Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Management Strategies for Yield-Scaled Global Warming Potential under Rice-Wheat Cropping System

Suborna Roy Choudhury, Anupam Das, S. K. Gupta, Seema ., R. P. Sharma, S. K. Pathak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630310

Greenhouse gas emissions have an indirect impact on crop production and are primary sources of the global warming. A field experiment was carried out to examine the effect of management practice (i.e. culmination of tillage and nutrient management) on GHGs emission and its subsequent effect on agronomic productivity and subsequent impact on global warming. There were three different crop establishment methods as main plot treatments: M1 (Rice: SRI, Wheat: Conventional tillage), M2 (Rice: Transplanted Puddle rice, Wheat: Conventional tillage + 30% residue incorporation), M3 (Rice: DSR, Wheat: Zero tillage + 30% residue retention) and four nutrient management as sub plot treatments viz. S1(100% of Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) through inorganic sources), S2 (75% of RDF through inorganic sources + 25% N of RDF through organic sources), S3 (50% of RDF through inorganic sources + 50% N of RDF through organic sources), S4 (S1 + mung bean as green-manure). After conducting three year of experiment (2013-2016), it has been found that the DSR emitted lower CH4 (1.39 mg m-2 hr-1), CO2 (0.57 mg m-2 hr-1) and N2O (0.36 mg m-2 hr-1) at the maximum tillering stage of rice. The same trend was followed under zero tillage with30% residue retention in wheat with lower emission range of all three gases i.e. 0.95, 1.29 and 0.58 mg m-2 hr-1 respectively. Lowest emission of CH4 and CO2 with the values of 1.87 and 1.24 mg m-2 hr-1 respectively from rice and 1.57 and 3.23 mg m-2 hr-1 from wheat was observed under 100% RDF through inorganic fertilization, whereas, N2O emission was just reverse to emission pattern of CH4 and CO2. Crop establishment through minimum soil disturbance with residue retention under rice- wheat cropping sequence along with 100% RDF through mineral fertiliser along with green manure could be one of the stable agronomic strategies under lower GHGs emission scenarios.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Residue Management under Changing Climate Scenario

Jubuli Sahu, Muneswar Prasad, Raghubar Sahu, Dharmendra Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Mandal, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630313

An effort has been made to study the effect of climate change on crop residues and need of crop residue management in present environmental condition. Crop residue management as an important practiced in the rice–wheat cropping system. In present condition, cropping season is shifted according to changing rainfall pattern. In case of wheat and rice-based cropping system, there is a chance of crop loss due to occurrence of rainfall at harvesting stage so, to cope with that situation combine harvesters become more popularize among farmers because of effective harvesting in less time, less effort and minimum labour cost. But it lefts a huge amount of loose straw in their field and farmers face difficulties in the disposal of huge straw in the field in short time has compelled to go for crop residue burning to save time as well labour. Farmers can use that residues in vermi-composting, can be fed to animals after urea treatment etc. without burning. In recent year 30-40% maize crop have been damaged due to hailstorm at its grain filling stage so these residues can be used in making silage. Removal of straw or stover can result in significant loss of soil organic carbon (SOC). If they are used as bedding for livestock, then much of the carbon may be returned to the soil as manure (Lal et al., 1998). When crop-residue is incorporated into soil, the soil’s physical properties and its water-holding capacity are enhanced. Unlike in earlier conservation farming systems wherein retained stubble was mulched and slashed, now it is mostly burned by the farmers. Vermicomposting, waste decomposer, Green Manuring, use of zero tillage machine, silage making and urea treated straw are the best option to crop residue management. The study aimed to examine the present status of crop residue management of major crops and its impact on farmers’ livelihood covering eleven blocks in Banka district of Bihar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainability and Food Security through Judicial Use of Agricultural Wastes by Technological Intervention for Animal Feeding

Dharmendra Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Raghubar Sahu, Jubli Sahu, Muneshwar Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630316

India has approximately 600 million livestock, which requires almost 1000 million tons of hay or green fodder to sustain present level of productivity. Despite the fact that cereal crop residues are of low feeding value (i.e., poorly available nitrogen, low digestibility with lack of useful minerals) and have low voluntary intakes (around 1.5-2 kg/100 kg mature body weight), they constitute and continue to be an important feed resource for sustainable dairy production in the developing world. Annually >20 million tons of straw biomass is being burnt in the field due to various reasons which is causing serious environmental pollution. On this view feeding trail of urea treated maize straw and huller rice bran and silage of maize feeding in cow was conducted. Urea treated straw feeding was 5.9± 0.3 kg/ day/animal with concentrate and roughage ratio was 40: 60. Total feed intake was 13kg/day/animal. Urea treatment of straw (UTS) costing average 0.84 Rs/kg and feeding of UST decreased the concentrate requirement by 20% saving average 8503Rs/Inter calving period/cow. UTS also prevent the decrease in milk yield by 10% when green fodder was not available. Costing of Silage making was 0.72Rs/kg and feeding of silage increased the milk yield and net income by 10% and 10,516Rs/Animal/ year, respectively. From this study it can be concluded that the dairy farming could be a profitable entrepreneurship when farming with application of urea treatment and silage technology for agricultural wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Happy Seeder Machine Enable Direct Drilling of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Rice-wheat Cropping System

