Open Access Minireview Article

Advances in Packaging of Litchi Fruit to Maintain the Quality

S. K. Purbey, Alemwati Pongener, Evening Stone Marboh, Narayan Lal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130342

Litchi is distinctly a delicate, delicious summer delight, juicy, flavoured and attractive bright red colour fruit having good source of minerals and vitamins. India and China account for about 91 percent of the world’s litchi production but it is mainly marketed locally. Despite its wide popularity and demand in domestic and international market, transporting the fruit to distant markets has remained a challenge due to its highly perishable nature. Postharvest interventions therefore become indispensable to preserve litchi fruit quality for longer duration. One among such interventions is packaging that directly influences transpiration losses and respiratory metabolism in litchi fruit. Packaging plays the all important roles of containment, protection, convenience, and communication. Previously, gunny bags, bamboo basket, wooden boxes were used for packaging, but are now being rapidly replaced by corrugated fibre board (CFB) boxes for the versatility they bring. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of litchi in combination with postharvest treatments offers promising solutions to preserve litchi fruit quality. Intelligent packaging through use of sensors, wireless sensor networks, radio-frequency identification device (RFID) etc show the way ahead for future packaging solutions. Nonetheless, innovation in litchi packaging will require careful considerations of all factors that lead to quick fruit deterioration and generation of waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Level of Farmers and Constraints Faced in Adoption of Crop Rotation System

Gautam Tanay Sahu, Simarjit Kaur, Gurvinder Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130349

Crop rotation is one of the major agricultural practices in sustainable farming. A proper crop rotation can increase nutrient uptake and improve soil health along with the decrease in pest and weed infection. In Punjab, usually wheat rice cropping system is followed by the farmers. The present study was conducted in five selected villages of Mohali district (Punjab). A sample of 40 farmers was randomly selected from each selected village on the basis of probability proportional to number of farmers in each land holding category. In this way, total 200 hundred farmers were selected for the present study. From this study it was found that 71.50 per cent of the farmers were belonged to middle age group and an equal percentage (i.e. 43.50%) of the farmers had matric level and higher secondary & above education. From total 44.50 per cent of the farmers had more than 5 acres of land holding whereas 37.50 per cent had 2.6 to 5 acres. Study also revealed that 46 per cent of the farmers had low knowledge level about crop rotation whereas 15.50 per cent and 38.50 per cent had moderate and high knowledge level. From different ten aspects, maximum farmers had good knowledge about the effect of crop rotation on annual income and fertilizer input while they had lowest knowledge about recommended crops for crop rotation. Lack of remunerative MSP policy & proper marketing system for alternative crops and high labour cost was the major constraints reported by the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Decision Making Process and Authority in Families in Rural Punjab: A Comparative Study

Neha Wasal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130343

This study was planned to find the changes occurring in rural family institution in Punjab and its major consequences. This study was done in Sangrur and Ludhiana district of Punjab to analyse the changes occurring in family institution and it was found that structure of family system have been significantly changed. The present study was conducted to assess the causes and consequences of changing family institution in two districts of Punjab by taking a sample of 320 respondents, with the following objectives: (i) To highlight the changes occurring in the family structure of rural areas, (ii) to pinpoint the factors responsible for the changes in rural families, (iii) to examine the social, economic, cultural and psychological impact of changing role of families.  Respect of elders by children has declined significantly, as 84% of the respondent feel that their importance had been decreased in the family. Place of giving birth to child has also been changed from home (26%) to Hospital (74%) at two point of time.  Agriculture has loosened its position of prime occupation preference among farm families in recent past. Only 8 per cent of the respondents prefer agriculture for their children. Socialization process of children have changed as 82% of the respondents said that children use more technology in 2015 while, 29% and 41% replied that children do not attend family conversation and do not perform household work respectively. The use of technology of various types has increased significantly in family life from 1990 to 2015. A notable finding of study showed a shift from individual (male) to collective decision with regard to various issues of families, particularly the education of children. Similarly there is a decline in performance of various traditional rituals. Increased show off culture (85%), impact of urbanization (64%), lack of job opportunities (79%), self centred attitudes of family members (76%), increase use of technology (85%) came out as main factors responsible for generating changes in the institution of family. Lack of patience among members, increasing problem of aged and children, increasing conflicts among families and changing types of families were major consequences. Adequate interaction in family to keep the emotional bonding, judicious use of technology, inculcating moral values among children and shunning the materialistic tendency were some of the suggestions given for smooth functioning of families in the rural areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in Socio-economic Development in Hoshiarpur District of Punjab

Neha Wasal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130344

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) aimed at providing direct employment to the deserving rural people has been in operation for last many years. The present study had conducted to assess the role of NREGA programme with the following specific objectives: (i) To study socio-economic profile of the beneficiaries of NREGA (ii) To assess the contribution of NREGA in socio-economic development of its beneficiaries (iii) To identify the factors of success and failure (iv) To render suitable suggestions for further improvement in the NREGA programme. Research gap of this study was to analyze the profitability of social programmes being initiated by governments. Results showed Socio-economic profile of the respondents that most of the respondents were male, in the middle age group, hailing from Schedule Caste category and were having little education and low income level. The profile of beneficiaries of NREGA programme indicated that the benefits of this programme is going to the deserving people. Rural connectivity (repair of roads etc.), village cleanliness, plantation were the major areas in which the NREGA beneficiaries worked under the supervision of a Mate. The village Sarpanch proved to be the major person who made aware to the beneficiary and helped them to get employment under this programme. On an average beneficiary of NREGA got employment for 15 days in a month. All the beneficiaries of the NREGA programme got prescribed wage i.e. Rs.123 per day which was paid timely to the respondents. 1/5th of the respondents held that dependency on the farmers had reduced after joining NREGA programme and also wage rate had increased in other activities in villages due to the arrival of NREGA programme. 38 per cent of the respondents opined that NREGA activities helped them to remove idleness whereas 25 per cent of respondents felt more social recognized after joining NREGA. Overall the launching of NREGA programme had increased the demand for labour in rural areas. The non beneficiary of NREGA programme did not join the NREGA largely due to social inhibition (not ready to do labour in own village), low wage rate and irregularity of work. Irregular grants and work opportunities, less wage rate were the major constrains experienced by the beneficiaries of NREGA. Regularity in grants, generating adequate employment opportunity may prove more useful for NREGA beneficiary and society at large.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vinyltrimethoxy Silane and Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane: Excellent Silane Coupling Agents for Cotton Fiber Functionalization

