepak, Aman Tigga

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630389

Present investigation was conducted to study the genetic variability for grain yield, its component traits and slow rusting component in advanced backcross segregating lines of bread wheat at AICRP on wheat, MARS, UAS, Dharwad, Karnataka during Rabi season of 2015-2016. The study revealed highly significant differences for the yield, its component traits and for slow rusting components, indicating the presence of sufficient genetic variability in these lines which is basis for the effective selection in any breeding programme. High genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) values coupled with high heritability and high genetic advance over mean were recorded for some of the studied traits such as grain yield per plant and no. of productive tillers per plant. Also high PCV and GCV along with high heritability and high genetic advance over mean (GAM) was found for the slow rusting components. The presence of sufficient variability along with high heritability for all these traits indicates that simple phenotypic selection for these traits may be effective for genetic improvement of these traits. Hence based on present findings it can be concluded that practicing selection considering the traits like productive tillers per plant, grain yield per plant along with slow rusting components will be more beneficial for achieving durable type of resistance in future breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predicting the Output of a Hydraulic Ram Pump

Krishpersad Manohar, Anthony Ademola Adeyanju, Kureem Vialva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630390

The use of the hydraulic ram pump has been an attractive alternative in many areas in developing countries and rural areas that do not have or are located far from a reliable source of electricity. However, predicting the actual output delivery of the hydraulic ram pump poses many challenges due to the basic principle on which the hydraulic ram pump operates, the system design that consists of three pipes of different lengths, different diameters in each section and different Darcy-Weisbach friction factors. Based on experimental data, an empirical correlation was developed to predict the delivery output of a hydraulic ram pump for any combination of input and output head height. The accuracy of the predicted theoretical output flow rate was measured against the experimental data. The empirical correlation predicted the output flow rate within ±12% for any combination of input and output head height.

Open Access Original Research Article

Usage of Information and Communication Technologies among Agrarian Youths of Manipur, India

Mayanglambam Victoria Devi, Loukham Devarani, R. J. Singh, L. Hemochandra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630391

The present study aimed at analysing the usage of ICTs by the agrarian youths of state Manipur, India. The locale of study was Imphal-West district of Manipur, from where 120 respondents have been randomly selected from six villages of the two sub-divisions viz., Patsoi and Wangoi. The study delved into examining whether the socio-economic profiles of youths have any significant dependence with the utilization of different ICT tools viz., Radio, T.V., Mobile Phone, PC/Laptop, Internet and Information Kiosk. The major findings of the analysis reveal that ‘Attitude towards ICTs’ has significant dependence at 5% level of significance with the utilization of Radio. The variable ‘Education’ has significant dependence with the utilization of television at 10% level of significance. The utilization of PC/laptop by respondents had significant dependence with ‘Education’, ‘Attitude towards ICTs’, ‘Cosmopoliteness’ and ‘Social participation’ at 1% level of significance. With respect to utilization of Internet by agrarian youths, the variables, namely ‘Education’, ‘Attitude towards ICTs’, ‘Cosmopoliteness’ and ‘Social Participation’ have significant dependence at 1% level of significance. Pertaining the utilization of information kiosks by respondents, the variable ‘Age’ has significant dependence at 1% level of significance. Lack of infrastructural facilities to access ICTs was the most profound constraints faced by agrarian youths of Manipur.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Endophytes for Biocontrol of Pythium aphanidermatum and Plant Growth Promotion in Setaria italica L. Grown in Seedling Trays

M. Raveendra Reddy, M. K. Shivaprakash, S. Adithya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630392

An investigation study was carried to test the ability of endophytic bacteria isolated from small millets as a biocontrol agent against the fungal pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum, the causal organism of sheath blight in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) grown in seedling trays under greenhouse conditions. In total twelve bacterial endophytes were isolated out of which six isolates produced β -1, 3 glucanases, 11 isolates produced chitinases and 12 isolates produced siderophores under in-vitro conditions. All these bacterial endophytic isolates inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum in plate assay and liquid culture and the highest percent inhibition of mycelium was recorded in KMS5 (44.44%) followed by KMS1 (38.89%). In seedling trays, BMR7 and KMS5 (81.66%) had recorded the highest percent germination followed by KMS1 (79.62%) and KMS1 and KMS5 took 10.85 and 10.55 days respectively for 50% seed germination compared to control (13.50 days) which was treated with pathogen alone. Lowest pre-emergence disease incidence was noticed in KMS5 (14.03%) followed by KMS1 (16.18%) whereas T1 (Control) recorded maximum pre-emergence disease incidence (39.82%) was observed. Least post-emergence disease incidence (11.36) and biocontrol efficacy (68.74%) was recorded with KMS5. Apart from showing antagonistic activity, KMS5 had recorded a significantly higher seedling vigor index (2712.97), root length (18.12 cm), shoot length (15.10 cm), root dry weight (0.158 g) and shoot dry weight (0.76 g) compared to other bacterial endophytic isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Non-contact Tonometry Versus Pachymetry Corrected Intraocular Pressure: Any Difference? A Case for Pachymetry during Glaucoma Screening

E. Awoyesuku, A. A. Onua

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630393

Objective: This study sets out to determine if there is any statistical difference in the results of measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) uncorrected for Central Corneal Thickness with Air Puff Tonometry and corrected with pachymetry for clients undergoing screening for glaucoma at the department of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-two (132) adults were screened for glaucoma during the 2019 World Glaucoma week in UPTH Port Harcourt, they had their IOPs measured with Air Puff (Non-contact) Tonometer (Pulsair intelliPuff Tonometer, Keeler), after which they underwent pachymetry (Sonomed Escalon PacScan Plus) to determine corneal thickness after which the corrected IOP was determined by using a correction factor for adjusting IOP based on corneal thickness [1].  The results were analyzed using SPSS version 20 to determine statistical differences.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference between intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements when corrected with pachymetry than when it is uncorrected. In our study the mean uncorrected IOP RE and LE was 14.53 mmHg and14.75 mmHg respectively while Corrected IOP RE and LE was 16.37 mmHg and 16.72 mmHg respectively.

Conclusion: Intra ocular pressure measurement adjusted with pachymetry for corneal thickness may be a better option for tonometry and we propose this be considered during intra ocular pressure measurement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening for Antioxidant Properties of Germinated Foxtail Millet

Jelang Jelku D. Sangma, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, K. B. Suneetha Devi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630394

Phytochemicals are a complex group of bioactive non-nutrient compounds of the plant kingdom and an integral part of the human diet. The present research was carried out to screen the phytochemicals in raw and germinated foxtail millets. The screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, fixed oils and fats, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in both raw and germinated foxtail millets. Amino acids were not detected in raw but present in germinated, indicating in prominent in the bio-availability of amino-acids due to germination. The absence of quinones indicated that extracts have not undergone any oxidation during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Organic Nutrient Supplements and Bioaugmenting Microorganisms on Crude Oil Polluted Soils

David N. Ogbonna, I. K. E. Ekweozor, Renner R. Nrior, Festus E. Ezinwo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630395

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of organic nutrient supplements and bioaugmenting microorganisms on crude oil polluted soils.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agriculture Demonstration Farm, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria.

Methodology: Baseline study of a deliberately polluted agricultural soil was investigated for its microbiota from which selected fungal and bacterial isolates were obtained. Microbial analyses of goat manure, fish wastes and crude oil polluted soil were investigated. Using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) the land was partitioned into nine (9) blocks of 100 cm x 50 cm x 20 cm (Length x Breath x Height) giving 100,000 cm3 each. Two of these plots were designated as pristine (Unpolluted soil) and crude oil polluted soil without nutrient organics and bioaugmenting microbes to serve as controls respectively. Each of the experimental plots, except the control, was contaminated with 1,700 g of crude oil giving initial Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) value of 9.296.825 mg/kg. The plots were left for 21 days to ensure even distribution and soil-oil bonding. All plots except Control 1 (plot 1) were separately and deliberately contaminated with 1,700 g of crude oil given Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) value of 9.296.825 mg/kg. Sampling was done at seven day interval (Day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56).  Parameters monitored were Nitrate, Sulphate, Phosphate, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), were monitored throughout the experimental period. Microbial analyses such as Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Heterotrophic Fungi (THF), Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (HUF). Percentage (%) Bioremediation was estimated from percentage (%) reduction of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) from day 1 to day 56 in relation to control plots.

Results: Two fungal; Aspergillus niger (Asp), Mucor racemosus (Muc); and two bacterial species – Bacillus armyloliqquefaciens strain FJAT-45825 (Bac) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CL 9 (Pse) isolated from a baseline study showed biodegradability potentials. The physicochemical characteristics of organic nutrient supplement - goat manure (GM) and fish wastes (FW) employed in the study showed that it contained valuable sources of organic nutrients which enhanced the bioremediation process of the Crude oil polluted soil (PS). Mean counts of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi {HUF} (Log10 CFU/g) respectively were: Control 2 which is crude oil Polluted soil (PS) (5.52±0.47, 4.92±0.29); PS+GM (5.832±0.68, 5.33±0.54); PS+FW (5.76±0.40, 5.10±0.40); PS+GM+FW (5.706±0.61, 5.17±0.27); PS+Asp+Muc (5.722±0.48, 5.08±0.49); PS+Bac+Pse (5.34±0.69, 5.01±0.52}; PS+Asp+Muc+Bac+Pse (5.652±0.48, 5.10±0.52}; PS+Asp+Muc+Bac+Pse+GM+FW (5.212±0.40, 4.76±0.53}. Evaluation of Bioremediation revealed the actual amount of crude oil (hydrocarbon) reduction and its percentage value from the initial contamination value of 9296.83 mg/kg during the period of 56days as PS+Asp+Muc+Bac+ Pse+GF+FW (9152.315 mg/kg; 98.45%) > PS+Bac+Pse+GF+FW (8032.825 mg/kg; 86.40%) > PS+GF+FW (6867.825mg/kg; 73.87%) > PS+Asp+Muc+GF+FW (6599.825 mg/kg; 70.99%) > PS+Bac+Pse (6587.825mg/kg; 70.86%) > PS+FW (6441.825 mg/kg; 69.29%) > PS+GM (5909.825 mg/kg; 63.57%) > PS+Asp+Muc+Bac+Pse (5081.825 mg/kg; 54.66%) > CTRL 2 (Polluted soil without amendment) (3604.825 mg/kg; 38.78%).

Conclusion: Results obtained from this study has shown that goat manure and fish wastes due to their high moisture and nutrient content properties makes them appropriate agents for enhanced bioremediation. It further revealed that a combination of biostimulating and bioaugmentating agents creates more favorable conditions for biological activity to thrive and has shown to be effective, economical, eco-friendly and sustainable in remediating organic pollutants from polluted soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Makhana Production and Socio-economic Profile of Makhana Growers in Bihar

Ravi Atal, Shridhar Patil, R. K. Sohane, Ram Datt, Suborna Roy Choudhary, S. N. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630396

The Bihar state produces more than 80 per cent of Makhana globally. Despite having monopoly production, the net profit earned by Makhana producers is relatively small as the cost of cultivation is high. In order to analyse the cost of cultivation and to identify major cost incurring operations, the present study was conducted in Purnea, Darbangha and Saharsa districts of Bihar. A random sample of 120 Makhana growers and 60 processors was randomly selected from study area. Respondents’ personal interviews were conducted with the help of semi structured interview schedule to collect the data. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the Makhana cultivators belongs to Mallah community. The average age of Makhana growers was 47 years (SD=10.3). The majority of Makhana growers (65.83%) belonged to the age group of 45-64 years. Further it was observed that 100 per cent of the sampled growers’ and processors’ households were headed by males. The average family size of Makhana grower was 9. The majority of the Makhana growers were living in joint family. It was found that, majority (76.66%) of the Makhana growers were having small and marginal holdings of which 34.16 per cent were small farmer and 42.5 per cent were marginal farmer. It was also observed that the average income of the Makhana growers was Rs. 224925 per year. Further it was found that cost of Makhana cultivation per acre was Rs. 48248/acre, The major cost component of Makhana cultivation was found to be the harvesting activity which contributed around 60 per cent of total cultivation cost. The revenue earned by sales of Makhana was Rs. 59299 per care. From each acre of Makhana cultivated farmers earned Rs. 11051. The B:C Ratio of Makhana production activity was found to be 1:1.22. Therefore it was concluded that, there exists ample scope for reduction of cost of cultivation through mechanization of harvesting activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptation and Impact of Zero Tillage Technology for Wheat Cultivation in Eastern Region of Bihar

Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Sanoj Kumar, R. K. Sohane, S. K. Pathak, S. Raghawan, Shridhar Patil, Arvind Bhai Patel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630397

The present study aims to determine the adaptation and impact of zero tiltage technology for wheat cultivation in Eastern region of Bihar.