Balkaran Singh Sandhu, Nirmaljit Singh Dhaliwal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630318

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2015-16, 2016-17 and 2017-18 by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Muktsar, to find out the performance of happy seeder machine for sowing of wheat after rice crop. Happy seeder tackles the problem of paddy straw which can convert this waste into resource. In the area, farmers generally burn rice residues because they felt that it interferes with tillage and seeding operations for the succeeding crops and it has no much economical use. The average grain yield revealed that happy seeder sown crop gave 47.5 q/ha grain yield as compared to 49.6 q/ha in conventional sown method. Net return was calculated during all the years. Happy seeder sown crop gave higher net return (Rs 55279.2/ha) from conventional method (Rs. 52189.7/ha). Net return was higher due to less cost of cultivation (Rs. 22325/ha) from Rs 28641.6/ha under conventional sowing method. So with Happy seeder, low cost of production with respect to conventional tillage system gave maximum net return and it is a cost effective technology. The cost of cultivation in happy seeder was also lesser than conventional method mainly due to less cost on tillage preparation, saving in weedicides, fertilizers etc. Farmers are more interested in variable costs and economic return of newly introduced enterprises. Economic analysis assists researches to plan their research for detailed investigation and to make decision, so that it may be recommended to the farmers. So, economic analysis is essential to check the profitability and net return of the system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Residues Management with Different Crop Establishment Methods in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)–Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cropping System

Raghubar Sahu, S. K. Mandal, K. Sharda, D. Kumar, Jubuli Sahu, Muneshwar Prasad, R. K. Sohane, Ravi Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630322

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif and rabi seasons of 2015 and 2016 at farmer’s field of Banka District as an On Farm Trial to study the crop residues management with different crop establishment methods in rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system. Treatment comprised two levels of crop residue management ie. residue removal and residue retention (33%) and three levels of crop establishment methods ie. (a) conventional puddled transplanted rice fb conventional-till wheat (PTR-CTW), two times ploughing with cultivator followed by two times puddling and one planking was done before the manual transplanting of 21 days old seedling at 20 cm spacing from row to row. After rice harvesting, wheat was sown by broadcasting in conventional tillage plots with two times harrowing with cultivator followed by one planking; (b) unpuddled transplanted rice fb zero-till wheat (UPTR-ZTW): two times ploughing with cultivator followed by planking, after that water is submerged for transplanting and wet tillage was avoided. 21 days old rice seedlings were transplanted at a spacing of 20 x 15 cm. Wheat crop was sown under ZT using zero tillage machines; (c) zero-till direct-seeded rice fb zero-till wheat (ZTDSR-ZTW): direct-seeding of rice was done using zero-till seed-cum-fertilizer drill in ZT-flat plots at 20 cm row spacing. Wheat crop was sown in zero tillage using zero till machine. Rice variety (Rajendra Sweta) was sown directly by zero till in ZTDSR-ZT plots in the first fortnight of June. On the same date, rice seedlings for transplanting were raised in nursery by ‘Wet bed method’. Experiment was conducted in a split plot design which is replicated by thrice. Grain/panicle or spike, panicle or ear length and effective tillers/m2 recorded more in residue retention treatment and it was registered significantly superior with residue removal treatment under crop residue management in rice and wheat crop during both the years of experiment. Amongst crop establishment method, ZTDSR-ZTW was recorded more Grain/panicle or spike, panicle or ear length and effective tillers/m2 and it was significantly superior with UPTR-ZTW and PTR-CTW treatments under crop establishment methods in rice and wheat crop during both the years of experiment. Residues retention (33%) significantly improved the grain yield of both the component crops. For rice crop, 8.2–10.0% higher grain yield was realized with retention of crop residues. Grain and straw yield of rice were registered more in ZTDSR-ZTW (3.86-3.99 t/ha) & (5.56-5.75 t/ha) closely followed by UPTR-ZTW (4.38-4.45 t/ha). Concerning the data of residue management on economics revealed that the residue retention was recorded more gross return, net return as well as B: C ratio followed by residue removal treatment in both years of experimentation for rice and wheat crop and ZTDSR-ZTW was recorded more gross return, net return as well as B: C ratio followed by UPTR-ZTW and PTR-CTW treatments under crop establishment methods in rice and wheat crop during both the years of experiment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Seeded Rice: An Emerging Resource Saving Production Technology of Rice in Bhagalpur District (Bihar)

