Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (Glomus mossae) and Compost on Early Growth Performance of Parkia biglobosa

V. A. Olayiwola, F. O. Abiodun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430293

One of the biggest challenges to sustainable global food security is the need to find suitable replacements for inorganic fertilizer. This is because inorganic fertilizers production consumes an increasing proportion of the global energy budget and the supply of key raw materials, primarily phosphorus is becoming more limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi, AMF (Glomus mossae) and compost on soil properties and early growth response of Parkia biglobosa. The experiment was set up at the screen house of the Department of Bioscience, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was a 2 x 5 factorial, laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replicates. The treatments used were compost at five (5) levels: 10t/ha, 20t/ha, 30t/ha, 40t/ha, no amendments; and two (2) levels of AMF inoculation (with and without). Data on plant height, number of leaves, collar diameter and dry matter yields were generated and subjected to analysis of variance, and significant means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 5% level of significance. The result shows that mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased (p< 0.05) plant height, stem diameter and leave numbers when compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. There was no variation in number of leaves and height among the inoculated treatments as compared with the un-inoculated treatments which are significantly different from each other at -AMF 0 and –AMF 10 respectively. Interaction of AMF and compost at 40 t ha-1 had the highest plant height with a value of 35.06 cm. Application of 40 t ha-1 of compost with inoculation significantly increased (p< 0.05) the root dry matter yields while no significant differences were observed in leaves and stem dry matter yield for both inoculated and un-inoculated. The analysis of the soil before and after the experiments could also be comparable to one another as no variation was observed. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that AMF can successfully be inoculated into compost amended soil to improve the performance of Parkia biglobosa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment and Intervention on Coping Strategies of School Dropouts: A Case Study of Distt. U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand India

Ritu Singh, Niharika Bisht, Huma Parveen, Neera Agrawal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430294

Stress is an inevitable part of human life. Every individual encounters different level of stress and has a tendency to develop unique style to respond and cope with it. Dropping out of school is one such stressful event. Despite universalisation of elementary education in India, there are still a significant number of school dropouts in the country. Hence, the research team of Child Development Unit of All India Coordinated Research Project, Pantnagar conducted a study to study the coping strategies used by school dropouts. It also implemented group interventions for the promotion of effective coping strategies. The study included a sample of 52 school dropout adolescents from four purposively selected villages of Distt. Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand. Standardized scales were used for identifying their coping strategies. School dropouts were seen to usually avoid the stressor to reduce its impact. Rarely did they go for understanding the problem and working for more converting it into a challenge to accept and win over. Post intervention there was significant shift in their coping strategies. It led to significant increase in practice of coping styles like logical analysis, positive appraisal, seek guidance & support, problem solving and significant decline in the use of coping strategies like cognitive avoidance, acceptance, seek alternative rewards, emotional discharge post intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Potential Study of Some Tropical Wood Species from Nigeria

J. O. Asibor, E. P. Akhator, A. I. Obanor

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430295

Aims: To carry out experimental study of the energy potential of some tropical wood species.

Study Design: It involved sample collection, experimental analysis and numerical validation of the obtained calorific values.

Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria between November 2016 and September 2018.

Methodology: Wood waste (saw dust) from ten (10) selected tropical wood species sourced from sawmills in Benin City, Nigeria were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis as well as energy content study.

Results: Thermal conversion characteristics of low ash content (0.2 – 2.76%), very high volatile matter (87.51 – 90.94%), low moisture content (8.62 – 10.53%.), relatively high carbon, hydogen and oxygen contents as well as low nitrogen and sulphur contents were observed. Obtained calorific values were validated using three already existing correlations.