There is an increasing recognition among policy-makers of the largely untapped potential of the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) for meeting state- and national-level food needs in India. Zero-tillage (ZT) technology has been proven for enhancing wheat productivity and, hence, food security in the IGP while reducing production costs – a 'win-win' which support rapid/fast technology scaling even though adoption remains modest to date. ZT technology is well known in the form of CA, that involves continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance, permanent organic soil cover with crop residues or cover crops and diversified, efficient and economically viable crop rotations provide opportunities for saving on inputs, improving resource use efficiency and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate change adaptation. Under the Farmers First project, an attempt was made to introduce ZT technology among two adopted villages under Goradih block of Bhagalpur district in Bihar, India. The result has shown that ZT is gaining popularity amongst the farmers in the adopted villages for establishing wheat crop for higher income and sustainability of the farming community. This technology allows rice-wheat farmers for direct drilling of wheat sooner after rice harvest without any preparatory tillage, so that wheat crop heads and fills grain before the onset of pre-monsoon. This involves sowing with a specially-designed zero-till seed-cum-fertilizer drill/planter, which has inverted 'T' type furrow opener to make a narrow slit in the soil for placing seed and fertilizer.  Wheat was sown by zero tillage technology that helped in advancing sowing time, reduced cost of cultivation in terms of land preparation (Rs.3850/ha), saving in labours time (6-7 hrs/ha), fuel (44 ltr/ha), environmental pollution (60%) as well as water-saving (33%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Tactile Comfort of Mulberry Silk Waste and Viscose Blended Knitted Fabrics by using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) for Apparel Use

Shikha Bajaj, Sandeep Bains

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630398

Tactile sensations are among the first parameters, which play an important role in guiding a consumer’s decision while selection of fabric. In the present investigation, hand properties of knitted fabrics were studied. Attempt was made on four knitted fabrics, blended in proportions of 50% mulberry silk: 50% viscose and 40% mulberry silk: 60% viscose, each in two unequal counts. Objective assessment of the fabrics has been carried out in order to obtain the scores on various aspects of hand. Parameters like low stress mechanical and surface properties were chosen for experimental design. Blended knitted fabrics were subjected to tests for prediction of tensile, shear, bending, surface and compression properties. The results could bring about the useful data for design and production of ideal fabric having desirable handle. It was witnessed that knitted fabric blended in proportion of 50% mulberry silk: 50% viscose in 20 Nm yarn count carried finest hand properties with total hand value of 3.49; hence same was recommended for apparel use, commercial handling and production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comprehensive Socioeconomic and Demographic Profile of Farm Households in West Bengal, India

G. Samba Siva, D. S. Gupta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630401

Socio demographic data of Comprehensive Scheme for study on Cost of cultivation of Principal Crops (CCPC) has been utilized in the present study to identify the distribution of social, economic and demographic characteristics of farm households among different agro climatic zones of West Bengal. The demographic study observed that majority farmers in the study area are small farmers (43.83%) with an average land holding size of 1.5 hectares and have crop production as a major occupation. The households in this study are medium sized families (4 to 6 members). The educational status of households revealed that 80.70% were literates and only 19.30% were illiterates. Majority of them have secondary level of education and minimum of two members earn money for their family. The annual family income of farm households revealed that 50.67% farm households annual income range falls below Rs. 24,000 per annum, and they were considered as living under the poverty line. The average labour force participation rate in West Bengal is 67%. Chi square test revealed that the distribution of these characteristics viz. land holding size (= 32.55; P < .01), farmers’ education (= 46.22; P < .01), farm household education (= 58.42; P < .01), farmers’ age (= 39.94; P < .01), dependency status (= 30.05; P < .01), labour force participation rate (= 17.69; P = .05), farmers occupation (= 27.63; P = .05) and annual net family income (= 35.33; P = .05) found significant and independent among the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. It is concluded that the significant socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are crucial as it gives insight into the influence of capital and education on the household economic status. We recommended that the constructive plans should be formulated to take advantage of these aspects, which could positively alter the economic conditions of the farming community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Banana

G. Ragavi, M. Muthamilan, S. Nakkeeran, N. Kumaravadivel, U. Sivakumar, A. Suganthi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630402

Several species of endophytic bacteria has been reported from various plants. In the present study, samples of roots, rhizome, pseudostem, petiole and leaves of healthy Banana plant were collected from variety Yangambi km5 (AAA). In total, 38 endophytic bacteria were isolated. Amongst 16 isolates were selected based on compatibility by cross streak method. The 16 strains tested by paper disc method, Lf4, Lf5, Lf10, Pt4 and Ps7 showed inhibitory effects against Pectobaterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum under in vitro conditions. The Lf4 and Lf5 showed similar results for the biochemical characteristics studied. The isolate Lf10 showed a slight difference with regard to oxidase test, Methyl red, Urease test and H2S production. The isolates Pt4 and Ps7 showed similar result except nitrate reduction, KOH test and Pigment production. Bacillus subtilis (Bs) strain (culture collected from Department of Plant pathology, TNAU) was used as reference culture. The total DNA extracted from selected five isolates was identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 6.0. The results confirmed that isolates Lf4 and Lf5 were Bacillus subtilis, isolate Lf10 was an Ochrobactrum daejeonense, isolate Pt4 was an Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Ps7 was a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study revealed that all the five strains have biocontrol potential against soft rot pathogen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shelf Life Extension of Banana (Musa spp.) using Hexanal Formulation as a Post-harvest Dip

I. Muthuvel, S. Srivignesh, P. Mutharasu, M. Kavino, K. S. Subramanian

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630403

Postharvest dipping of fruits in hexanal formulation extends the shelf life by inhibiting enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) activity. To enhance the postharvest shelf-life and quality of different banana cultivars viz., Grand Naine (AAA), Ney Poovan (AB), Poovan (AAB) and Rasthali (AAB) were treated with different concentration of hexanal formulations (1% and 2% Enhanced fresh formulation (EFF)) and stored at atmospheric storage condition. The results indicate that the quality characteristics of 2% EFF treated fruits of Grand Naine (AAA), Poovan (AAB) and Rasthali (AAB) were low TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and acidity indicating the perpetuation in quality of fruits during storage life besides extended shelf life of fruits. Banana fruits treated with hexanal, irrespective of cultivars experienced a significant delay in weight loss and higher firmness as compared to respective control.  The high-resolution imaging had clearly shown that the application of hexanal delayed the ripening process by the structural integrity of cells on skin and fruit pulp. The PLD enzyme activity, respiration and ethylene evolution rates (more than 10%) were markedly reduced over control due to hexanal treatment. Our results revealed that the application of hexanal formulation as postharvest dip treatment in different banana cultivars significantly enhanced shelf life over control besides continuance of quality during the storage period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tillage and Weed Control Techniques on Energy Dynamics and Profitability of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) - Rice Cropping Sequence in Irrigated Ecosystem of C. G. Plains

Anjum Ahmad, T. Chowdhury, Adyant Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630404

A field study was conducted during rabi seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at the Research cum Instructional Farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh to evaluate the effect of various tillage and weed management techniques on energy dynamics and profitability of chickpea-rice cropping sequence in irrigated ecosystem of C.G. plains. The results indicate that plots were divided into main and sub plots (tillage and weed management practices). Three tillage practices viz., conventional tillage (T1),  minimum tillage (T2) and zero tillage (T3) in main plot and nine weed management practices as pendimethalin @ 1000 g ha-1 PE (W1), imazethapyr @ 80 g ha-1 PE (W2), imazethapyr @ 90 g ha-1 PE (W3), imazethapyr @ 100 g ha-1 PE (W4) at 2 DAS, imazethapyr @ 70 g ha-1 POE (W5), imazethapyr @ 80 g ha-1 POE (W6), imazethapyr @ 90 g ha-1 POE (W7) at 20 DAS, one hand weeding at 20 DAS (W8) and weedy check (W9), in sub plots. Among the various tillage practices, maximum energy use efficiency 3.74 q MJ-1 × 10-3 ha-1 and energy productivity 160.34 kg MJ-1 ha-1 were obtained with conventional tillage (T1) followed by minimum tillage (T2) and zero tillage (T3) and among the different weed control methods, maximum energy use efficiency 5.46 q MJ-1 × 10-3 ha-1 and energy productivity 233.37 kg MJ-1 ha-1 were found with one hand weeding at 20 DAS (W8) followed by post-emergence application of imazethapyr @ 90 g ha-1 (W7) followed by imazethapyr @ 80 g ha-1 PoE (W6). The economic production of experiment in terms of net return was maximum under (T1) conventional tillage Rs.19824.21 ha-1 with B:C ratio 1.19 and (W8) one hand weeding at 20 DAS Rs.19171.44 ha-1 with B:C ratio 0.95 and this was followed by @ 90 g ha-1 imazethapyr, where net return Rs.19086.74 ha-1 and B:C ratio 1.04. The minimum net return and B:C ratio was observed under zero tillage (T3) and weedy check (W9).

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for in situ Moisture Conservation

Kiran Kumari, Anjani Kumar, Sanjay Pandey, Nityanand .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630405

Climate change has an impact on Indian agriculture in various direct and indirect ways besides affecting the lives and livelihood of millions of Indians. Efficient management of natural resources is key for enhancing the adaptive capacity of the system and contributes towards the resilience of communities. Successful crop production in frequent drought and flood-affected regions depends on how effectively we conserve the deficit rainfall and manage the excess rainfall and soils to retain the moisture for longer periods for successful arable crop production. The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluation of the performance of different in situ Water conservation measures with respect to the climatic variability prevailed in the village. Demonstrations of appropriate practices and technologies recommended by the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) are being taken up in a farmer participatory mode so that the communities become familiar with these technologies and help in their adoption resulting in enhancing their adaptive capacity and coping ability against climatic change and variability. It was observed that the use of forest leaves and paddy straw was found very profitable to conserve soil moisture in situ with BCR Rs. 7.16 followed by the use of naturally occurred leaves in fruit plants with BCR Rs. 6.22 and use of plastics in vegetables with BCR 4.41. Respondents opined that the use of natural mulch was very cost-effective as well as it is compatible with the existing farming system and very simple in its application. Wheat with cultivation through ZTD showed a maximum yield of 46q/ha. Zero tillage technology showed very promising results in pulse and oilseed cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in a Nigerian Distribution Network Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

Gafari Abiola Adepoju, Sunday Adeleke Salimon, Hassan Adedapo Aderinko, Akeem Olawale Bisiriyu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630406

The optimal placement and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) using has been shown by researchers to be effective in the reduction of power losses and improvement of voltage profile on a radial distribution network. However, it has not been applied to solve the inherent problems of real Nigerian distribution network. Therefore, this paper aimed at optimal placement and sizing of DG using Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) in a real Nigerian distribution network taking Ayepe 34-bus as a case study.

The objective function was formulated considering the real power loss, the minimum Voltage Stability Index (VSI) and the reactive power loss using weight method. The formulated objective function was incorporated into the CSA. Power flow analyses were performed with line and load data of Ayepe 34-bus distribution network without the incorporation of DG for the base case, with incorporation of single DG and two DG units.

The total active power loss, minimum VSI and total reactive power loss for the base case were 0.762 MW, 0.4741, 0.146 MVar respectively. The optimal size and bus location after single DG installation were found to be (3.5 MW, 11) respectively while the optimal size and location for the two-DG units’ installation were found to be (2.4 MW, 13; 1.4 MW, 21), respectively. With single DG unit, the total active power loss, minimum VSI and total reactive power loss were 0.141 MW, 0.9064 and 0.027 MVar respectively. For two-DG units, the total active power loss, minimum VSI and total reactive power loss 0.131 MW, 0.9287 and 0.025 MVar respectively.

The results established the effectiveness of the optimal placement and sizing of DG for the Nigerian distribution system in terms of reduction of power losses, improvement of voltage stability index and profile using CSA technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Centrifugal Force on a Porous Anisotropic Medium in Rotation, Saturated by a Non-Newtonian Fluid

Vodounnou Edmond Claude, Ahouannou Clément, Semassou Guy Clarence, Sanya A. Emile, Dègan Gérard

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630407

The present study deals with the linear stability of an anisotropic porous medium in rotation, saturated by a non-Newtonian fluid in a rectangular cavity heated on the side, subjected to the effect of the centrifugal force. The state of marginal stability is established by determining the critical Rayleigh number and the critical wave number. We have observed the effect of the parameters  and  of the anisotropy on the convection threshold.