A. K. Mauriya, Vinod Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, R. N. Singh, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630323

The study was carried out at the farmer fields during Kharif season (2015-16 to 2017-18) in seven villages of four blocks of district Bhagalpur, Bihar. All 54 demonstrations on rice crop were demonstrated in 29 ha area by the active participation of farmers with the objective to show and popularize the improved technologies of rice production (Direct Seeded Rice-DSR) potential developed at Bihar Agricultural University Sabour, Bhagalpur (Bihar). Specifically it examines the changes in farmers’ inputs (labour and materials) and level of productivity and incomes between direct-seeded rice (DSR) and traditionally transplanted rice (TPR) and finally measures the economic return on investment in direct seeding. Analyses included comparison of means of all inputs, cost and return and economic surplus framework. Results revealed that the average yield of all farmers under DSR was 2.60% lower than TPR. However, on comparing the  cost of cultivation of DSR farmers with TPR farmers, it was observed that the DSR farmer had (a) higher expenditures on herbicides; (b) lower expenses on fertilizer, fuel, and rent cost for land preparation and (c) lower labour costs for seedbed preparation and care, crop establishment and fertilizer application. In this way the sum of the total cost of cultivation in DSR was reduced by Rs. 8941 /ha than TPR. DSR also recorded the maximum net return (Rs. 42857/ha) and benefit: Cost ratio (2.95).

On the basis of above findings it may be concluded that the DSR method of rice cultivation is more economical than TPR as it reduced the cost of cultivation by  37.9% and gave maximum net return as well as benefit cost ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Crop Residues Management on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity of Rice-wheat System in Inceptisols of Seemanchal Region of Bihar

Rama Kant Singh, Girijesh Kumar Sharma, Pankaj Kumar, S. K. Singh, Reeta Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630324

A field experiment was carried out at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Katihar, Bihar in jurisdiction of Bihar Agricultural University Sabour, Bhagalpur during 2014 to 2018 with the objective to find out suitable crop residue management option under rice- wheat cropping system in Inceptisols of Seemanchal area of Bihar. The results after four years clearly indicates that the crop residue management practices involving  incorporation of residues improved favorably and significantly the soil properties such as bulk density, infiltration rate, mean weight diameter, aggregate stability, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, bacterial and fungal population, enzyme dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity in the soil and increased the grain yields of rice and wheat crop in the system over removal or burning of crop residue practices. Due to increased availability of readily decomposable organic matter in the form of crop residue and freshly incorporated green manure, the microbial population increased dramatically when crop residues are incorporated in the soil which might be responsible for increased enzyme phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity, decrease in bulk density, increase in granulation and aggregation and thus infiltration rate. The incorporation of crop residues with or without green manuring found promising for the environmental friendly and effective utilization of the crop residues under prevailing rice wheat system in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) in Bihar

Santosh Kumar Chaudhary, Sushil Kumar Yadav, Dilip Kumar Mahto, Neha Sinha, Sanjay Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630325

A field experiment was conducted at Nalanda College of Horticulture, Noorsarai, Nalanda during summer 2017 to assess the effect of complementary and sole applications of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bottle gourd under onion-onion-bottle gourd crop sequence. The experiment consists of seven treatments viz.,T1-Inorganic fertilizers (120 Kg N: 60 Kg P2O5 and 40 Kg K2O); T2-50% NPK through inorganic fertilizer + 50%N through FYM; T3-50% N through FYM + 50% N through VC; T4-1/3 of N through FYM + VC + Neemcake; T5-50% N through FYM + PSB + Azotobactor; T6-T3 + PSB + Azotobactor and T7-T4 + PSB + Azotobactor. These seven treatments were replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design. Results revealed that T1-100% NPK through inorganic fertilizer recorded 225.7 q ha-1 fruit yield, which was statistically at par with T2 and T6 producing (211.8 and 209.5 q ha-1). Vine length differed significantly at all the growth stages. T1 recorded maximum vine length (51.8, 370.3 and 464.7 cm) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, which was significantly higher over T5 at 30 DAS, over T4 and T5 at 60 DAS and over T5 at 90 DAS. Among organics, T6 recorded longest vine, while T5 recorded shortest. No. of branches were found non-significant at 30 DAS but it become significant at 60 and 90 DAS and found significantly highest in T6 over all the treatments. After completion of the cropping system; onion-onion-bottle gourd, soils were subjected to analysis. pH differed significantly, while non-significant difference were observed in EC and soil Org-C. Similarly, available N and P concentration were also found non-significant due to different fertilizer sources, but the concentration of available K differed significantly and found highest in T1 which was at par with T2. T1-100% inorganic fertilizer sources recorded highest gross return, net return and B: C ratio followed by T2. On the basis of result it has been concluded that T2 having 50% NPK through inorganic fertilizer + 50% N through FYM may found suitable for sustainable bottle gourd production as it performed at par with T1 in respect to crop growth and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Government Induced Programmes to Mitigate Rural-Urban Migration under Climate Change Dynamics