Conclusion: Among the 10 species studied, Afzelia africana (Apa) was found to be best suited for energy generation while Triplocyton scleroxylon (Obeche) was found to be least suited.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Moisture Content and Weed Management on Direct Seeded Rice Quality

Alisha Kumari, Rajan Kumar, Sweeti Kumari, Rinki Kumari Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430297

A field experiment was conducted during rainy (kharif) season of 2016 at Crop Research centre Pusa, Bihar to investigate the “Effect of Moisture Regimes and Weed Management on quality of Direct Seeded Rice”. The treatments consisted of three moisture regimes in main plots and five weed management practices in sub plots. The results showed that grain (3.62 t/ha) and straw yields (52.44 q/ha), harvest index (40.83%), P uptake (10.97 kg/ha) by rice grain were maximum with 3 days Disappearance of Ponded Water(DPW) which were significantly superior to 5 and 7 DPW but N (42.19 kg/ha) and P uptake (10.97 kg/ha) by rice grain, N (30.53 kg/ha), P (8.41 kg/ha) and K (74.47 kg/ha) uptake by straw were statistically at par with 5 DPW. With regard to weed management grain yield(35.62 q/ha) was maximum with W4 treatment of weed management which was significantly superior to W2, W1 and W5 but was statistically at par with W3 treatment while, straw yield (45.12 q/ha), N(41.37 and 29.75 kg/ha), P(10.72 and 8.18 kg/ha) and K(8.80 and 7.58 kg/ha) uptake by rice grain and straw were significantly superior to W1 and W5 and were comparable to W3 and W2 treatments.  In harvest index (40.97%), W4 treatment was significantly superior to all the treatments. N, P and K content in grain and straw did not vary significantly with varying moisture regimes weed management treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of the Moringa oleifera Seeds Fixed-bed Model and Pernambuco Semi-arid Desalinator Reject

A. J. Gomes Filho, H. J. B. Lima Filho, S. C. de Paiva, A. S. Messias

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430298

The objective of this research was to use a prototype of fixed-bed columns packed with crushed seeds of Moringa oleifera to detect the best adsorption of chemical elements present in the desalinator reject. The column was adapted to the prototype container containing 200 liters of reject.The extract was collected every five minutes until 60 minutes, resulting in 12 samples where pH, EC, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Cl were determined. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), using the F test, with a 95% confidence interval. It was found through laboratory tests that Moringa seeds were effective in the adsorption of sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride with five minutes of contact of desalination reject with Moringa oleifera crushed seeds with husks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Water and Thermal Use Efficiencies of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Grown under Different Strength of Jute Agro Textile Mulch in India

Anwesha Sarkar, Argha Ghosh, P. K. Tarafdar, S. K. De

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430299

Aims: To evaluate the effects of jute agrotextile mulches on yield and yield attributes, dry matter accumulation, water use efficiency as well as accumulated agrometeorological indices and thermal utilization of groundnut.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the experimental farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India during kharif season of 2017 and 2018.

Methodology: The experiment was carried in randomized block design with five treatments each of which was replicated four times Groundnut (variety J L-24) as a test crop. The treatments (T), composing different strength of jute agro textile (JAT) used as mulching material were as follows: T1: 1000 GSM JAT, T2: 800 GSM, T3: 600 GSM, T4: 400 GSM JAT and T5: farmer's practice (control) where GSM is gram per square meter. All the data regarding the yield, yield attributes, water use efficiency and thermal utilization of the crop were recorded accordingly.

Results: Response of pod yield over control were 24.26 q/ha, 26.44 q/ha, 20.98 q/ha and 18.25q/ha in T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 respectively. Though all the treatments showed increment over control, the highest result was found in T2 and a further increase in strength of JAT showed a decrement in all aspects. The water use efficiency, at an average, increased by 69.12% due to the various treatments over control. Heat unit and thermal units use efficiencies were also highest in treatment T2 which showed the most accurate utilization of thermal indices.