Open Access Original Research Article

DUS Characterisation of Advanced Recombinant Lines of Kalanamak Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using Morphological Descriptors and Quality Parameters

Banshidhar ., Priyanka Jaiswal, Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Indra Deo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630408

The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of DUS characterisation of advanced recombinant lines of Kalanamak rice for 47 visually assessed characters and 15 quantitative characters. Trials were conducted for two seasons during Kharif 2016 and 2017 at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre (NEBCRC), G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (GBPUAT), Pantnagar, Uttarakhand in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replications with the spacing of 20 cm × 15 cm and the recommended cultural practices were followed. For this data were recorded for sixty-two DUS descriptors following the guidelines of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) and the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Authority (PPV & FRA). In the present study, 27 visually assessed characteristics are found to be monomorphic, 18 are dimorphic and 2 are polymorphic. KARL10 with higher yield, intermediate amylose content, early 50% flowering and early maturity is reported to be best genotypes in respect of desired characteristics and could be used as a potential source for deriving improved lines through selection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Chickpea Genotypes for Resistance against Fusarium Wilt

Sanjeev Kumar, Sangita Sahni, Birendra Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630409

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is one of the world’s major legume crops and suffers substantial damage from wilt disease incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Padwick) with yield loss over 60 per cent. The screening for new resistance chickpea genotypes against this disease is an alternative approach to avoid indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides. In this study 55 chickpea genotypes were screened against Fusarium wilt. Out of 55 chickpea genotypes studied, only one genotype was found to be resistant and 12 were found to be moderately resistance. Nineteen genotypes showed moderately susceptible. However, nineteen and four genotypes showed susceptible and highly susceptible reaction for wilt disease, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence Studies for Morphological Traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] over the Environments

Vikas Khandelwal, A. Keerthika, Meenakshi Dhoot

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630410

Genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for improving the genetic makeup of any crop. Inclusion of genetically diverse parents in hybridization programme helps in isolation of superior recombinants. So, an experiment was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity among 150 genotypes of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Rajasthan during Kharif - 2013, 2014 and 2015 in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Present study reveals that the clustering pattern based on D2 statistics grouped 150 genotypes into 6 clusters, out of which cluster 1 shows the highest intra cluster value (142.62) followed by cluster 2 (119.47). While maximum inter cluster distance (i.e.652.68) was observed between cluster 5 and cluster 6, indicating there is presence of wide range of genetic diversity among the sorghum genotypes. Such genotypes with wide genetic diversity based on their mean values can either be utilized for breeding programmes for genetic improvement in sorghum or directly adopted as a variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Germination and Vigour of Kagzi Lime Seedlings

Asha Chaudhary, T. R. Ahlawat, Sanjeev Kumar, Suchismita Jena, Dharmishtha Patel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630411

Aims: To investigate the effect of storage treatments, gibberellic acid (GA3) and duration of soaking on seed germination and seedling growth in Kagzi lime.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with factorial concept and three repetitions.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted during July to November 2017 at Department of Fruit Science, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India.

Methodology: The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments which were repeated thrice. It comprised of three factors and their respective levels. Factor S1 indicated freshly extracted kagzi lime seeds and S2 comprised of seeds stored for 15 days. The different concentrations of gibberellic acid were G1 - 200 ppm; G2 - 300 ppm; G3 - 400 ppm and G4 - 500 ppm. Whereas, duration D1 stood for 12 hours and D2 for 24 hours.

Results: The interaction between storage treatments, pre-sowing treatments and duration of soaking was found significant for all parameters included in the study except collar diameter and sturdiness quotient. Soaking freshly extracted Kagzi lime seeds in an aqueous solution of 500 ppm GA3 for 12 hours resulted in the minimum days for 50% germination (27.89), Seedling Vigour Index (3654.83) and survival percentage (84.70). The same treatment when extended for 24 hours recorded the highest germination percentage (95.68) and number of leaves (28.76). Soaking freshly extracted seeds in 400 ppm GA3 solution for 12 hours registered the maximum shoot length (21.63 cm). Kagzi lime seedlings raised from freshly extracted seeds resulted in higher collar diameter (2.04 mm) and sturdiness quotient (8.70). Further, a soaking duration of 12 hours proved better over 24 hours for collar diameter (2.04 mm) and sturdiness quotient (8.69). Between the different concentrations of GA3, 400 ppm gave better results for collar diameter (2.09 mm) and 200 ppm for sturdiness quotient (8.65).  

Conclusion: Soaking freshly extracted kagzi lime seeds in an aqueous solution of 500 ppm GA3 for 12 hrs proved to be the best treatment combination for inducing early germination, higher Seedling Vigour Index and survival percentage. Nurserymen can employ these findings for early germination and vigorous seedlings in Kagzi lime. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-Temporal Variation of Vegetation in Godavari Eastern Delta

G. Kishore Kumar, M. Raghu Babu, A. Mani, M. Matin Luther, V. Srinivasa Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630412

Spatial variability in land use changes creates a need for a wide range of applications, including landslide, erosion, land planning, global warming etc. This study presents the analysis of satellite image based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Godavari eastern delta. Four spectral indices were investigated in this study. These indices were NIR (red and near infrared) based NDVI, green and NIR based GVI (Green Vegetation Index), red and NIR based soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and red and NIR based perpendicular vegetation index (PVI). These four indices were investigated for 2011-12 kharif, rabi and 2016-17 kharif, rabi of Godavari eastern delta. Different threshold values of NDVI are used for generating the false colour composite of the classified objects. For this purpose, supervised classification is applied to Landsat images acquired in 2011-12 and 2016-17. Image classification of six reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground truth data obtained from satellite images of 2011-12 and 2016-17. There was 11% and 30% increase in vegetation during kharif and rabi seasons from 2011-12 to 2016-17. The vegetation analysis can be used to provide humanitarian aid, damage assessment in case of unfortunate natural disasters and furthermore to device new protection strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Mutagenic Effectiveness and Efficiency of Gamma Rays and Ethyl Methane Sulphonate in Jasmine

Sanchita Ghosh, M. Ganga, K. Soorianathasundaram

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630414

Background/Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to study the mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in M1V1 generation and to study effect of gamma rays on spectrum of morphological mutation in Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. cv. White Pitchi.

Methods: Terminal cuttings were treated with four doses of gamma rays viz., 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy and four doses of EMS viz., 25, 30, 35 and 40 mM separately. Both mutagens created a high frequency as well as a wide spectrum of mutation.

Results: Totally five types of chlorophyll mutants viz., xantha, viridis, yellow viridis, variegata and tigrina were observed. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were calculated based on biological damage as well as chlorophyll mutation frequency on M1 plants. The mutagenic treatments were effective in inducing various types of morphological macro mutants, with few of them showing significant changes in plant height, flowering parameters and flower yield. The lower mutagen doses were associated with higher mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency.

Conclusion: The present study indicated that the physical mutagen gamma rays were more effective and efficient in causing mutations as compared to the chemical mutagen EMS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Spray of Primary Nutrients and their Frequency on Anthurium (Anthurium andreanum L.) var. Xavia under Protected Condition

Pankaj Kumar, Paramveer Singh, Ajay Bhardwaj, Randhir Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630415

The experiment was conducted under protected conditions at the Polyhouse Complex, Department of Horticulture (Veg. and Flori.), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar during the year 2016-2017. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three replication and 10 treatment combinations, comprising five levels of water soluble fertilizer (1 g/l, 2 g/l, 3 g/l, 4 g/l and 5 g/l) and two frequencies of spray (once a week and twice a week). Plants were maintained in net house conditions (75% shade). The result indicated that among all treatment combinations, D5F2 (NPK 19:19:19 @ 5 g/l twice a week) found to be best in terms of vegetative growth, flowering and productivity of anthurium var. Xavia as it recorded maximum values for all the characters. The treatment combination D5F2 (NPK 19:19:19 @ 5 g/l twice a week) recorded maximum length and breadth of leaf (26.02 cm and 15.48 cm, respectively), plant spread east to west and north to south (62.67 cm and 62.37 cm, respectively), petiole length (36.76 cm), flower stalk length (29.17 cm), spathe length and breadth (9.61 cm and 8.30 cm, respectively) and higher yield of flowers per plant (4.13). It required minimum days (90.93 days) for first flower opening. Hence considering the positive effects on growth, flowering, yield and quality, the treatment combination D5F2 (NPK 19:19:19 @ 5 g/l twice a week) can be considered for adopting at the field level to get better qualitative and quantitative yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differential Biochemical Response among Banana (Musa spp.) Genotypes against Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV)

N. Tanuja, A. Ramanathan, S. Vanitha, K. Soorianathasundaram, K. K. Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630416

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the major viruses causing high yield loss in bananas. The study was carried out to gain a better understanding of the host and virus interaction and to explore the adaptive mechanism and biochemical responses in banana cultivars viz., Rasthali and Grand Naine against the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). In the leaf samples of BBTV infected Rasthali and Grand Naine, estimated the total chlorophyll, carbohydrates, phenols and enzyme activities such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The virus infected samples of both cultivars showed a significant increase in the defense enzymes over the healthy sample. Higher total phenols in healthy Rasthali plants which further significantly increased after BBTV infection was observed in comparison to Grand Naine. In contrast to Grand Naine, Rasthali showed higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity contributing to increased polyphenol content. Higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in virus infected Rasthali was observed in comparison to Grand Naine. The increased amount of total phenols, polyphenols and SOD activity in Rasthali might have contributed to less susceptibility to bunchy top virus. However, total protein and chlorophyll content were reduced after BBTV infection in both the banana cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physico-chemical Drinking Water Quality for Surface, Groundwater and Effluents of Industrial Cluster near Kashipur and Water of Kosi River

Pankaj Malkani, Atish Sagar, Asha K. R., Prashant Singh, Yogendra Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630417

In developing countries, one of the main concerns is contaminated drinking water. The rise in demands and development pressure is also changing the characteristics of water resources. The freshwater sources are increasingly being depleted as surface water resources have become too polluted for human consumption. To address this issue, water samples were collected from industrial clusters in Kashipur town and from the Kosi River. Industrial effluents were obtained from six locations and samples from twelve sites were drawn from the groundwater. Water supplies have been sampled from boreholes, open wells, rivers and some piped waters throughout the town of this area. The specimens are examined for their concentration of physico-chemical and heavy metals to detect pollution issues and recommend acceptable solutions. Results of the assessment confirmed that in the studied area there was the presence of various health and aesthetic parameters of concern. Apart from Kosi bank and Cheema drain, most of the effluents are acceptable for discharge into the water body. Most of the groundwater surrounding these three industries was not suitable as groundwater samples for drinking purposes at Dhouri pratha 1, Glycol gate no.1, Artesian well sugarcane center, petrol pump, and Parmanandpur-2. In addition, factors of environmental significance, such as turbidity, iron, and manganese, have a negative impact on many groundwater sources. Using alternative sources, improving water supply structures and treating water can be solutions to improve drinking water quality in this area. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Tribal Sub-Plan Project Interventions on the Household Food Security in Bihar, India

Shridhar Patil, Ravindra Kumar Sohane, Ajoy Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630418

In India, Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) aims to bridge the gap between the Schedule Tribes (STs) and the general population with respect to all socio-economic development indicators in a time-bound manner.  Ensuring household food security is one such issue area covered under TSP. The present study was conducted in the year 2019 to assess the impact of Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) project interventions on the household food insecurity of tribal communities in the selected project area of Bihar. The ex-post-facto research design was adopted to assess the impact. Data was collected from a random sample of 120 project beneficiary households, drawn from a population of 1200 project beneficiary households, using semi-structured interview schedule. Findings of the study revealed that TSP project interventions have made significant impact on the household food security level among tribal communities. The major impact was observed on the diversity of food and its quality. However, sizeable impact was also observed on the households’ anxiety for food and the quantity of food consumption as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Descriptive Statistics and Heritability for Agronomic Traits and Grain Micronutrient Content in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Avinash Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar, N. K. Singh, Rajesh Kumar, S. K. Singh, Nilanjaya ., Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Santosh Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630419

In the present investigation, 10 parents and their 45 crosses (half diallel) along with 2 standard checks (Rajendra Nilam and Rajendra Mahsuri-1) were evaluated during Kharif, 2018 in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications at Rice Farm Section, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University (RPCAU), Pusa, Bihar. The objective of this study was to identify promising rice genotypes having desirable combination of morphological traits along with high grain iron and zinc content and high grain yield potential. The results of variability parameters indicated that ample amount of genetic variability was present for all the studied traits. Most of the traits showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance indicating fruitfulness of selection for improvement of these traits. One genotype (P2×P7) with high grain iron (16.10 ppm) and grain zinc (26.40 ppm) content along with high yield (43.12 g/plant) was identified. Genotypes with high grain iron coupled with high grain yield (P7×P9, P8×P9, P5×P7 and P5×P9) and high  grain zinc content coupled with high grain yield (P4×P7, P9×P10, P8×P9 and P5×P7) were also identified. These promising genotypes identified can be used further in breeding programmes to obtain superior segregants with high grain micronutrient content and high grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Uptake, Soil Fertility Status and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Rice as Influenced by Inorganic and Bio-fertilizer in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal

Mousumi Malo, Anwesha Sarkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630420

Aims: To study the influence of inorganic and bio-fertilizers on nutrient uptake, soil fertility status and nutrient use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Place and Duration of Study: The field trial was conducted in the experimental farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India during kharif season of 2016.

Methodology: The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with seven treatments each of which was replicated three times. The experiment was comprised of seven treatments viz. T1: control, T2: chemical fertilizer at 100% recommended dose of NPK, T3: 50% recommended dose of NP + 100% RDK + Bacillus polymyxa, T4: 75% recommended dose of NP + 100% RDK + Azotobacter chroococcum, T5: 75% recommended dose of NP + 100% RDK + Bacillus polymyxa, T6: 50% recommended dose of NP + 100% RDK + Pseudomonas fluorescence and T7: 50% recommended dose of NPK + Bacillus polymyxa. Rice cultivar ‘IET-4786 (Shatabdi)’ was used as test crop.

Results: Results of this study revealed that the maximum nutrient concentration in rice grain and straw; total N, P and K uptake (136.80, 37.07 and 184.65 kg ha-1 respectively); grain and straw yield; were obtained with the application of 100% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (T2). T2 treatment was followed by 75% recommended dose of NP + 100% RDK + Azotobacter chroococcum (T4) and 75% recommended dose of NP + 100% RDK + Bacillus polymyxa (T5). Treatments T4 and T5 were significant in improving the soil health status including organic carbon content (0.38%), available N (183.29 and 172.43 kg ha-1), P2O5 (44.31 and 41.46 kg ha-1) and K2O (217.89 and 195.82 kg ha-1).