Shashikant Divakar, Chandan Kumar Panda, Anil Paswan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630327

Climate change has much impact on regular drought and flood conditions of India, in result it influence agriculture. Agriculture is major means of livelihood and nearly 80 per cent of rural population of India depend on it.  But this profession is not being sustainable for the livelihood because of regular flood and drought situation which results in migration of rural youth. Some main causes of migration of the rural youth to the urban areas are lack of economic incentives coupled with other factors like less opportunities for employment and lack of infrastructure for education. Human population can migrate as both interstate as well as intrastate for establishing a new permanent or semi- permanent residence. During 2001 census the total number of migrants was 314 million by the last residence. Out of which 85% of the migration was intrastate. While 13% of migration was residences interstate. About 20 million people had migrated from rural areas to urban areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Residue Management through Its Alternate Use: A Case Study in Koshi Zone of Bihar

Santosh Kumar, Ashutosh Singh, Amit Kumar Pandey, Anand Chaudhary, Pankaj Kumar Ray, Prem Chand Kumar, Umesh Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630331

Biomass assessment study in Koshi zone of Bihar was carried out at regional Research Station, Agwanpur, Saharsa during 2015-2016. Study was focused only on ACZ-II in first phase. For the study of different fate of residues of crops in Zone-II of Bihar, it was concentrated in the districts of Purnea, Katihar, Saharsa, Supaul, Madhepura, Khagaria, Araria and Kishanganj.  In first scenarios were feeding of livestock with dry biomass for 200 days in a year, it was observed that all the districts were deficient in providing biomass to live stock. However, in second scenario were feeding of livestock with dry biomass for 300 days in a year, all the district except Araria were deficit in providing biomass to livestock. There is no such problem arises for management of excess crop residue in these areas as these areas are already in deficit condition for biomass.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Crop Residue Mulches on Morphological Traits and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in North Bihar Region

Abhishek Pratap Singh, M. D. Ojha, Seema Kumari, Divya Tiwari, Mahender Pal, Vijay Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630332

Organic mulches are easily available and cheap in North Bihar region. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to find out the suitability of different types of organic mulches in tomato cultivation. Among the vegetables tomato cultivation faces challenges in producing crop without chemicals for effective weed control. Use of several kinds of mulches gives the opportunity to control weeds effectively, regulate soil temperature and also lower down evaporation from the soil. The experiment was conducted in Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalalgarh, Purnea during 2015 and 2016. The treatments were designed by using different organic materials as mulch i.e. pea straw, dry neem leaves, paddy straw and one control without mulch. The observations were recorded on plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, days to 50% flowering, average fruit weight (gm) and total fruit yield (q/ha). The mulches were spread after twenty days of the transplanting of tomato seedlings in 10 cm thick layer. The result of the experiment indicates that organic mulches reduced soil temperature and weed infestation. All these enhanced the growth and fruit yield of tomato as well as weed control, soil moisture conservation and temperature modification resulted good crop growth with more quality fruit yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Type Mulch on Growth, Yield Attributes and Yield of Brinjal (Solanum melogena)

Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Rajeev Singh, Nityanand ., R. K. Sohane, A. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630333

Field experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Aurangabad and at farmer’s field during 2012 and 2013 to Effect of different type mulch on growth, yield attributes and yield of Brinjal (Solanum melogena). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three treatments viz; Black polyethylene mulch, Wheat straw mulch and no mulch (control). The result reveled that maximum plant height 78.0 cm, maximum no. of leaves per plant 366.8 and maximum number of shoots per plant 32.60 were observed in plot mulching with Black polyethylene. Maximum yield 29.5t/ha-1 of brinjal was obtained with black polyethylene mulch while, minimum yield recorded 16.5 t ha-1 in control plot. Wheat straw mulch recorded 50.30% more brinjal yield as compared with control. The benefit-cost ratio was highest (3.7) with black polythene mulch as compared to control which was (2.7). Economic comparison indicate that polythene mulch were more efficient than wheat straw mulch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Drought Tolerant Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties under Various Methods of Establishment in Drought-prone Condition of Bihar

