Open Access Original Research Article

Image Processing Approach to Determine the Severity Level of Tuberculosis

N. Auwal, Ibrahim Goni, Danladi Ali, U. Christopher Ngene, I. Manga

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330285

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Basically there are two types of TB, latent and pulmonary TB. It symptoms include persistent cough for more than two weeks, cough with blood, night sweat, tiredness, fever, chest pain, lymph node enlargement. It treatment depends on severity level such as mild, moderate, severe and very severe and this can be obtained from TB diagnosis such as chest x-ray image, nucleic acid amplification test and culture and sensitivity. The main aim of this work is to determine severity level of TB using image processing techniques. Chest x-ray (CXR) images of TB patients were obtained from Google image. Firstly, the CXR images were enhanced from Red Green Blue (RGB) to gray image (GI) form. Secondly, GI were decomposed, convolved, compressed and filtered these processing is called image degradation. Thirdly, These GI were restored and binarized. Threshold value ≥ 53 was obtained to classify the severity level of the infected image Furthermore, average error was calculated and system performance obtained. This work revealed that image 1, 2, 6 and 11 has a total pixel value 11067, 6735, 9256 and 3894 respectively ≥ 53 which indicates that the % of the infected areas as 99.62%, 99.52%, 96.70% and 82.78% respectively which shows the severity level are very severe. While the image 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9 has a percentage of infected areas 73.13%, 72.90%, 76.80%, and 76.84% respectively which indicate the severity level as severe. Image 7 has a percentage of infected area 51.21 which shows the severity level as moderate. This research work revealed that image processing is a suitable technique for determine the severity level of TB.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vehicular Fleet Expansion and Accidents Variation Numbers: A Contribution to the Analysis of the D. Pedro I-Tamoios Exporter Road Axis

Estevão Brasil Ruas Vernalha, Sônia Regina da Cal Seixas, João Luiz de Moraes Hoefel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330286

Aims: This paper aims to analyse the evolution of the fleet of vehicles on the D. Pedro I Export Corridor Axis, in the period 1998-2016 and its potential relationship with vehicle accident mortality rates with two municipalities cut by this route - Atibaia and Caraguatatuba.

Study Design:  The focus was to investigate to what extent the intensification of the current fleet can be related as a factor directly responsible for the increase of the occurrence of accidents, using as an indicator for this measurement the mortality rate due to accidents of Traffic.

Place and Duration of Study: Study realized in São Paulo State, Brazil, for 36 months, from July 2015 to July 2018. The data used and analysed to diverse indicators were from 1998 to 2016.

Methodology: The methodology for the analysis of the intensification of the current fleet in the studied region was based on the comparison between the evolution figures of the fleets and the mortality rates due to transport accidents. In this way, all values were arranged on an identical horizontal axis (referring to the years), to show possible correlations.

Results: The relationship between the circulation fleet increase and the increase of accidents represents the negative impact of the processes of social and environmental changes that are occurring in the region. These processes link urbanisation, risks and vulnerability due to the lack of adequate urban planning and road safety infrastructure that exposes the population of these municipalities to a higher risk of accidents.

Conclusion: The data on the evolution of vehicle fleet in the exporting Corridor unequivocally evidences an accelerated urbanisation process, while mortality rates indicate the absence or inefficiency of public sector-oriented police and the health of the population, which hinder this process and may indicate negative impacts on society as a whole.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characterization of Granulated Sugar from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Inflorescence Sap Cultivars and Sugar Cane in Côte d'Ivoire

Okoma D. Muriel J., Assa. Rebecca. R., Konan K. Jean-Louis, Konan. N. Ysidor

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330287

Aims: To evaluate and compare some physico-chemical characteristics of powdered sugar from the inflorescences of three of the most widespread coconut cultivars in Côte d'Ivoire compared to sugar from cane sugar to diversifying coconut exploitation in Côte d'Ivoire.

Experimental Design was Used: The sap was extracted from inflorescences of row 8 of PB113+, PB121+ hybrid and GOA cultivar. Three different treatments that varied time and temperature were set. The physico-chemical characterization concerned the sugar samples from each pair. Samples of white and brown sugar from sugar cane, sold commercially in Côte d'Ivoire, were used as controls.  

Place and Duration of Studies: Marc Delorme Station for Coconut Research at the National Centre for Agricultural Research, Côte d'Ivoire between January 2017 and March 2018.