Conclusion: Therefore, treatments T4 and T5 exhibited beneficial effect on improving soil health and nutrient use efficiency leading towards higher rice yield along with reducing soil deterioration and maintaining sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profit Enhancement of Rice-based Production System through Lac Enterprise

Kiran Kumari, A. K. Jaiswal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630423

Jharkhand agriculture a rainfed one characterized with ninety percent cultivable area monocropped with rice only. On one hand there is need to enhance productivity of agricultural crop, other hand priority should be given for profit enhancement. Lac is a major source of rural livelihood in Jharkhand. Major lac host species like Butea monosperma (palash), Zizyphus mauritiana (ber) and Schleichera oleosa (kusum)are available in plenty in forest as well as on own gravel upland which is otherwise not under cultivation and are wasteland.  Diversifying the existing agriculture system through inclusion o lac not only enhances the profit margin of the production system but also developed entrepreneurial behavior of the main actor of the system.  In this background lac cultivation interventions was introduced in rice based monocropping system. Inclusion of Lac on abandoned tree of Butea monosperma and Zizyphus mauritiana fetch good economic return to the farm families with net return of Rs.  25090 per hectare and Rs. 7480/ha respectively from kusumi lac on and rangeeni lac, whereas in upland rice net return was only Rs. 3804/ha. The benefit per rupee of investment is lowest in case of growing only rice with Rs. 2.08 and maximum benefit was Rs. 5.14 in case of lac on ber. Lac cultivation on different host trees were compaered and it was found that benefit per rupee of investment were Rs. 3.59, 4.83, and 2.41. and 2.08 respectively in rice with lac cultivation of rangeeni on palash, rice with kusumi lac on ber, rice with lac on palash and ber in alternate season   and cultivation of  only rice crop. Organizing Lac cooperative and input bank at kisan club proved a pivot in better management of produce and ensuring local availability of brood lac.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Farmyard Manure, Zinc and Boron on Growth and Yield of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L) in Farmers’ Fields in Bihar, India

Hemant Kumar Singh, Bholanath Saha, Manoj Kumar Roy, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630424

Zinc and boron are two most important micronutrients found deficient in the intensive vegetable growing fields of the northern parts of Bihar, India. Keeping the above in view, the field trials were conducted in ten farmers’ fields during Rabi season of 2016-17 and 2017-18 with four treatments consisting of: i) Farmers’ practice/control (T1), ii) 10.0 kg Zn + 1.0 kg B / ha (T2), iii) 5 t farmyard manure (FYM) ha-1 with 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 as basal + foliar spray of Zn twice @ 0.5% ZnSO4.7H2O solution - one at maximum vegetative growth stage and another at flower initiation stage + 1.0 kg B ha-1 (T3) and iv) 5t FYM ha-1 with 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 as basal + foliar spray of Zn twice @ 0.5% ZnSO4.7H2O solution - one at maximum vegetative growth stage and another at flower initiation stage with 2.0 kg B ha-1 (T4). The field trials were conducted with randomized complete block design under the supervision of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kishanganj, Bihar. Results revealed that the maximum fruit yield of 280.51 q/ha was recorded with 12.03 maximum fruit number and early days to first fruit harvest (60.86) by the application of 5t FYM ha-1, 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 as basal + foliar spray of Zn twice @ 0.5% ZnSO4.7H2O solution  applied one at maximum vegetative growth stage and another at flower initiation stage with 2.0 kg B ha-1  as basal application in comparison to farmer practice with 189.79 q/ha fruit yield, 6.07 numbers of fruit and days to first fruit harvest (70.11). This treatment also recorded the highest B:C ratio (3.82) in comparison to farmer practice (2.93) indicating an economically better response to farmers of the intensively brinjal cultivated region of the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Approach to Reserve Estimation and Reservoir Simulation of ENI Offshore Field, in Niger Delta Nigeria

J. O. Ayorinde, O. O. Osinowo, P. Nwankwo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630425

Two producing reservoirs (H10 and E40) in Eni field Offshore Niger Delta were studied with intent to enhance their rate of recovery while mitigating water production. The material Balance software MBAL was used to estimate the Stock tank oil reserves and then compared to reserve estimates determined by both deterministic and stochastic techniques for improved validation. The MBAL model was also used to identify positions of fluid contacts and determine predominant drive mechanisms. These serve as guide in making informed decisions towards if and how best to economically produce remaining unproduced oil in place. Input parameters were average values derived from core and well logs analyses.

History matching of historical data enabled forecasts of possible future production life and volume at multiple scenarios.

Final outcomes show that after sixteen and forty five years of continuous  production from the reservoirs studied (H10 and E40, respectively), remaining unproduced oil in place are still significant and can be economically produced by infill wells, which will in return increase the average production by nothing less than 33% of remaining oil in place, a substantial value bearing in mind the growing demand for oil, gas  and other energy sources to lessen the apparently unquenchable world energy needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Catechol-2,3-Dioxygenase and Crude Oil Biodegradation Screening of Rhizo-Bacterial Endophytes from Bodo-Gokana, Rivers State

J. E. Agbaji, G. O. Abu, E. O. Nwaichi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630426

Strain-selection for the biotechnological application is critical in modern environmental bioremediation process design. In this study, twenty-one rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere soil of Cyperus sp., Cyperus rotundus, Mariscus alternifolius and Maricus ligularis. Samples were treated using Bushnell-Haas media fortified with Bonny light crude oil plus 1% (v/v) rhizosphere soil from pre-impacted locations in Bodo-Ogoni, Gokana LGA, Rivers state. They were screened and four bacterial isolates were selected on the basis of -2,3 catechol dioxygenase activity and their growth dynamics using the growth function model in XLSTAT v 2019.1.3. Vapour-phase transfer and viable plate count techniques were employed in the determination of microbial dynamics. The order for relative enzyme activity and degradation rates followed Pseudomonas fluorescens > Achromobacter agilis > Bacillus thuringiensis > Staphylococcus lentus. The order for growth range were 7.0-10.5 Log10CFU/ml, 6.2-10.3 Log10CFU/ml, 7.1-10.1 Log10CFU/ml and 6.4-10.2 Log10CFU/ml for Achromobacter agilis > Pseudomonas fluorescens > Bacillus thuringiensis > Staphylococcus lentus. The growth pattern of these isolates fitted into the 5th order polynomial function (y= pr1+pr2*X+pr3*X2+pr4*X3+pr5*X4+pr6*X5) with R2-values of 0.999, 0.998, 0.991,0.999 compares to Gompertz and Asymptotic functions that have the least predictability with R2- values of 0.893, 0.599, 0.869, 0.894 and 0.80, 0.545, 0.829, 0.688 for the four isolates respectively. Enzyme activity of the isolates revealed that the isolates were most active on the 6th day of the study and had a lag phase within the first few hours to a day of the study. Statistical analyses revealed a significant difference using two-way ANOVA; p< 0.001 for both enzyme activity and growth rate. The results underscore the benefits and richness of rhizobacterial flora as rich in enzymatic activity for ecosystem-recovery. Overall, the study has shown the great potential and feasibility for deploying robust biotechnology for the monitoring of environmental media involving hydrocarbon pollution in the Niger Delta.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methodology for Cement Manufacturing Application

A. K. C. Santos, A. S. Messias, S. C. de Paiva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630427

The narrowing between technological and sustainable development comes as one of the main challenges for the scientific environment and the modern company. In this scenario, waste recycling is considered an alternative for preservation of non-renewable natural resources and the environment, as a possibility of reducing energy consumption, carbon dioxide generated in the manufacture of traditional materials, and consequently, an economic advantage. The interrelationship between the steel segment and the civil segment show the opportunity of using the slag generated in the steelmaking by the cement industry. However, one of the challenges of using this co-product as cementitious input is the chloride ion contamination of unknown origin. This research aimed to propose a method to ensure the technical feasibility of using slag generated in steel refining, aiming to eliminate the chloride anion as impurity. Four samples collected from different points of the steelmaking process were studied, applying a wash with distilled water to the non-soluble solid residue, in order to extract the contaminating ion. It was evidenced that, after contact between solid residue and water, in the first wash, the performance presented an efficiency within the average range of 92 to 93%. Thus, after the practice of a simple method of chloride extraction with liquid fluid, the steel slag can be applied without restriction as an alternative material and input in cement production. Achieving the satisfactory result, a figurative prototype was built in order to enable the industrial scale to perform the same procedure performed in the laboratory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Farm Women in Sustainable Livelihood Pattern in Context of Information Needs

Shashikant Divakar, Chandan Kumar Panda, Anil Paswan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630428

This study is to analyze information sources and information needs of women farmers of Banka and Bhagalpur district of Bihar. The research was undertaken for assessment of information needed for young farm women of age group of 18-35 years with respect to kharif paddy cultivation. Useful Information is the pivotal for successful kharif paddy cultivation. In the study area young farm women contribute immensely in kharif paddy cultivation.  Information helps in creating awareness about technologies and mobilize people to use them. It also helps in training people, organizing community and ultimately resulting in the development of the whole nation. Result of the study illustrated that farm women need more information about selling of product, pest control, nursery raising and disease management. The study also revealed that the most preferred source of information was personal localite i.e. Husband, Friend, Relatives and Neighbors and agri-input dealers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Strain on External and Internal Egg Parameters of Exotic, Indigenous Chicken and Crossbreds

Udoh, Jessie Ezekiel, Udoh, Utibe-Abasi Hilary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630429

Examining effect of Strain on External and Internal Egg Parameters of Rhode Island Red (RIR), two Nigerian indigenous chicken strain:-(Pure naked neck (NNK); pure Normal feathered (NF)); Crosses were:- RIR x naked neck (RNK) cross; RIR x Normal feathered (RNF) cross. Matured 100 birds reared intensively for 10 weeks at Teaching and Research farm, University of Uyo in a Completely Randomized Design in standard management practices. Feed (16.0% crude protein, 2800 Kcal/Kg Metabolize-able energy) and water given ad libitum. 10 eggs per strain were cracked every Mondays and Fridays every week to examined External (egg weight(Ewt), egg length(El), shell weight (Swt) and Internal (yolk height (Yht), yolk weight(Ywt), albumen weight(Awt) albumen height  (Aht) and Haugh unit (HU)) egg parameters. All data were subjected to one-way Analysis of Variance of SAS Statistical Software Package Version 9.2. Results indicated significant (P<0.05) effect of strain on external egg parameters studied. For Ewt, RNK (46.38±0.79 g) and RNF (45.54±0.96 g) were statistically (P<.05) higher than NF (42.42±0.85 g). For Swt, RNF(4.71g±0.09 g) was statistically (P<.05) higher than NF (4.36±0.11g) but similar in other strains. Result indicated significant (P<0.05) effect of strain on all the internal egg parameters measured. For Hu (RNK) 79.08±1.23% and (RNF) 77.83±1.88 were statistically (P<.05) higher than (NF) 73.84±1.10%. The same trend followed in other internal egg parameters among the strains. Generally, the trends placed were exotic birds first, then Crossbreds and Purebreds last in the parameters. In conclusion, RNK and SNF crossbreds performed better in both External and Internal egg parameter than purebred strains studied. Hence, crossbreeding should be adopted to improve Nigerian Chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of LiFi and Other Data Transfer Mediums

R. I. Nwosu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630430

The growing rate of data transfer is a concern for end users in transmitting large files. There is need for a faster mechanisms for data transfer and Light Fidelity (LiFi) is an alternative medium for transferring data. This study compares LiFi and other data transfer mediums using selected parameters to improve data transfer. It is a better alternative because it’s safer, greener, cheaper and it does not have any radio waves or any other medium. It shows that LiFi have a better transfer rate of 1-3.5Gbps as compared to other mechanisms and its future application is in different fields such as industries, medicine, education and other regions requiring further exploration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Climate Change Using Trend Analysis of Rainfall, RRL AWBM Toolkit, Synthetic and Arbitrary Scenarios

Ayushi Trivedi, S. K. Pyasi, R. V. Galkate

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630431

The integrated approach for assessment of the impact of climate change is important, as climate impacts are likely to transcend sectoral or regional boundaries, with impacts of change in hydrological and geological behaviour of one sector affecting the behaviour of another or simultaneously any other sector, or region, to respond. Modelling is often used by hydrologists in the analysis of empirical data to gain insights into the underlying dynamics of simulated runoff and its trend changing pattern. Thus, these models extrapolate from a climate-related (usually temperature-related) relationship derived by observations and experiment. The climate changes have adverse and drastic impacts on climate-sensitive sectors such as water resources, agriculture and ultimately livelihood and economy of the people. Thus consequently increase or decrease in temperature, rainfall and other climatic parameters due to climate change affect the river discharge, flood, reservoir storages, groundwater levels, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, crop production, sea levels etc. Keeping this insight patches of major changes from the whole study area were selected to assess the intensity of rainfall, discharge and the incremental impact of rainfall. The temporal analysis in selected patches revealed that increment and decrement in the study area simultaneously affect the runoff by the same proportion. The trend generated through the Mann-Kendall test not only helped in assessing the impact of climate change but also identified its causative actors. The results of the study can effectively be utilized for setting priorities of hydrological behaviour in different geographical regions at various scales.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Emergence and Biochemical Changes of Primed Seeds in Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)