Rajeev Singh, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Nityanand ., R. K. Sohane, Anjani Kumar Singh, R. N. Singh, Devendra Mandal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630334

A field experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Aurangabad and in farmers’ field during rainy seasons of 2013, 2014 and 2015, to Performance of drought tolerant rice varieties under various methods of stand establishment in rainfed drought-prone condition of Bihar. Experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with 3 methods of establishment i.e. broad coasting, direct seeded rice (DSR), and transplanted rice (TPR), and two varieties viz. Sahbhagiedhan, SushkeSamrat in a total of 5 replications including four at KVK, Aurangabad and one at farmers’ field during three years. Direct seeding of rice (DSR) with ZTD machine produced significantly higher plant height, number of tillers/m2, panicles/m2, grains/panicle, filled grains/panicle. However panicle length and Panicle weight were recorded maximum with   to transplanting method over Direct seeded rice with ZTD machine and broad coasting. 1000grain weight was recorded significantly maximum with Direct seeded rice with ZTD machine and transplantinh over broad coasting. Direct seed produced 7.60% and 30.95% more yield in 2014, 7.88% and 32.10% more yield in 2014 and 12.00% and 30.23% more yield in 2016 over transplanted and broad coasting rice, respectively. Net return and benefit-cost ratio were also significantly higher in direct seeded rice with ZTD machine than transplanted rice and broad coasting of rice. Amongst the varieties of rice, Sushk Samrat produced significantly higher yield attributes viz., tillers/m2, panicles/m2, grains/panicle, filled grains/panicle and 1000-grain weight, and subsequently produced grain yield higher by 13.42 in 2014, 10.10% in 2015 and by 7.03% in 2016 over Sahbhagie dhan. Net return and benefit-cost ratio were also recorded significantly higher with Sushk Samrat than Sahbhagiedhan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Practice, Irrigation and Fertilizer Dose Influence Yield and Quality of Mango cv. Amrapali under High Density Orchard in Kosi Zone of Bihar

Radhey Shyam, Suraj Prakash, Janardan Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630337

An investigation was carried out during three consecutive years from 2016-17 to 2018-19 at farm of B.P.S. Agricultural college, Purnea on Mango cv. Amrapali to study the effect of conservation practice of mulch with irrigation and fertilizer levels on yield and soil parameter, fruit yield and its qualities of mango grown in kosi zone of Bihar. The experiment was laid out in split split plot design with three replications. Experimental findings revealed that conservation practices as mulch significantly increased fruit set, fruit retention, fruit yield and fruit quality. Among different irrigation levels and fertilizer doses maximum fruit yield (23.24 ton/ha) was obtained under conservation practice with 75% recommended irrigation along with 100% RDF which was at par with conservation practice with 75% recommended irrigation along with 75% RDF. Conservation treatment also showed maximum TSS (23.69° Brix) with maximum (0.39%) acidity of fruit. Observations also revealed that conservation practices as mulching significantly increased the soil moisture content, organic carbon %, available soil N, P and K, along with increase soil microbial population. Among the different fertilizer levels highest organic carbon %, available soil N, P and K, as well as soil microbial population were observed with 100% RDF, however only organic carbon and available soil P were at par with 75% RDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic and Environmental Performace of Straw Baler for Collection of Rice Residue Generated after Mechanical Harvesting by Combine Harvester

Ram Pal, Ratan Kumar, R. K. Jalal, Ajay Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630338

The study aims to determine the economic and environmental performace of Straw Baler for collection of rice residue generated after mechanical harvesting by combine harvester. Increased mechanization, particularly use of combine, declining number of livestock, long period required for composting and no economically viable alternate use of crop residues are some of the reasons for open field burning of crop residue after harvesting of paddy crop for cleaning of field to sow wheat crop without chocking the conventional zero-till machine in field. This study was conducted at KVK, Rohtas farm Dhangain in year 2013-14 with baler Model 338 of John Deere make, tractor of Zetor model and hydraulic trailer. Straw baler facilitated in collection of paddy straw of 43.6 quintal/ha at cost of just Rs. 1650, which promotes animal rearing, compost/vermicompost production, power generation, bio-gas production, bio-char production, mushroom production, ehtenoal production, mulching in high value crops for stress mitigation. Promotion of straw baler may facilitates in setting up of fodder bank at large scale which may be used in case of natural extemities i.e. flood or drought for feeding animal population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Conservation Agriculture on Growth, Yield and Quality of Banana (Musa spp.) Cv. Grand Naine

Suraj Prakash, Radhey Shyam, Janardan Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630329