Methodology: The sap from the freshly collected coconut tree inflorescences was directly transformed into granulated sugar by thermal spraying (Okoma et al, 2019), without preservatives. Three treatments varying the time/temperature pair were tested. Thus, the processing consisted of:

T1: boil 1 liter of sap for 45 minutes at a temperature varying from 60-120°C.

T2: boil 1 liter of sap for 40 minutes at a temperature varying from 60-140°C.

T3: boil 1 liter of sap for 35 minutes at a temperature varying from 60-160°C.

The physico-chemical characterization concerned the coconut sugar samples from each treatment and covered the dry matter content (DMS), moisture (HUM), ashes content (ASH), hydrogen potential (pH), titratable acidity content (TAT), total and reducing sugar contents, fat content and crude fibers. We considered the white and brown sugar from sugar cane sold in the sample as control samples.

Results: All the physico-chemical characteristics of the crystalline coconut and sugar cane sugars analyzed generated significant differences (p<0.5) between them and the controls. Regardless of the treatment, the controls white and brown cane sugar provide statistically identical DMS, greater than 99.45 g/100 g respectively. These levels are higher than those provided by the sugar of coconut cultivars. In addition, white (0.27 to 0.29) and brown (0.42 to 0.50) cane sugar contains less water than all coconut cultivars (0.76 to 1.70). Regardless of the treatments applied, crystalline coconut sugar contains ashes contents (ASH) that range from 1.45 to 2.85 and are statistically higher than the proportions found in brown sugar cane sugar (0.11 to 0.28). White sugar cane sugar does not contain ashes. The pH of white sugar and brown sugar (6.09 and 6.44) is significantly higher than that of coconut sugar (4.82 and 6.19). The titratable acid content of coconut sugar ranged from 1.25 to 2.19 compared to 0.94 to 1.99 in cane sugar. Total sugar contents (TST) represent 81.15 to 87.54% of the dry matter in coconut cultivars. This is lower than the TSTs for white sugar (99.01 to 99.04%) and brown sugar (95.6 to 95.73%) sugar cane. Crystal sugar in coconut cultivars contains statistically fewer reducing sugars (6.75 to 7.89%) than white sugar cane sugar (8.11 to 8.12%). Its red counterpart, with 6.14%, contains smaller amounts of reducing sugars.

Conclusion: Sugars are the main constituents of the dry matter of the coconut and cane sugar crystals studied. However, the different heat treatments applied to the sap of coconut inflorescences significantly affected all the physico-chemical parameters of each sugar. The physico-chemical characteristics have statistically differentiated coconut sugar from sugar cane sugar. However, for a better valorization of crystalline coconut sugar in Côte d'Ivoire, additional studies to determine its carbohydrate, mineral, vitamin and energy content should be considered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Effect of Cowpea Biscuits Supplementation on Nutritional and Cognitive Development of Malnourished Pre-school Children

Vandana ., Preeti ., Archana Kushwaha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330288

This study aimed to determine the effect of supplementation of cowpea biscuits on nutritional status and cognitive development of malnourished pre-school children. Pre-school children, aged 3-5 years, from Saraswati Shishu Mandir School, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand, India) were screened for low weight for age. Malnourished children (N=48), who volunteered, were divided equally into three groups viz. control I (no supplementation), control II (refined wheat flour biscuits) and experimental group (cowpea biscuits) and subjected to intervention for the period of three months. Parameters like height, weight, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and cognitive development was analyzed before and after supplementation in each month. No significant differences between groups were observed during follow-up concerning height, weight, MUAC. Experimental group supplemented with cowpea biscuits outperformed significantly in all the domains of cognitive development as compared to control groups. The study concluded that cowpea supplementation is likely to be more effective in cognitive development of malnourished preschool children in short period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Nutrient Management of Hilly Soil of Meghalaya Cropped with Potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Rupabakor C. Warjri, Dipankar Saha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330289

Irrespective of treatment combinations total N, available P2O5, K2O and S decreased with the age of potato crop. However, changes in organic C in soil showed an opposite trend of results. Irrespective of treatments, organic C content increased with increase in the period of crop growth. Pooled data of two years revealed that comparatively higher amount of total N, available P2O5, K2O and S is accumulated in soil at maturation stage of potato which received recommended doses of N, P and K along with FYM at 10 t ha-1 as well as biofertilizer and S at 40 kg ha-1(T9). Statistical analysis of the results also revealed that T9 treatment is significant with respect to control. Results thus pointed out that balanced and proper dose of fertilization increased available nutrient contents in soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Surface Water and Sediment in the Kolo Creek Water Body in the Niger Delta of Nigeria and Geochemical Factors that Influence their Interactions Using Geo-accumulation Index