R. Sridevi, V. Manonmani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630432

The present study aimed in exploring the performance of primed seeds in enhancing the quality of proso millet. The primed seeds along with nonprimed seeds were evaluated for emergence, cell proliferation in radicle cells using scanning electron microscope and biochemical parameters. Seeds primed with Pseudomonas fluorescens 20% possessing higher germination and anatomical changes observed through scanning electron microscope revealed more cell proliferation which was found to show rapid cell elongation and cell division of the radicle when compared to nonprimed seeds. The biochemical causes responsible for higher invigorative effect were identified as enhanced enzyme activity recorded through α-amylase content, dehydrogenase activity, protein content, lipase activity, antioxidative enzymes like catalase activity, peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase with lower electrical conductivity, free amino acid and free sugars of the seed leachate. It is concluded in this study that primed seeds of Pseudomonas fluorescens 20% performed better than other treatments through their exhibition of higher emergence, more cell proliferation and enhanced biochemical parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

SE-LTL Model-checking on Timed GRAFCETS via ε-TPN

Médésu Sogbohossou, Rodrigue Yehouessi, Tahirou Djara, Theophile Aballo, Antoine Vianou

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630433

The GRAFCET standard (IEC 60848) is one of the convenient formalisms used to specify the behaviour of the automated systems. Being just a semi-formal language, the usual practice is to go through an unambiguous formalism such as time Petri net (TPN) in order to validate a specification expressed by a GRAFCET model. In this paper, we propose how to perform model-checking on a GRAFCET model translated into a ε-TPN, specifically with State-Event Linear Temporal Logic (SE-LTL). Especially, we provide a way to take into account quantitative time constraints verification by integrating observers in the ε-TPN intermediate model, since TPN state-space abstractions do not allow directly such kind of model-checking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Impact of Integrated Farming System on Reducing Cost of Cultivation and Increasing Income of Farmers in Chatra District of Jharkhand

Pushpendra Saroj, Ranjay Kumar Singh, Dharma Oraon, Zunaid Alam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630434

The study was conducted on purposively selected Mardanpur village of Chatra block in Chatra district where Sri. Danbhushan Lakra, Progressive farmer has developed a unique model of integrated farming system (IFS) in his 5 acres of the farm. He has designed the farm and segregated the land as per the crops and animal requirement. The IFS model comprised of field crops in 2 acres, vegetables in 1 acre, fruit plants in 0.5 acres, a pig farm in 0.25 acre, a dairy farm in 0.25 acre, Poultry in 0.25 acre, composite fish farming in 0.75 acres. Sri Danbhushan Lakra has adopted the best practices of farming under technological support of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chatra. The productivity and economic return of different enterprises and commodities were calculated and compared with previous productivity and economics. The result indicated that Sri. Danbhushan Lakra has got more than 80 per cent additional yield and profit on different enterprises, which are integrated into the farming system. He has reduced 60% external input like the feed of animal, chemical fertilizer requirement, overall he earns the annual net income Rs. 94430.75 that is 68.6% more as compared to his previous income. It happens due to the interrelation set of enterprises used so that the waste from one component became input for another part of the system, which reduced cost and increased productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Consumption Pattern and Dietary Diversity in Rural-urban Interface of Bangalore

B. C. Ashwini, K. B. Umesh, M. G. Chandrakanth, Veerabhadrappa Bellundagi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630435

The paper has examined the pattern of food consumption, dietary diversity and factors influencing dietary diversity across rural-urban interface of Bangalore. The study is based on the primary data of 510 households comprising of 189 rural, 211 transition and 110 urban households. Simpson Index of Dietary Diversity (SIDD) was employed to estimate the diversity in the consumption basket and to determine the factors influencing dietary diversity, the fractional probit model was used. The results showed that, higher cereal consumption was observed in rural area than in transition and urban areas and cereals were the prominent source of energy across all the gradients. The total calorie intake to the recommended calorie intake in urban, transition and rural area indicated that, the calorie intake in urban area was higher than the recommended intake (2100 Cal/CU/day) while, the scenario was opposite in transition and rural areas. This necessitates interventions to educate households to modify the existing purchasing behavior to reduce the gap between recommended and actual calorie intake. Further, the dietary diversity was analysed using SIDD, among the gradients, highest dietary diversity score was observed in urban (0.82) followed by transition (0.79) and rural gradients (0.77). Factors such as per capita income, access to irrigation and urban area had positive influence on dietary diversity. While, family size had negative influence on dietary diversity. Furthermore, among the different food items, cereals took major share in quantity consumption, calorie consumption and food consumption expenditure. On the other hand, diversity in consumption basket was marginally high in urban area. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Performance of Different Management Practices for Control of Leaf Curl Disease of Chili in Kharif Season of Chatra District in Jharkhand

Ranjay Kumar Singh, Dharma Oraon, Upendra Kumar Singh, Zunaid Alam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630436

An On-farm trial (OFT) was conducted for evaluating the performance of different management practices for control of leaf curl disease of chilli in Kharif season in Chatra district of Jharkhand in two consecutive Kharif seasons of the year 2016-17 and 2017-18. The experiment was conducted in Amgawa village of Simariya block in Chatra district, where farmers generally grow Chili as a cash crop in medium land. Trial was designed in randomized block design consisting of 25 replication with three technological options i.e. TO-I:  Soil application of carbofuran granule @2 gm/plant before transplanting, TO-II – TO-I: Soil application of carbofuradon granule @2 gm/plant before transplanting, + Spray of Spinosad 48 EC @ 2 ml/lit of water after disease incidence twice after 15 days interval and TO-III – TO-I: Soil application of carbofuradon granule @2 gm/plant before transplanting, +Spray of Acephate 75SP @ 2 ml/lit of water after disease incidence twice after 15 days interval besides farmers practices. For evaluation of the performance, percentage infestation of leaf curl disease on plant/5 sqm and yield q/ha was considered, as for economic analysis gross income, net income and B.C. ratio was calculated and compared with all treatments. 

The result indicated that the minimum thrips population was found in technological option TO-III (3.35) followed by TO-II (6.45) and TO-I (6.40) respectively with a higher yield (84.5q/ha). Gross income, Net income and BC ratio was also found more in technological option TO-III. So that technology option TO-III i.e. –soil application of carbofuradone granule @ 2gram/plant before transplanting spray of acephate 75SP @ 2ml/lit of water after disease incidence twice after 15 days interval recommended considering  Bio-physical and socio-economic condition of Chatra district for control of leaf curl disease for resource-rich and resource-poor farmers. This recommendation was also given to ATMA and N.G.Os of the district for faster dissemination among the farming community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Profile in the Oil Producing Localities of Imo State, South-East, Nigeria

Nnamdi N. Jibiri, Benedict C. Eke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630438

Aim: To determine if oil exploration and production in Ohaji/Egbema and Oguta LGAs have resulted in carcinogenic effects for a specific lifetime from exposures since our secondary data have shown a high percentage of cancer cases from the two LGAs.

Study Design: This was a comparative study aimed at determining whether oil exploration and production in the selected LGAs had resulted in carcinogenic effects for a specific lifetime.

Place and Duration of Study: Ohaji/Egbema, Oguta, Mbaitoli and Onuimo LGAs, Imo State, Nigeria, between June 2014 and August 2018.

Methodology: Haematological estimations were carried out at Silver Press Laboratory, Owerri, Nigeria. The Neubauer counting chamber was used in red blood cell count after the addition of red blood cell diluting fluid. The Neubauer counting chamber was used in white blood cell count after the addition of Turk solution. The platelet was also counted using the Neubauer counting chamber. The differential white blood cells were counted manually after smearing the Leishman’s stained drop of blood onto a glass slide. Olympus CX21FS1 Binocular Microscope was used to examine all blood samples.

Results: The oil-producing LGAs recorded 89% clinically diagnosed leukaemic cases while the non-oil producing LGAs recorded 11% and all results correlated strongly (r = 0.997) with the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu Cancer Registry data.

Conclusion: Overall results have indicated a high level of contamination and exposure in the oil-producing localities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Knowledge Gap of Women Vegetable Growers in Bihar

Sonam Roy, R. K. Sohane, Subodh Kumar, Anil Paswan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630440

Women take part in almost all the activities related to vegetable production as well as marketing such as purchasing of seeds, sowing of seeds, transplanting, weeding, harvesting and post-harvest operations but due to lack of knowledge, they are straggling behind than the existing international standards of vegetable production. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in Bhagalpur district of Bihar (India) to assess the knowledge gap of 120 women vegetable growers through structured schedule. Findings of the study revealed that knowledge gap was very low in case of recommended practices such as land preparation (58.67%), disease management (58.34%), sowing time of the crops (60.00%), harvesting of vegetable crops (60.00%), weed management (61.67%), seed rate (68.34%) and very high in case of agronomical practices (83.33%), irrigation management (75.00%), fertilizer management (71.67%) and insect pest management (71.66%). It was also noted that seven variables were found statistically correlated with the knowledge gap of vegetable production technology. out of seven correlated variables, four variables such as farming experience, contact with extension personnel in public and private sector and social participation were found to be highly significant at 0.001 level of probability and three variables such as education, overall annual income and annual income from vegetable farming were found to be highly significant at 0.005 level of probability. The variables age and land holding had positive but both variables were found to be non-significant. Therefore, it was concluded that there is a high need of increasing their knowledge level as well as skills about the production of vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Thermodynamic Model with Gopal’s Constants for the Inhibition of Gas Hydrates Formation in Gas Pipeline

Akinsete O. Oluwatoyin, Akintola A. Sarah, Folayan O. Goodness

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630441

Hydrate deposition remains a very willful one in the oil and gas industry and costs the industry billions of dollars worldwide for prevention and remediation in pipelines and flowlines. An economic and environmentally friendly solution to the prevention of hydrate formation is prohibitively expensive.

In this study, a thermodynamic model for hydrate inhibition in gas pipelines by applying the Joule Thomson Expansion phenomenon was developed. The model is a function of the specific gravity, initial and final temperatures, and the initial and final pressures. This developed model comes with the Gopal's constants that make the model trainable to fit data from various expansion processes.

The results obtained for sweet gases were compared with that presented by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA) and an error of less than 5% (R2 = 0.9629) was observed. The effect on sour gases was also considered. The pseudo-reduced temperature ranges from 1.05<Tr<3.0 and the pseudo-reduced pressure ranges from 0.2<Pr<5.4. But at extreme values of both pressure and temperature, the result of the proposed model deviates significantly from that of GPSA. The robustness of this model and its ease of use makes it applicable for real-time calculations in the transportation and processing of natural gases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smallholder Farmers’ Perception on Mobile Phone Advisory Potential in Farming in Bhagalpur, India

Chandan Kumar Panda, Shashikant Divakar, Anil Paswan, Chandrashekhar Azad, Shashank Tyagi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630442

Mobile phones become an omnipotent device in human interface and interpersonal communication and itself become a paramount tool for grassroots agricultural extension linkage. It was investigated to extrapolate smallholder farmers' perception of Mobile Phone Advisory Potential in Farming. Data were collected from 120 (one hundred twenty) farmers and it was found most of the farmers were middle age group (50%), education level up to Secondary level (35.84%) and annual income INR 3 to 4 lakhs (33%). The respondent's perception on Mobile Phone Advisory Potential in farming was, prospective tools to reach the unreached; any time retrieval of the message; better decision-makers; message relevance in sustainable mobile advisory usage; and high mobility to users. Farmer's decision making in farming is positively and significantly correlated with information access level (0.458**) social esteem and upscaling of mobile advisory usage (0.318*) and better information sharing and feedback (0.304*). Result also revealed that 54.17 per cent of farmers possessed a smartphone and use WhatsApp. Bihar Krishi Application (45%) and Social media youtube (48.33%) are getting popularity among the farming community in decision making. From the study it can be concluded that more agricultural related information should be made available in social media, agricultural information available in social media should be more localised and customised. Grassroots extension functionaries, viz. agri-input dealers and progressive farmers should be trained to used more ICT tools in general and smartphone in particular. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Heat Stress Condition

Sanjay Kumar, B. G. Suresh, Anand Kumar, G. R. Lavanya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630443

The present experiment was carried out at field experimentation centre of the Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) to study genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in fifty germplasm of chickpea during rabi, 2017-18. The maximum phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were noticed for 100-seed weight, biological yield per plant, grain yield per plant and number of primary branches per plant. High heritability were recorded by 100 seed weight, biological yield per plant, primary branches per plant, grain yield per plant, effective pods per plant, total number of pods per plant, secondary branches per plant, plant height, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for 100 seed weight, biological yield per plant, primary branches per plant, grain yield per plant, effective pods per plant, total number of pods per plant, secondary branches per plant and plant height which suggested that these characters can be considered as favorable attributes for the improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis for grain yield per plant revealed that biological yield, harvest index, secondary branches, canopy temperature at vegetative stage, effective pods per plant had given the highest contribution on yield per plant. So the utmost importance should be given to these characters during the selection for yield improvement in late sown chickpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Solar Based Automatic Water Heating and Temperature-controlled Recirculating Aquaculture System

Julius K. Tangka, Wirsiy F. Yusifu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630446

Recirculating aquaculture systems have proven very successful in resolving problems relating to water shortages for fish production and increased yield as the stocking density is important. These systems however consumed much energy in running pumps and heating of water since temperatures play a critical role in fish growth. The main objective of this study is to contribute in putting in place a stable automatic temperature-controlled recirculating aquaculture system capable of using water and energy in an efficient manner. The aim is to develop a system that can use 1000 L of water and grow fish to maturity. The system consisted of a 1000 L capacity tank, a mechanical filter, a bio rock filter, a de-nitrification tank with water hyacinth, an aeration system, a 12 V solar pump, a solar water heating system, and computerized automatic controls using the Arduino microprocessor. Everything was powered by 100 Watts solar module connected through a charge controller to a 200 AH Battery. One hundred catfish fingerlings were raised in a period of 8 months. Water from the fish tank move by gravity to the mechanical filter before being pumped to the bio rock filter. From the bio rock filter, the water moves to the de-nitrification tank. From the de-nitrification tank the automatic control system either sends it back to the fish tank or directs it through the solar water heating if tank temperatures are below 25°C. In order to assess the performance of the system, physical and chemical water parameters were measured. These included the total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) temperature, dissolve oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrates. Results showed that the average daily weight gain of catfish fingerlings was 0.39±0.28 g and that the physical and chemical water quality parameters were at optimum levels for fish growth. It was concluded that such a system can enable farmers to grow fish to maturity in a region with limited water and energy resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in India

M. Chaithra, S. Vanitha, A. Ramanathan, V. Jegadeeshwari, V. Rajesh, V. Hegde, E. Apshara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630447

Aim: To identify cocoa associated endophytic fungi through morphological and molecular techniques.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Pathology, TNAU, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu from April 2018 to November 2019.