A field experiment was carried out during 2017-2019 in the Seemanchal area  of Bihar, India to study the effect of conventional  irrigation and conservation  on growth, yield, nutrient uptake, fruit quality and irrigation water use efficiency of banana. The treatments consisted of two levels of irrigation (recommended irrigation and 75% of recommended irrigation) and three levels of fertilizer (50, 75 and 100% of recommended NPK fertilizers) including surface irrigation and conventional soil fertilization was laid out in a Split Plot Block Design. The results showed that improved growth, yield, fruit quality and irrigation water use efficiency were obtained under conservation compared to surface or conventional irrigation. The increasing levels of conservation practices consistently and significantly increased all these characteristics. However, conventional irrigation at 75% of recommended irrigation at 75% RDF produced maximum growth, yield and fruit quality attributes and higher irrigation water use efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Residue Management on Yield and Economics of Pearlmillet Based Cropping Systems under Rainfed Conditions

Raj Singh, V. K. Singh, Y. P. Singh, A. Sarker

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630314

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of residue management on yield and economics of pearlmillet based cropping systems in rainfed condition at Indian Agricultural research Institute, New Delhi. Field experiments were conducted during kharif and rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19 using the pearlmillet variety ‘Pusa Composite 443. The application of residue as mulch resulted in 16.94 and 8.97% increase in CEY over conventional tillage and residue as standing retention, respectively. Highest net returns of Rs. 56537/ha was obtained with Pearlmillet-chickpea cropping systems followed by Rs. 42429/ha with pearlmillet-barley. Pearlmillet-chickpea cropping systems was observed more productive, remunerative and resource efficient cropping systems in rainfed conditions. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic Onion Production in Nalanda: Using Eco-Friendly Agri. Bios Inputs

M. D. Ojha, Vijay Kumar, Divya Tiwari, Vinod Kumar, Manish Kumar, P. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630311

Organic agriculture seeks to augment ecological process that foster plant nutrition while conserving soil and water resources. Organic systems eliminate agrichemicals and reduce other external inputs to improve the environment as well as farm economics. It is a production system which favours maximum use of organic materials like crop residues, FYM, compost, green manures, oil cakes, biodynamic preparations and bio fertilizers etc. to enhance crop production, carbon sequestration and improve soil health. Organic production system is based on specific and precise standards of production which aim to achieving agro-ecosystems which are socially and ecologically sustainable. As demand for organically grown food has been growing rapidly and significant proportion of consumers believe that organic food is qualitatively better than non organic, the present study showed not only the quality of the produce but also quantitatively higher yield that touched the world record production (660 q/ha) in Nalanda Bihar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Conservation Agriculture in Vertisols of Madhya Pradesh

H. K. Rai, Amit Jha, P. K. Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630335

The present study aimed to assess the potentials of conservation agriculture in Vertisols of Madhya Pradesh in terms of productivity and economics of cultivation in soybean-wheat cropping system. Vertisols are characterized by more clay content, swell-shrink behavior, high water holding capacity, poor drainage and creaking on drying which results in narrow workability and high erodibility causes soil and nutrients loses, whereas, high CEC and inter-layer spacing in minerals results in fixation of cationic nutrients and nature of self inversion causes low organic carbon content. Potential of different crop establishment method under soybean-wheat cropping system for nutrients recycling through crop residue management was also studied to highlight the importance of crop residue recycling. It is concluded that planting of soybean and wheat on permanent beds and with no-till along with retention of crop residue on surface has been more effective and remunerative.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farm Waste Recycling Using Consortium of Lignocellulolytic fungi- A Farmers Participatory Approach

C. R. Patil, K. S. Jagadeesh, G. Srinivasalu, G. V. Dasar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630309

The present study was aimed to demonstrate the efficacy of a microbial consortium developed for recycling agro-residues generated in farmer’s level. A consortium of four lignocellulolytic fungi for rapid and uniform decomposition namely; Pleurotus sps, Phaenerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillums awamori and Trichoderma viridae were taken. All the fungi were developed at the Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2165 farmers participated from 12 Grampanchayats of Naragund taluk, Karnataka. In about 87 per cent of the cases studied the microbial consortium was very effective and the C: N ratio of the compost was 23: 1. Among the different crop residues the initial C:N ratio of 110: 1 and  128:1 while its  decomposed product had C:N in the ratio of 23-26: 1 and 30-34: 1 for maize and cotton respectively.  In case of layers of 8-9 inches of mixed crop the decomposition rate was so high that within 12 weeks 100 per cent substrate wast decomposed. It could be concluded that mixed crop residues in layers of20-24 cm when treated with compost cultures could produce a very good quality compost in less than 12 weeks which otherwise takes about  6-8 months  for a satisfactory product to be obtained without the use of compost culture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Recycling of Cotton Stalks on Yield and Yield Attributes of Cotton under Dry Farming Condition