Abinotami Williams Ebuete, Andy Etta Bisong, Okereke Chukuma, Lucky E. Ndiwari, Ibim Yarwamara Ebuete

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330290

The Kolo Creek is an inland water body in the Niger Delta receiving organic and chemical wastes arising from anthropogenic activities within the catchment area. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the spatial variabilities of heavy metals in surface and sediment and their geochemical factors that influence their presence along the Kolo Creek in 2018 using Geo-accumulation index and pollution load index to extrapolate the level of heavy metal contraction in the two medium. Sediment and Water samples were collected for five (5) months and assessed from eight sampling points (A-h) for seven (7) heavy metals such as  Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Iron(Fe), Camium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni) and Mercury (Hg). All the heavy metals had geo-accumulation indices below zero which indicates no pollution except Fe which had geo-accumulation index in the range 3.327 in surface water and 7.751 in sediment, furthermore, the pollution load index revealed a toxicity of 0.664 times in surface water as against 1.501 times in sediment exceeding the background concentration in the Kolo Creek. Hence, poor ecological ethics and culture should be discouraged to keep the Kolo Creek water under check for safe domestic water use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Characterization and Molecular Phylogenetic Relationship of Erysiphe necator Infecting Grapes (Vitis vinifera)

Marimuthu Karthick, Ayyanar Kamalakannan, Varagur Ganesan Malathi, Vaikuntavasan Paranidharan, Uthandi Sivakumar, Mathiyazhagan Kavino, Nagaraj Gowrisri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330291

Grapes powdery mildew is caused by the most destructive pathogen Erysiphe necator leading to severe yield losses around the world.  In order to study the phenotypic and molecular characters, the powdery mildew infected leaf samples were collected from eight different places in Coimbatore and Theni districts in the state of Tamil Nadu India. The identity of the pathogen as E. necator was established by microscopic studies and the isolates were further confirmed molecularly by amplification of Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and Cytochrome b gene (Cyt b). Further molecular confirmation was obtained by characterizing Cytochrome b. An amplicon size of ~ 367 and ~ 470 bp were obtained from amplification with Uncin144 and Uncin511 and Cyt b F and Cyt b R gene primers respectively. The identity for cyt b gene segment was 96 to 98%, similarity with E. necator isolates deposited in NCBI genbank (KY418048.1, KY418049.1).

A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b gene of the study isolates as well as E. necator and other Erysiphe species in NCBI database. From the tree it was evident that the study isolates from Tamil Nadu, India were very distinct from other E. necator isolates deposited in NCBI genbank database.

Open Access Review Article

Innovative Extension Approach for Sustainable Agricultural Development: WhatsApp Groups for Farming Solution

I. Isaac Devanand, I. Merlin Kamala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i330292

Extension system has to be broadened by incorporating innovative extension approaches to manage present day challenges in agriculture viz., climate change, unpredictable and shifting weather, dwindling resources and population stress. With global competitiveness and market liberalization farmers are required to adjust their production portfolio to the emerging trends in food consumerism in domestic as well as global markets. With improving quality production and better job opportunities in rural areas the livelihood security of the farmers will definitely change the face of Indian agriculture. Sustainable agricultural development is very important for the security of rural livelihood. Farmers need information to make necessary decision to improve their production in agriculture for which a strong network of extension system is functioning, along with government initiative, extension scientists and functionaries working for agricultural development. The role of extension system is to groom farmers into the most intelligent decision maker. The use of internet, mobile and video- conferencing assists them for getting technical helps about farming. A number of research works reported that sixty per cent of the farmer households did not access any information on modern technology. Lack of better and up-to-date information that has made most farmers failed to make uninformed decisions on farming practices leading to unnecessary losses. Mobile internet in India has the strong potential to improve small farmer’s access to agricultural knowledge and information. The internet and social media infiltration are likely to increase substantially in near future. These situation presents an opportunity for each farmers to use social media for sharing agrarian information to rural mobile internet users. WhatsApp; one of the most popular social media tools offers many unique advantages, which makes it a potent agricultural extension tool. However, its use is ushers by many challenges, which need to be addressed for it to be effective. This article reviews the innovative extension approach, Whattsup as a farming solution, its advantages, applications and challenges involved.