Methodology: Endophytic fungal isolates were isolated from different parts of cocoa using Petrini method. Isolated endophytic fungal strains were grown in Malt extract broth and total genomic DNA was isolated and amplified using universal primers ITS1F and ITS4R. Amplified rDNA was visualized and documented.

Results: Morphological and molecular characterization of six endophytic fungi revealed that they are from four different taxa viz., Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae PAK-7, Arthrinium rasikravindrae P11, Arthrinium rasikravindrae P12, Diaporthe sp. Vef-3, Lasiodiplodia theobromae TN-R-3,  Colletotrichum sp. TN-9-2 belonging to four different families viz., Botryosphaeriaceae, Apiosporaceae, Diaporthaceae and Glomorellaceae under Phylum Ascomycota.

Conclusion:  The present study indicates the distribution and diversity of fungal endophytes in different plant parts of the cocoa tree in south India.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of the Lipid Structure of Castor Seed Oil (Ricinus communis L), Biodiesel and Its Characterization

K. Bello, F. Airen, A. O. Akinola, E. I. Bello

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630448

The paper characterized and transesterified castor seed oil. The resulting product was tested as feedstock for biodiesel production. It was carried out at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, over a period of eight months. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet extractor with n-hexane as the solvent. The oil obtained was filtered and then characterized. Transesterification was carried out using a laboratory scale biodiesel processor. The fuel and physico-chemical properties of the oil and its biodiesel were determined following ASTM, EN and AOCS methods. The results revealed that all the properties of the biodiesel are within the ASTM limits for biodiesel except the kinematic viscosity. The oil contains 89% ricinoleic acid and has high solubility in methanol due to the hydroxyl group and requires minimum amount of catalyst to give maximum biodiesel yield. The heating value obtained for the oil and its biodiesel were 32 MJ/kg and 38 MJ/kg. The castor seed oil investigated has oil content of 34%, and the properties characterized are all within the limits for biodiesel.  Castor oil has excellent solubility in methanol and hence theoretically an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti Nutritional Composition of Germinated Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

M. Naga Sai Srujana, B. Anila Kumari, K. Uma Maheswari, K. B. Suneetha Devi, W. Jessie Suneetha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630449

Aim: To analyse the antioxidant and antinutritional components of germinated quinoa.

Sample: Whole (HGQ) and dehulled (DGQ) quinoa grain (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) was procured from Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, PJTS Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad and commercially processed quinoa seed (CGQ) purchased from local market was germinated at 20ºC temperature for 4hrs and analyzed.

Study Design: Analysing antioxidants and antinutritional components.

Place and Duration of Study: Analysis was conducted in PGRC Laboratory, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.

Results: The total phenol content and flavonoid content increased upon germination and was high for HGQ and DGQ was high compared to CGQ. IC50 value for antioxidant value of CGQ in methanol and water extract was low compared to HGQ and DGQ. The oxalate content of germinated quinoa ranged from 6.17 ±0.01 to 9.45±0.02mg/100g. The saponin content of germinated quinoa was high for HGQ and DGQ compared to CGQ. When compared to the raw there was 104.16% reduction was seen in HGQ, whereas it reduced to 404.85% in DGQ. But when compared to the commercial variety the saponin contents were 23.07% (DGQ) and 69.35% (HGQ) more. This may be because of processing conditions of commercial variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Agriculture Mechanization Practices for Small Holders under Soybean-wheat Cropping Pattern

Manish Kumar, M. Din, A. P. Magar, Dushyant Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630450

The field study was conducted under wheat-soybean cropping pattern during Kharif and Rabi with wheat crops at ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Bhopal to identify the appropriate package of animal drawn implements suitable to small and marginal farmers for conservation agriculture. Different tillage treatments viz. no-tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage system were adopted using animal power during the field experiments. The grain yield was found significantly higher in minimum tillage and conventional tillage as compared to no-till for all cropping patterns. Additionally, minimum tillage saves 20% more operational cost and 34% operational energy as compared to conventional tillage. The average soil cone index was found in the range of 1.32 to 1.42 MPa with different tillage treatments. The soil bulk density was found in the range of 1.20 to 1.22 for all tillage conditions. The soil organic carbon was found significantly higher in the next after second year of practice in the case no-tillage (0.64) and minimum tillage (0.60) as compared to conventional (0.55).The result indicated that practice of conservation agriculture through minimum tillage is possible in soybean-wheat crop rotation through animal power that could be benefited for small and marginal farmers and performed better timeliness in operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chaos Based Image Encryption Scheme Using One Dimensional Exponential Logistic Map

Terlumun Gbaden, Blama Nachaba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630451

The widespread use of images in various sectors of life makes its protection increasingly necessary and important. An improvement over encryption and decryption algorithm using exponential logistic chaotic map was proposed. In this work, we adopt an encryption/decryption strategy for colour images using the exponential logistic chaotic map. The proposed encryption/decryption algorithms are implemented in MATLAB for computer simulation. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithms can be used successfully to encrypt/decrypt images with secret keys. The performance analysis using histogram uniformity analysis and correlation coefficient show that the algorithms give larger space, quick speed and easy to realize. The encrypted images have good encryption effect and low correlation coefficient rendering it a good candidate for confidential and secure means of transmitting image information in untrusted networks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Hybrids for Quality Traits, Yield and Fruit under Polyhouse Conditions

Mohan Singh, K. D. Ameta, R. A. Kaushik, K. S. Rajawat

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630452

An experiment was conducted at Hi-Tech Unit, Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur during the year 2017-18 to evaluate the yield and quality traits of tomato hybrids under polyhouse condition. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with nine hybrids replicated four times. The analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the hybrids for all the characters. The experiment results revealed that hybrid Dev was performed extremely well under polyhouse condition with respect to yield parameters viz. yield per plant (5.50 kg) and yield per square meter (24.42 kg). The observation recorded for biochemical analysis showed that maximum titratable acidity (0.509%), ascorbic acid (17.76 mg/100 g) and lycopene content (5.80 mg/100 g) were recorded in hybrid Arka Samrat. Based on the above experiment Dev and Arka Samrat are promising hybrids under polyhouse cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

FT-IR Spectroscopic Characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum Secondary Metabolites

B. Sangeetha, A. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. Amirtham, D. Jeya Sundara Sharmila, P. Renukadevi, V. G. Malathi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630453

Ganoderma lucidum is an important medicinal mushroom widely used in pharmaceuticals for their antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and immunoregulatory properties and also used in agriculture as an antiviral and antibacterial agent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a tool widely used in the researches for the identification of organic compounds in the organism. In our study, we used FT-IR Spectroscopy for determination the chemical nature of Ganoderma lucidum, and their standards Squalene and Ganoderic acid A. In the FT-IR spectrum for the G. lucidum obtained in the region of 3782.69 cm-1 to 568.898 cm-1 the absorptions peak represents the alcohols, halogens, silicon and phosphorus groups present in the sample. In the squalene standard, ketones, amides, and guanidine, nitrile and azine stretches were found in the wavelength 1655-1550 cm-1. In the Ganoderic acid A sulfur compounds with weak stretching intensity were obtained in the wavelength 500-400 cm-1. We have concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is an effective method to analyze the chemical nature of the organic groups present in the samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nitrogen Management on Growth Performance of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Var. Contendor under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir Valley

Rehana Jan, Tahir Ali, Nighat Mushtaq, Shakeel Ahmad Bhat, Baseerat Binte Nabi, Khushboo Farooq

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630454

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of integrated nitrogen management on growth performance characteristics of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) var. contendor under temperate conditions of Kashmir valley during kharif season of 2014 at the research farm of SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block (RDF) design with 13 treatments and 3 replications. The combination of dalweed compost and vermicompost with bio-fertilizer (Rhizobium) and reduced dose of chemical fertilizers were tested in comparison with RDF [1]. The soil under study was clay loam in texture, medium in available nitrogen (310.10 kgha-1), phosphorus (22.92 kgha-1) and potassium (249.10 kgha-1) with neutral pH (7.2). The physical, chemical and biological parameters of soil were found to be significantly improved under INM practices than organic and chemical management practices. It was observed that the integrated application of nutrient levels had a significant influence on growth, yield and yield parameters in French bean. The results revealed that application of 75% N through urea + 25% N through vermicompost + biofertilizer (Rhizobium) (22.5 kg N + 0.55 t ha-1 + 20 g kg-1 seed) recorded maximum growth plant height (29.13 cm), plant spread (29.17 cm ), maximum number of branches per plant (5.70) and maximum plant biomass (25.70 q ha-1).and yield characters like Maximum seeds per pod (5.50), Maximum 100-seed weight (40.02 g), Maximum seed yield (23.96 q ha-1) and stover yield (29.20 q ha-1). Thus, it may be concluded that integrated nitrogen management (INM) improved the growth and yield of French bean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Determining Water and Nitrogen Stress in Maize during Rabi Season

H. R. Naveen, B. Balaji Naik, G. Sreenivas, Ajay Kumar, J. Adinarayana, K. Avil Kumar, M. Shankaraiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630456

Aims/Objectives: Is to examine the use of spectral reflectance characteristics and explore the effectiveness of spectral indices under water and nitrogen stress environment.

Study Design: Split-plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Agro Climate Research Center, A.R.I., P.J.T.S. Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India in 2018-19.

Methodology: Fixed amount of 5 cm depth of water was applied to each plot when the ratio of irrigation water and cumulative pan evaporation (IW/CPE) arrives at pre-determined levels of 0.6, 0.8 & 1.2 as main-plot and 3 nitrogen levels viz. 100, 200 & 300 kg N ha-1 as a subplot to create water and nitrogen stress environment. Spectral reflectance from each treatment was measured using Spectroradiometer and analyzed using statistical software package SPSS 17, SAS and trial version of UNSCRABLER.

Results: At tasseling and dough stages, the reflectance pattern of maize was found to be higher in visible light spectrum of 400 to700 nm whereas lower in near-infrared region (700 to 900) in both underwater (IW/CPE ratio of 0.6) and nitrogen stress (100 kg N ha-1) environment as compared to moderate and no stress irrigation (IW/CPE ratio of 0.8 & 1.2) and nitrogen (200 and 300 kg N ha-1) treatments. The discriminant analysis of NDVI, GNDVI, WBI and SR indicated that 72.2% and 66.7% of the original grouped cases and 55.6% and 38.9% of the cross-validated grouped cases under irrigation and nitrogen levels, respectively were correctly classified.