V. D. Vora, S. C. Kaneriya, A. D. Parmar, N. Desai, P. D. Vekariya, V. L. Modhvadiya, D. S. Hirpara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630308

An experiment was under taken on “Effect of recycling of cotton stalks on yield and yield attributes of cotton under dry farming condition”on medium black clayey soil at Dry Farming Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Targhadia (Rajkot) during Kharif 2017-19. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications. The experiment consist of five main plot treatments viz.; S1- Removal of cotton stalks from plot, S2- Surface burning of cotton stalks, S3- Incorporation of cotton stalks using rotavator, S4- Incorporation cotton stalks using mobile chopper and S5- Ex-situ composting of cotton stalks using shredderand three sub plot treatments viz.; D1- One irrigation for decomposting, D2- One irrigation + addition  of N @10 kg/ha through urea + compost culture @ 5 kg/ha, D3 - Addition of  [email protected] 10 kg/ha through urea + compost culture @ 5 kg/ha at sowing,thus, fifteen treatment combinations. The stalks management practice S5 (Ex-situ composting of cotton stalks using shredder) recorded maximum seed cotton yield (1875 kg/ha). Whereas, effect of de-composting practices on yield attributes and seed cotton yield was found non-significant. However, the maximum seed cotton yield (1823 kg/ha) was recorded under de-composting practice D1 (one irrigation for decomposting).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Happy Seeder for Direct Sowing of Wheat without Burning of Rice Residue

Ram Pal, Ratan Kumar, R. K. Jalal, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630339

Air pollution from crop residue burning in India is an environmental menace that makes headlines every year – is a major ill effect of farm mechanization. Keeping the severity of the problem in view, KVK, Rohtas introduced happy seeder in Rabi 2016-17 with objective to assess its suitability for crop residue management. The intensively cultivated irrigated rice–wheat area is fundamental to employment, income and livelihoods for about three million population of the district. Happy seeder of Kamboj make, Zero-till machine of National make and local made seed drill were used for comparative study of residue management. Seed drill was used where rice residue were completely burned before sowing. Zero-till machine was used where about 50% residue was remais after buring. The significant change were observed in plant population, bundel weight and grain yield in these trials with respect to farmers practice. It is concluded that happy seeder not only improves the farmers income but also conserve the most of the production inputs. Reduction in green house gass emission, nutrient recycling, soil health improvemnt are added advantages of happy seeder technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Conservation Tillage with Residue Retention on Soil Physico-Properties and Yield of Rice and Wheat under Rice-wheat Cropping System

Seema ., S. R. Choudhury, Shambhu Prasad, S. K. Pathak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630319

A field experiment entitled “Impact of conservation tillage with residue retention on soil physico-properties and yield of rice and wheat under rice-wheat cropping system” was conducted at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar during kharif and rabi of 2012-13 and 2013-14 to observe the effect of conservation tillage and recycling of left over previous year crop residue as mulch in spite of burning on crop yield and on soil health under intensive rice-wheat cropping system. The data obtained from two years of experimentation revealed that higher grain yield of rice (5.23 t/ha) was recorded under conventional direct seeding while in case of wheat maximum grain yield (4.25 t/ha) was observed under zero tillage along with retention of residues than other tillage practices. Similarly in case of soil properties, crop residue retention on surface during winter modified the temperature of soil favourable for wheat root growth. Conservation tillage along with residue also improved the soil nutrient status like soil carbon nitrogen ratio (12.9) well as micronutrient status during the course of investigation.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Plant Leaf Mulching in Ginger on Yield and Soil Health at NICRA Village in Chatra District of Jharkhand: A Review

Dharma Oraon, A. Kumar, Ajit Kumar Singh, S. Kumar, R. K. Singh, Zunaid Alam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630312

The FLD experiment was conducted in 20 replication (Farmers field) in National Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) village Mardanpur in Arra Panchat of Chatra block in Chatra district of Jharkhand on three consecutive year 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17. The FLD experiment was conducted in randomized block design with 2000 m2 plot size for each technological option. The two technology options are as follows TO-I: (Farmers Practice) Burning of plant leaf in forest area and use as cooking material and transplanting ginger in the month of May without mulching with N100P60K60. TO-II: Mulching of ginger field by plant leaf (5 q/ha) with N75P40K45. The rationale behind selection of technology option (TO-II) was disseminate scientific recommendations i.e. mulching of ginger field to demonstrated famers convincing the benefit of mulching in the place of burning leaf in forest area. The data on soil chemical analysis before and after mulching, yield and economic was recorded for better interpretation matrix ranking was done for each of intervened treatments on the basis of farmers criteria matrix ranking was accomplished through participatory rural appraisal. Farmer’s reaction was measure in five point rating scale. The overall score reflecting the degree of favorable, unfavorable and neutral to the related technology intervention (Negative = 2.5, Natural = 2.3 – 3.5 and positive above = 3.5). Result indicated that on an average ginger yield was 144.83 q/ha in farmers practice where as in technology option (TO-II), it was 187.7 q/ha respectively. Return per rupee spent was also found more in TO-II i.e. 4.99 as compare to farmer practice i.e. 3.88.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Open Crop Residue Burning and Alternate Options for Mitigation: A Review

Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Anshuman Kohli, S. Roy Choudhury, S. K. Dutta, S. K. Pathak, R. K. Sohane, R. P. Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630317

Burning of crop residues in field include unavailability of labour, high cost in residue removing process and use of combined in rice-wheat cropping system especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP). Primary crop types whose residues are typically burned include rice, wheat, maize, millet, sugarcane, jute, rapeseed-mustard and groundnut. Farmers in northwest India dispose a large part of rice straw by burning in situ. The ‘rice-wheat cropping system’ is the dominant cropping system in South Asia [1]. This system involves growing rice and wheat in rotation throughout the year where rice and wheat is either grown in the same plot in the same year or in different plots in the same year or in the same plot in different years. Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh have the largest areas under this system among the Indian states. Approximately 500-550 Mt of crop residues are produced per year in the country. With a production of 93.9 million tons (Mt) of wheat, 104.6 Mt of rice, 21.6 Mt of maize, 20.7 Mt of millets, 357.7 Mt of sugarcane, 8.1 Mt of fibre crops (jute, mesta, cotton), 17.2 Mt of pulses and 30.0 Mt of oilseeds crops, in the year 2011-12. Emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide causing global warming, loss of plant nutrients such as N, P, K and S, adverse impacts on soil properties and  wastage of valuable C and energy rich residues. Black carbon emissions are the second largest contributors to current global warming, after carbon dioxide emissions [2]. Using IPCC emission coefficients, the CH4 released from this source was found to be about 167 Gg [3]. Agricultural crop residues are burnt during the months of October and November every year in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs) in huge quantities which has a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions and aerosol loading [4]. In the IGP region of India, 12 million hectares is accounted for rice-wheat crop rotation and harvesting of these crops with combine harvesters is very popular with the farmers of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh [4]. Crop residue management is one of the best options for maintaining the ecological sustainability of farms. There are several options which can be practiced such as composting, generation of energy, production of biofuel, mulching, baling, biochar production and recycling in soil to manage the residues in a productive manner. Conservation agriculture (CA) offers a good promise in using these residues for improving soil health, increasing productivity, reducing pollution and enhancing sustainability and resilience of agriculture.

Open Access Review Article

Decomposition of Paddy Straw Improved Soil Health in NICRA Village of Chatra District: A Review

Ranjay Kumar Singh, Mayur Gautam, Shrestha Gautam, Dharma Oraon, Zunaid Alam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630328

Front line demonstration was conducted during the years 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17 in NICRA adopted village Mardanpur in Arra Panchyat of Chatra Block in Chatra district of Jharkhand. The study was conducted to assess the effects of decomposition of paddy stable on productivity and profitability with soil health in local farming system as well as extra pollution of the technology to similar micro farming situation. The experiment consisting of two technology option TO-I: (Farmers Practice) Burning of paddy stable in field and collecting paddy stable for use as fuel of cooking and after onset of monsoon field prepare and transplant rice (Variety-Abhishek) with N80P60K30 TO-II: Decomposition of paddy stable 4.5q/ha after onset of monsoon in the month of June through rotovator and transplanted rice (Variety – Abhishek) with N60P45K23 in RBD design with 20 replication. The result showed that an average grain and straw yield of rice was 25q/ha and 74.80 q/ha in farmers practice in technology option TO-I where as technology option (TO-II) i.e. 28.33 q/ha and 98.84 q/ha respectively. Return for rupee spent was also higher i.e. 2.40 in TO-II as compared to farmers practice i.e. 1.85 (TO-I). It is due to (25%) reduction of chemical fertilizer in technology option (TO-II).

Open Access Review Article

Crop Residue Management in Small Holding Farming Sector of Bihar – Its Importance and Challenges

Bholanath Saha, D. K. Verma, Md. Shamim, Tanaya Das, Sushanta Saha, Hari Om, V. B. Jha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i630330

The current study paper investigates the importance and challenges of crop residue management in small holding farming sector of Bihar, India. The study covers the trends of crop system, crop cultivation patterns, after cultivation residue management systems applied, participation of small holding agriculture farms in crop residue management and challenges and future options for crop residue management including information needs. This study was focused on the management of crop residues because of their importance as ruminant livestock feeds and their role in natural resources management.