Md. Khademul Islam, Firoz Ahmed, Md. Ahsan Habib, Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130346

Vinyltrimethoxy silane and aminopropyl triethoxysilane were used for surface functionalization to enhance the textile performance of cotton. The process was carried out in an ethanol-water medium, which accelerated the cross-linking reaction between fiber and silane monomers. The process was optimized carefully as a function of fiber weight gain. The optimized modification conditions were silane monomer concentration 600 and 300% (on weight of fiber), ethanol-water ratio 60:40 and 80:20, pH 3.5 and 5, reaction time 90 and 60 min at room temperature (30°C), for VTMS and APTES, respectively. The silane-modified cotton fiber showed improved tensile strength, water repellency, thermal stability and wrinkle recovery. These improvements are due to flexibility of the Si-O bond and the fiber matrix interfacial strength properties. Instrumental analyses, such as FTIR, TGA, DTG, SEM and EDX, were carried out successfully. FTIR was used to identify the Si-O-Si group of VTMS and the Si-O-CH3 of APTES on modified cotton fibers, and TGA and DTG were used to evaluate the modification's effect on the thermal stability of the fiber. SEM was used to study the surface morphology after modification and EDX was used to measure the quantity of elemental silicon atoms on the fiber backbone. Finally, unmodified and silane-modified cotton fibers were dyed with two reactive dyes and the modified cotton fiber showed better ability to accept dye than that of the unmodified fiber.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geological Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Prospect of FOB-field, Coastal Swamp Depobelt, Onshore, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

Frankie O. Balogun, Franklin A. Lucas, Osarodion Ebomwonyi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130347

Well logs, biostratigraphic data, seismic data and semblance map which together form a multidisciplinary data approach, were utilized in the geological evaluation of hydrocarbon prospect FOB-Field, onshore Coastal Swamp Depobelt in the Niger Delta Basin. Structural interpretation of faults, correlation of wells and 3D seismic interpretation were carried out using Schlumberger’s window based petrel software integrated with various lines of evidence such as sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces. The penetrated sedimentary succession was established to constrain the alternation of sand packages from proximal to distal. The studied wells were dated mid to late Miocene based on the geological position of the sequence boundary (10.35Ma) and geological ages of the Mfs (9.5MaMfs) and (10.4MaMfs) respectively corresponding to the Coastal Swamp Depobelt of the Niger Delta Basin. Integration of well logs, seismic, semblance, paleobathymetric and biostratigraphic data indicated mid to late Miocene and neritic to bathyal paleoenvironment of deposition. Integration of fault integrity, seismic, well logs and key stratigraphic markers were utilized to build a seismic facies model and a gross depositional environment model for the FOB-Field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tillage and Weed Management Practices on Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Wheat under Maize – Wheat Cropping Systems in Haryana, India

Kavita ., V. S. Hooda, Rajbir Garg, Kavinder .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130348

An ongoing field experiment established in 2012 at Agronomy Research Farm, Chaudhary Charan Singh (CCS) Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India was selected to evaluated the effect of three tillage practices (zero tillage, furrow irrigated raised bed system and conventional tillage with mouldboard plow ) and four weed management practices (W1: Atrazine (50% W.P.) at750 g/ha in maize and pinoxaden 50 g/ha + premix of metsulfuron and carfentrazone (Ally Express 50% DF) 25 g/ha + 0.2% NIS as post-emergence in wheat, W2: Tembotrione (Laudis 42% Sc @ 120 g/ha + S 1000 ml/ha (10-15 days/ 2-4 leaf stage) in maize and clodinafop 60 g/ha + metsulfuron 4 g/ha as post- emergence in wheat, W3: Two HW in maize (20 to 40 days) and wheat (30 to 50 days), W4: Weedy check in maize and wheat) on nutrient uptake and yield of wheat. Treatment was replicated thrice with spilt plot design. Plant samples were collected in the month of April, 2016 after the harvesting of wheat. Significantly higher yield of wheat was reported under FIRBS (66.1 qha-1) followed by zero tillage and under weedy check treatment as compared to other under different tillage and weed management practices. These results suggest that zero tillage and FIRBS along with the weedy check treatment results in higher wheat yield followed by maize.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on the Development of Car Booster Seats for Children

Ibun Nuraresya, Umar Nirmal, P. K. Ng

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i130345

Over the past decade there has been a deeply troubling increase in the number of vehicle traffic fatalities involving children. Owing to this, many researchers have contributed to research and development on car booster seats for children. In view of this, the current work encompasses a compilation of articles reviewed on car booster seats for children ranging from the years 1988 to 2018. Further than that, this work also provides information relating to the varying designs and specifications of car booster seats. Concurrently, the writers also propose potential future research that could be undertaken in relation to the developments in child car booster seats, which in turn may allow for new research pathways in this area of interest. Finally, taking into consideration the design and safety factors of the current market trend car booster seats for children, the writers also propose possible state of the art car booster seats for various applications.