Conclusion: Hyperspectral remote sensing can be used as a tool to detect and quantify the water and nitrogen stress in maize non-destructively. Spectral vegetation indices viz. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) were found effective to distinguish water and nitrogen stress severity in maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Tractor Operated Groundnut Thresher

M. D. Amrutiya, J. M. Makavana, A. R. Kachhot, P. M. Chauhan, V. K. Tiwari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630457

The production of groundnut in India is being rapidly increased in the last ten years and is expected to increase further in coming decade. Farmer mostly used traditional cultivation practices for production of groundnut, which are labour and time intensive. Therefore, time saving machineries suited to labours should be used by growers to handle harvest and post-harvest operations for this crop. The performance evaluation of the thresher for groundnut crop was conducted with 50 hp tractor. The experiment was carried out at the Cotton Research Centre and Instructional Farm of College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh for kharif groundnut for Virginia Bunch type varieties of GG-20 and GG-22, respectively. The pod output capacity was observed as 524.66 kg/h (cylinder speed ~ 292 rpm) and 407.60 kg/h (cylinder speed ~ 421 rpm) for GG-22 and GG-20 varieties, respectively. The percentage of blown pods, un threshed pods, broken pods and spilled pods were observed as 14.51, 18.92, 0.126, 1.04% and 6.07, 14.59, 0.361, 0.99% for GG-22 and GG-20 varieties, respectively. The average threshing and cleaning efficiency were found as 81.08, 88.21 and 85.41, 88.74% for GG-22 and GG-20 varieties, respectively. The overall average cost of threshing operation was observed Rs.729.42 per hour and Rs.156 per quintal for both the varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Coloured Polythene Bags on Fruit Quality of ‘Himsagar’ Mango Grown in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal

Soustav Datta, Sayan Sau, Pallab Datta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630458

Aims: The study was aimed to investigate the effect coloured polythene bags on fruit quality of ‘Himsagar’ mango grown in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, India.

Methodology: Field experiment was conducted at Regional Research Station, New Alluvial Zone, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Gayeshpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India (22°56″ N, 88°31″ E and 9.75 m above mean sea level) during the period from 2017 to 2018. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design (RBD) having six distinct bagging treatments (T1- Blue polythene bag, T2- Green polythene bag, T3- Yellow polythene bag, T4-Red polythene bag, T5- White polythene bag, and one control i.e. T6- No bag), replicated four times. Fruit physical parameters, bio-chemical parameters, physiological loss in weight and disease incidence % at different days of storage were analyzed in this experiment.     

Results: Experimental findings showed that among different colour of bags, green colour (T2) proved most effective as most physical parameters and bio-chemical constituents of fruit were improved in this treatment. Fruits at 8 days storage at ambient room temperature showed maximum total soluble solids, total sugar and β-carotene content with the application of green colour bag. This treatment also exhibited less physiological loss in weight (PLW) with minimum incidences of post harvest diseases during storage at ambient room temperature.

Conclusion: Findings from this study show that fruit bagging with green polythene bag proved most effective in increasing the fruit weight and bio-chemical constituents of mango with less incidence of diseases that ultimately leading to better consumer acceptance and gives higher return to the growers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Physiological Diversity of Native Fluorescent Pseudomonads from Eastern India

Annu Kumari Gupta, Erayya ., N. Vijay, A. Srinivasaraghavan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630459

The potential negative effect of agrochemicals on the global environment and the cost associated with production lead to research for replacing the chemical fertilizers with bacterial inoculants. Pseudomonas fluorescens an important biocontrol agent because of its ability to induce plant growth and fungicidal/fungistatic activity. The native population of these rhizobacteria plays an important role in sustainable agriculture as they majorly dominate the rhizosphere. In the present study native, twenty-six fluorescent Pseudomonad cultures were isolated from the rhizospheric soil samples collected from the different locations of Zone 3A, Bihar and evaluated for their morphological and physiological diversity. Among the sixteen fluorescent pseudomonads tested, twelve of them produced round to oval colonies on Kings B medium. Of the sixteen isolates ascertained WHSB was produced maximum (51.33 x10‑8) number of colonies on Kings B medium followed by MSSB (28.33 X10‑8), BRKH (26.67 x10‑8) and TMSB (26.00 x10‑8). Fluorescent pseudomonad isolates varied slightly in their colony colour like green, dull-white, whitish-yellow and yellow on culture medium, the pH of 7.5 and glucose as a carbon source found best for the growth of fluorescent pseudomonads. The present work may use to develop effective formulations of potential fluorescent pseudomonads for management of soil-borne plant pathogens. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Liquid Manure on Growth and Yield of Summer Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

Subrata Chongre, Ramyajit Mondal, Soumik Biswas, Ammaruddin Munshi, Riasen Mondal, Mahadev Pramanick

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630460

A field experiment was undertaken to study the effect of different liquid manure on growth and yield of green gram during summer seasons of 2015 and 2016. The experiment was conducted at Model Organic Farm at Kalyani C block of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Nadia under New alluvial zone of West Bengal with 8 different treatments of liquid manure i.e. (T1 = Jivamrut+FYM, T2 = Sanjivak+FYM, T3 = Panchagavya+FYM, T4 = Cow urine+FYM, T5 = Vermiwash+Cow urine + FYM, T6 = Vermiwash+FYM, T7 = Vermicompost+FYM, T8 = Control) and with three replications. The result of experiment revealed that the combined application of Panchagavya @8 kg N equivalent along with FYM @ 12 kg N equivalent (T3) exerted significant influence towards higher growth parameters like plant height, LAI and dry matter accumulation throughout the crop growth period, yield attributes like number of pod/plant, pod length, number of seeds/pod and test weight and thus achieved maximum grain yield (1085 kg/ha) and stover yield (3224 kg/ha). On the basis of field performance, it may be inferred that the treatment [email protected] kg N equivalent at land preparation + Panchgavya @8 kg N equivalent (twice equal split applications at 30 DAS and 45 DAS through irrigation water) may be recommended as a better organic package of greengram followed by FYM @12 kg N equivalent at land preparation + vermicompost @8 kg N equivalent (twice equal split applications at 30 DAS and 45 DAS as top dressing) among all other treatments applied in the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Students and Teachers towards Reforms on Agricultural Education Teaching and Learning

Nupur Biswas, Kalyan Ghadei, Nirupam Biswas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630461

This paper is based on the study titled ‘Perception of Agriculture students and teachers towards reforms on agricultural education. The study was conducted at Banaras Hindu University in the Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences. In this paper, the perception of teachers and students towards agricultural education has been studied. A sum of 775 students and teachers were considered which included 356 students of M. Sc. (Ag.), 292 Ph.D. scholars and 127 teachers from the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU. 20 per cent from each category of population were selected randomly making the sample size of 156 as the respondents. The data was collected by the survey method. Both students and teachers (100 per cent) agreed that information related to higher education abroad to be provided in India to keep our education system aware of the developments abroad. It was found that 100 per cent of teachers in comparison to students (97.67 per cent) agreed that teachers should listen to their students with an open mind. Other findings are promotion of quality research and culture among students should be encouraged, learners should be aware towards farmers and their situation by farm visits, avoidance of spoon-feeding of teaching is necessary and many more. The study reveals more interesting reforms for agricultural education described in this original research article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Manual (Pull-type) Two-row Paddy Transplanter for the Benefit of Small Farmers’ Land Holdings

K. R. Asha, Padmashree ., Babu R. M. Ray

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630462

Paddy (rice) is considered as the most important staple food-cereal crop in south-east Asian countries. It is the majorly consumed food in India. Transplanting of paddy is a highly labor-intensive operation and is still done manually. It takes around 182 to 250-man hours a day to manually transplant rice. Also, many a time due to shortage of labour, transplanting is delayed which causes a progressive decrease in yield. The scarcity of labour during the peak season of transplanting creates a problem to complete the transplanting operation in time. Manually operated paddy transplanter can be useful for small and marginal landholdings. Here we intended to develop equipment that should be of low cost, fabricated locally, versatile in utility, reducing drudgery by making transplanting possible without bending and useful for small farmers. The developed two row rice transplanter prototype can transplant 20 to 25-day old seedlings up to 5 cm depth with adjustable row spacing of about 15-20 cm. It requires two operators, one for filling the tray while walking behind and another for pulling the transplanter while walking in front of the machine. The actual filed capacity of 0.2 ha per day (eight hour working day) was achieved with the machine by considering a 5%- and 3%- time loss due to turning and filling tray respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Generalised Newton’s Gravitational Field Equation Based upon Riemann’s Great Metric Tensors

G. G. Nyam, F. O. Adeyemi, N. E. J. Omaghali

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630463

The existing theories of gravitation are founded mostly on the Euclidean theoretical Physics in which the influence of gravitational field is ignored. In this paper we derive the Newton’s dynamical gravitational field equation based upon the great metric tension in which the influence of gravitation is consider.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Static Flat-bed Batch Dryer for Small Scale Grain Drying

Lubna Sadaf Anchal, Abhinav Dubey, Prasanna Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630464

A Static Flat Bed Batch Dryer was developed at Department of Agricultural Engineering GKVK, Bangalore with a capacity of 20 kg and mainly to be used for drying paddy from harvesting moisture content (20 – 22%) to 12% for safe storage. The dryer mainly consists of Blower, Heating chamber, Plenum chamber and drying chamber. Drying characteristics such as drying rate, drying time and temperature of inlet air were studied for paddy grain and results were analysed. The decrease in moisture content, static pressure developed in the dryer and relative humidity in the dryer was studied at two different air flow rates of 1 m3/min and 1.26 m3/min. It was observed that the moisture reduction up to the desired 12% was completed in 90 minutes of operation of the dryer. The relative humidity of drying air inside the dryer as well as the static pressure was found to decrease with time. The developed technology is low cost and can be easy constructed at farm level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Using the Multivariate Analysis in Normal Irrigation and Drought Stress Conditions

Satish Kumar Singh, Akhilesh Kumar Singh, Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Priyanka Jaiswal, Aman Tigga, Avinash Kumar, Banshidhar .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630466

The present investigation was carried out in the fields located at wheat breeding section, Dr Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur and Bihar. The experimental materials of the study comprised of 39 diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. The genotypes were grown under two environments viz., drought stress (rainfed) and irrigated (well-watered). The experiment in each environment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Five plants were selected randomly from each plot for recording observations on traits viz., days to fifty per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, spike length, flag leaf area, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, canopy temperature, number of tillers per plant, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant. Germination percentage and seed vigour index (SVI) were recorded in laboratory condition. The 39 genotypes of bread wheat were grouped into seven clusters using Tocher method in both drought stress and irrigated conditions. The genotypes in cluster III and cluster VI, due to maximum inter-cluster distance between them, exhibited a high degree of genetic diversity and thus may be utilized under inter varietal hybridization programme (transgressive breeding) for getting high yielding recombinants in drought stress condition. Similar inter varietal crosses may be attempted between genotypes in cluster III and IV and cluster III and V in a drought environment. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and VI followed by cluster III and IV and cluster VI and VII in irrigated condition indicating the chances of getting high yielding recombinants would be better if the crosses are made among the genotypes of these groups. Cluster VI was suitable for grain yield, number of tillers per plant, number of grains per spike, harvest index and chlorophyll content in both environment (drought and irrigated). Therefore, the selection of parents from this cluster for these traits would be effective. Under stress, the genotypes viz., GW 2007-80, WR 1872, NAIW-1607, NAIW-1342 and WR 1743 were found promising as indicated by low drought susceptibility index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Attributes of Baked Products from Composite Flour of Wheat and Pigeon Pea

Kayode Ajayi, Paulina O. Adeniyi, Omotola M. Taiwo, Ibidayo A. Alebiosu, Faith O. Momoh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630467

The goal of this study was to develop bread and biscuit from mixture of wheat and pigeon pea flours and examine the nutritional quality of the two products. The composite flour blend was formulated using wheat and pigeon pea flours in ratio 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 (wheat: pigeon pea). The samples produced were designated as PWB1, PWB2 and PWB3 for bread while for biscuit the designations were PWb1, PWb2 and PWb3 respectively. For the control samples 100% of wheat flour was used and the samples were designated as PWB0 for bread and PWb0 for biscuit. Samples were analyzed for proximate, minerals and vitamins content using standard analytical procedures of AOAC. Mean data were compared using ANOVA at P< 0.05. The Crude protein (CP), Fat and Ash content of PWB0 (%) were; 10.19, 2.26 and 1.91, respectively. PWBI, PWB2 and PWB3 ranged from 11.69-14.21 CP, 2.82-3.69 fat and 2.09-2.62 ash. PWb1, PWb2 and PWb3 ranged from 14.40-16.19 CP, 8.02-8.15 fat and 1.53-2.01 ash. The proximate composition of bread and biscuit made from composite flour improved significantly at 70:30 formulation (P=.05) compare to the control. The calcium, potassium and zinc content of PWB0 (mg/100 g) were; 54.95, 261.70 and 0.30 respectively. PWBI, PWB2 and PWB3 ranged from 75.50-116.30, 276.05-351.40 and 0.37-0.43. PWb0, PWb1, PWb2 and PWb3 also followed similar trend. Similarly, there was significant increase in β-carotene, thiamine, and riboflavin as the levels of pigeon pea flour increased. Addition of pigeon pea flour to wheat flour clearly enhanced the nutritional composition of the two products except for the reduction in iron and iodine content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Non-compliance to Occupational Safety and Health Practices in the Informal Non-food Manufacturing Sector in Kampala City, Uganda

Stephen Aurice Wekoye, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, Stanley Makindi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630468

The informal non-food manufacturing sector is an engine of growth and development in both developed and developing countries. It’s unregulated and unregistered in official government statistics. However, this particular sector is faced with occupational safety and health hazards without preventive measures. A number of factors affect compliance with control measures. The study assessed factors influencing non-compliance to occupational safety and health practices in the informal non-food manufacturing sector in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of the study was to acquire occupational safety and health data on the informal sector and identify needed interventions for mitigation. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted with qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques in 424 firms. Chi-square analysis showed occupational safety and health was good among male respondents compared to females (p<0.05. c2 =23.9), use of Personal Protective Equipment (c2 =40.393, p<0.000), education level (c2 =147.3, p< 0.000), period working at the enterprise (p<0.05. c2 = 87.5, p=0.002) the period spent working provides experience to workers hence better equipped to manage occupational safety and health. Hours spent at work (p<0.05. c2 =19.8), due to less fatigue and exhaustion. Multivariate logistic regression showed that respondents who were 31-40 years old had significantly reduced odds (COR 0.0467-0.0478) of practising occupational safety and health practices at work and able to employ good occupational safety and health practices at work, compared to below 30 and above 50 years. Men in general employed safe practices of occupational safety and health than women (COR 0.0918-0.0997) hence safer at work due to higher literacy in men. Adequate knowledge and awareness had (COR 0.860-0.863) knowledge empowers workers about hazards prevention, usually provided through training by employers. Duration of work (COR 1.189-1.10) as result of experience in managing hazards at work coupled by supervision over time. Use of personal protective equipment (COR of 0.0317- 0.0319) being cheap. Creation of awareness, safe work practices Provision and use of PPE and provision of occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations, as well as proactive multi-media strategies to improve the situation is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Surge Model Using Furrow Gradient and Flow Retardance

E. Sujitha, A. Selvaperumal, S. Senthilvel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630469

Introduction: Surface irrigation, our oldest method of applying water on to the cropped land, has withstood the test of time because of its many advantages. Over the years, minor changes have been made to improve the efficiency of surface irrigation system.