Conclusion: Therefore, among all the treatments T2 exhibited the most promising effect on improving yield and other attributes along with maintaining sustainability as it might have provided the most favourable soil condition compared to other mulches for groundnut.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Screening of Elite Rice Germplasms against Brown Planthopper [Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.)] for Identification of Resistant Donor Lines

M. Nikhil Raj, P. Rajani Kanth, N. R. G. Varma, M. Balram

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430300

Aims: To identify Brown Planthopper (BPH) resistant rice genotypes and categorize all the test entries based on their level of resistance against BPH.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Poly-house, Department of Entomology, Rice Research Centre, Agriculture Research Institute (ARI), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India, between June 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: A total of 61 elite rice genotypes selected including resistant (PTB33) and susceptible check (TN1). All these test entries were screened against Brown Planthopper (BPH) using Standard Seedbox Screening Technique (SSST) inside poly-house conditions. Based on the Damage Score (DS) achieved during study, all entries were categorized into resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR), moderately susceptible (MS), susceptible (S) and highly susceptible (HS).

Results: Among 61 cultures, the resistant check PTB33 and BM71 exhibited R reaction to BPH with a DS of 3.0, while twelve cultures viz. Milyang 63, IET 23993, HHZ 5 DT-1 DT-1, HHZ 25 SAL DT-1 DT-1, Bobhu Kongbu, BPT 2671, BPT 2611, MTU 1121, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, RNR 23079 and GSR 234 exhibited MR reaction to BPH with a DS ranging between 3.1 to 5.0. The rest of the cultures showed MS and S reactions while the susceptible check, TN1 along with other 12 cultures exhibited HS reaction to BPH with a DS of 9.0.

Conclusion: Resistant and moderately resistant rice genotypes have been identified for development of BPH resistant lines. Further detailed studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of resistance among the R and MR genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-environment Manifestation of Heterosis for Morphological and Quality Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.)

Avinash Kumar, N. Kiran, Prashant Bisen, Amit Dadheech, Kaushal Kishor, Mithilesh Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i430301

An investigation was carried out with 10 parents, their 45 hybrids mated in half-diallel fashion and 4 checks in RBD for estimation of heterosis in two environment (Kharif, 2014 and Rabi, 2014-15) at the Instructional farm, RCA, MPUAT, Udaipur, India. The average productivity of maize in USA is 11.07 MT ha-1 while, in India it is only 3.02 MT ha-1 during 2018-19. We lag far behind USA and are still not able to harness the optimum yield potential in maize that could partly be addressed by evolving hybrid maize cultivar. The present study aims to is identify heterotic hybrids that could yield stably with better grain quality over a range of environments. Environment wise Analysis of variance revealed that mean squares due to genotypes were significant for all the traits in both the environments. Partitioning of total genotypic variance indicated significant contribution of parents for all the traits. Mean squares due to crosses were significant for all the traits under study except for days to 50% tasseling. Mean squares due to parents vs. crosses were significant for all the traits except for days to 75% brown husk. Bartlett test showed homogeneity of error variance only for one trait i.e. grain oil content. The pooled analysis for grain oil content revealed significant differences between the environments. The mean squares due to genotypes including parents, crosses and parents vs. crosses were also significant. Significance of GE interaction for oil content indicates the influence of environments on the expression of this trait. The partitioning of GE interaction into those that by parents×environment and crosses×environment interaction were also significant. Two hybrids in E1, viz., P3×P6 and P2×P4 has shown significant negative economic heterosis for days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking and days to 75% brown husk. None of the hybrids has shown significant negative economic heterosis for these traits in E2 environment. The hybrid P3×P5 exhibited maximum positive economic heterosis (6.71%) for grain oil content over the best check HQPM-5 on pooled basis. The hybrid P5×P7 (2.78%) in E1 and P5×P10 (2.58%) in E2 exhibited maximum positive economic heterosis for grain starch content over the best check HQPM-1. The maximum positive economic heterosis for grain protein content was exhibited by hybrid P5×P8 (4.14 %) in E1 and by P3×P5 (2.49%) in E2 over the best check HQPM-5.