Aim: The present study was taken to validate the existing model with furrow gradient and flow retardance.

Principle: The experimental layout has been made to accommodate the variance such as the furrow gradients (0.3%, 0.6% and 0.1%), the modes of irrigation namely the continuous flow as control and the surge flow as the treatment. Surge irrigation is a relatively new technique whereby water to surface irrigated furrows is applied intermittently in a series of relatively short ON and OFF time periods of irrigation cycles.

Results: It is claimed that the ON-OFF cycling of the flow for specific time periods produces surges during the ON period and influences the soil intake during the OFF period when water soaks into the soil. The net result is a reduction in soil infiltration rates during subsequent surge ON periods and an increase in the rate of water front advance. The SURGEMODE model can only gives the net water front advance time that can be predicted for non-vegetated condition and a standard reference slope. However when the furrow is getting vegetated or when the slope gradients are changed, the water front advance predicted through the existing model cannot be predict accurately.

Conclusion: Hence, the study involved to validate the existing model with furrow gradient and flow retardance. The use of revalidated existing SURGEMODE model with the correction factor would be the exact suitable model for the local condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced Welfare through Market Integration: A Study of Growth, Variation and Price Integration of Chickpea

L. Wahlang, M. K. Sekhon, Sunny Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630470

Chickpea is the most important pulse in India. The present study is based on secondary data, worked out trends in production, seasonal variation and integration among major markets of India. Advance Econometrics analysis like Granger Causality test, Johansen Co-integration test and Vector Error Correction model were employed to examine the integration of markets. The trend in area and production shows fluctuations in major producing states except in Uttar Pradesh. In all the major producing states of chickpea, contribution of area was higher in production. The production trend improves in case of Madhya Pradesh whereas decreased in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Seasonality in arrivals has impacted the monthly retail price in all the selected markets. Out of six selected markets, five markets were having a long run price relationship. However, market integration has not yet reached an optimal level because all markets were not spatially integrated with one another in all the cases. The short run results indicated that chickpea’s markets were not well integrated. This could be due to poor market intelligence and unfavorable location of the markets. The policy intervention calls for strengthening market intelligent wing in all markets along with the establishing of online marketing system through computerization and networking. Strengthening of market infrastructure including transportation and communication facilities are the need of time in order to fully integrate the market prices. Concentration of marketing during the lean seasons helps reducing the impact of seasonality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genotype x Environment Interactions of Chickpea Genotypes to High Temperature Tolerance under Different Environmental Conditions

Avinalappa Hotti, Raghunath Sadhukhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630471

The present investigation was conducted using twenty two chickpea genotypes including check varieties under different sowing conditions in West Bengal to identify the genotypes that are tolerance to high temperature stress by assessing their genotype x environment (G x E) interactions. The experiment was organised in Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications over two consecutive years during 2014-15 and 2015-16. The data obtained from the yield component traits of these genotypes was undergone to two way analysis of variance to understand the existence of genotype by environment interaction. Significant differences in crop phenology were observed among the genotypes of chickpea from all tested environments while the interaction was significant for all the traits under study except number of seeds per pod. Thus, variation in response of the genotypes to different planting condition was observed. After determining the significance of genotype by environment interaction, the data was further subjected to additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis in order to estimate the main effect of genotypes as well as genotypic and environmental components of interaction for seed yield of chickpea genotypes. According to the AMMI model, 79.49 and 79.92 per cent of the total sum of squares was attributed to the environmental effects, whereas 20.22 and 17.93 per cent had attributed to genotype, while 0.29 and 2.15 per cent to genotype by environment interaction across the respective years. Hence, the maximum proportion of the variation in seed yield was gained from normal sown condition. The genotypes ICCV 10 and RSG 963 produced equal yield under late sown condition, as demonstrated by the AMMI biplot. Therefore, the adaptability of these genotypes to different environments can be qualitatively assessed and recommended to use in breeding programs targeting of chickpea for growing in warmer areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability in Seed Traits Considering Some Genotypes of Wheat

Sudip Mandal, Utpal Biswas, Prabir Chakraborti

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630472

To evaluate the superior genotype (s) with the authenticate selection procedure, twenty (20) various wheat genotypes were undertaken utilizing their qualitative seed attributes like morphology and biochemical action through studies on genetic variability. The statistical design CRD was followed to analyse those seed traits on collected seed from the farms. Considering the seed morphology, V14 (HD3218) genotype showed prominence effect though an inconsistent leaning was observed for biochemical activities considering diverse genotypes in addition to wide range of variable expression for all characters among genotypes. Coefficient of variation provided a relative measure on variance among different traits. GCV and PCV were found highest in thousand seed weight followed by seed volume, length-breadth ratio, seed breadth etc. In biochemical parameters, the GCV and PCV specified its maximum difference for certain characters like soluble protein, peroxidase etc. but the values were very near in other cases representing high heritability. Heritability played a vital role in deciding the aptness and approach for selection of the character. Water absorption potential at initiation and after 24 hours, thousand (1000) seed weight, seed volume, peroxidase activity of fresh seed had high heritability (broad sense) coupled with high genetic advance as percentage of mean specified the multitude of additive gene action. These characters could be upgraded through selection procedure and these were most significant characteristic of seed. Hence, the assortment built on these traits would be very active for wheat genotype grown under West Bengal condition. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Profitability of Cotton-wheat Cropping System as Influenced by Complex Fertilizers

B. S. Brar, G. S. Dheri, Fatehjeet Singh Sekhon

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630473

An experiment was conducted during 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Ludhiana, Punjab to find out the productivity and profitability of the cotton-wheat cropping system as influenced by complex fertilizers. The experiment was comprised of nine fertilizer treatments. The results demonstrated that significantly higher cotton yield and stalk yield was recorded under T9 -AP60+S15+Zn1.5 (15.3 q/ha and 50.5 q/ha respectively in 2012 and 22.2 q/ha and 55.6 respectively in 2013) which was statistically at par with T6 – DAP (P60)+S15+Zn1.5 (15.0 q/ ha and 50.4 q/ha respectively in 2012 and 22.1 q/ha and 55.4 q/ha, respectively in 2013). Similarly in wheat crop, T9 -AP60+S15+Zn1.5 gave significantly higher grain yield and straw yield (39.0 q/ha and 63.0 q/ha, respectively in 2012-13 and 45.6 q/ha and 73.6, respectively in 2013-14) which was comparable with T6 – DAP (P60)+S15+Zn1.5 (38.5 q/ ha and 62.8 q/ha respectively in 2012-13 and 44.4 q/ha and 72.4 q/ha in 2013-14)  as compare to other treatments. Economic analysis indicated higher net return (₹ 8739.0) and B:C ratio (0.37) for cotton under T8- AP30+S7.5+Zn0.75 whereas T9 -AP60+S15+Zn1.5 net return (₹14417.5) and B:C ratio (1.07) for wheat as compare with other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drying Performance of Beans Using Natural Convective Step Type Solar Dryer

S. Joshua Davidson, J. John Gunasekar, K. Prasanthkumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630490

Development of appropriate technologies for conversion of solar radiation to thermal energy is essential for fruit and vegetable preservation. A natural convective step type solar dryer with 10 trays was used. The drying parameters such as drying temperature, drying rate and dryer efficiency were studied on bright sunny days from top to bottom of the dryer using unblanched and blanched beans. The maximum and minimum temperatures observed were 84ºC and 50ºC at no load, 59ºC and 75ºC using unblanched beans and 51 and 75ºC using blanched beans. While drying on a sunny day, the moisture content removed was from 72 to 14% for unblanched beans and 76 to 7.32% for blanched beans. On quality evaluation, the high rehydration coefficient was found in blanched beans (0.76) than in unblanched beans (0.52). The collection efficiency was found to be 40.92% and drying efficiency was found to be 15.85% using unblanched beans and 18.75% using blanched beans.

Open Access Review Article

Cow Dung as a Bioremediation Agent to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Agricultural Soils

T. M. Neethu, P. K. Dubey, A. R. Kaswala, K. G. Patel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630437

Petroleum derived products are very important as they are energy source and it is prone to accidental spill regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport and storage. The characteristics of the hydrocarbon content of the petroleum mixture influence the degradability of individual hydrocarbon components; the simpler the hydrocarbon structure the easier its biodegradability and the complex the hydrocarbon structure the harder its biodegradability. Furthermore, the order of biodegradability of hydrocarbon is alkanes > alkenes > alkynes > aromatics. Bioremediation technologies are effective techniques to mitigate many organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons, halogenated organic compounds, halogenated organic solvent, non-chlorinated pesticides and herbicides, nitrogen compounds, radionuclides, heavy metals. Bioremediation is having different strategies like an exploration of indigenous microbial populations, bio-stimulation, temperature, soil pH, bio-augmentation, phytoremediation, photo-degradation, phyto-volatilization and phyto-stabilization. Cow dung, excreta of bovine animal is a cheap and easily available bio-resource on earth. Many traditional uses of cow dung are already known in India. Cow dung harbors a diverse group of microorganisms that may be beneficial to humans due to their ability to produce a range of metabolites. Nowadays, there is an increasing research interest in developing the applications of cow dung microorganisms as a bioremediation agent to hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Microorganisms capable of degrading hydrocarbon pollutants have been identified and isolated from cow dung. These organisms include; Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Proteus kleibsilla, Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus and Penicillium. Therefore, cow dung is an effective, economical and eco-friendly bioremediation agent which can lead to the complete mineralization of hydrocarbon. The post remediation assessment of residual hydrocarbons in contaminated soil can be done with gas chromatographic fingerprinting technique and phytotoxicity bioassay.

Open Access Review Article

Consumption Pattern and Health Implications of Convenience Foods: A Practical Review

Bhavya Dhir, Neerja Singla

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630455

Background: The present study was aimed to review the consumption pattern and health implications of convenience foods in regular life. The term 'Convenience food' is being widely used in the catering industry due to rapid progress in food technology. Consumption of convenience foods is inexorable in modern scenarios due to rapid urbanization, changing lifestyle, rising purchasing power and adaptation to western culture.

Methods: A constructive review work was done from available data sources and available literatures.

Results: The Indian ‘Ready-to-Eat (RTE)’ market reached at Rs 2900 crore and Rs 3500 crore in 2015 and 2016 respectively. RTE foods are growing at 40% per year. According to the World Health Organization, the trend towards surplus convenience foods provides the food  industry with various commercial opportunities and profitable outcome for the food manufacturers. However, these foods are regarded as one of the least healthy dietary options, contributing to the health and diet-related diseases comparable to the risks associated with smoking, alcohol and drugs.

Conclusion: Excessive consumption of convenience foods is one of the major factors for the higher incidence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Postharvest Diseases of Vegetables in a Tropical and Sub-tropical Environment of the Kingdom of Eswatini

Diana M. Earnshaw, Michael T. Masarirambi, Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini, Kwanele A. Nxumalo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630465

Vegetables are important in human diets as a side dish eaten either cooked or raw as in salads. They are important for their nutritional contribution as major sources of minerals, vitamins, nine essential amino acids, beneficial phytochemicals, fibre and interesting colour from an aesthetic point of view. Despite the immerse health benefits offered by vegetables there are challenges encountered in their post-harvest handling and storage up to consumption. Challenges include post-harvest losses due to diseases. Some losses occur even at household level when vegetables are not stored appropriately when stored under the sink where humidity can be high leading to an environment which promotes diseases. Diseases in the post-harvest chain are caused by bacteria and opportunistic pathogenic fungi. Post-harvest losses of vegetables are not only a threat to nutritional security but a threat to food security as well. The aim of this research study was to document major post-harvest diseases of vegetables found in the Kingdom of Eswatini and to suggest appropriate management strategies or ways of alleviating them.