Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems and Their Compliance among Petrol Stations in Kenya: A Case Study in Nakuru County

J. K. Mutungi, W. Moturi, S. Makindi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230275

Companies have a legal and social responsibility to ensure the safety of its workers, all persons lawfully present at the workplace and the surrounding community. This requires laid down procedures and routing process which aims at identifying, eliminating, minimizing and control the work-related hazards and decrease the risks. To be effective, the Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems (OSHMS) need to be integrated within the organization’s safety policy and objectives. Therefore, this explains why OSHMS has continued to play a pivotal role in the decision making process in most companies. This study aimed at assessing occupational health and safety management systems in place and their compliance. The sampling unit was petrol stations and the study employed use descriptive study design. The purposive sampling was employed to select thirty two (32) petrol stations in Njoro Molo and Nakuru Municipalities of Nakuru County with a special focus on petrol stations which have dispenser pumps, car servicing bay and Front Office section. Data was collected using purposive sampling, stratified and simple random where interviews, observations and questionnaire survey. Descriptive statistics which involved frequency tables and percentages was used to analyze the data. The findings of this study shows that more than half of the petrol stations lacked defined Occupational Safety and Management systems. There is need of Occupational Safety and Health Management System to be integrated within petrol stations policy in order to reduce the operations mistakes, costs of reducing problems and level of risks while ensuring that they comply with laws and regulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Hazards from BIR in Selected Crude Oil Production Pipes Storage Locations in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Azionu C. Kingsley, Avwiri O. Gregory, Ononugbo, P. Chinyere

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230277

The study of occupational hazards from BIR in selected crude oil production pipes storage locations in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been carried out using two well calibrated radiation monitoring meters (Digilert Tm 100 and Radalert Tm 200). A global positioning system (GPS 76 CSX) was also used to geographically co-ordinate the sampling locations. Measurements were carried out in forty two (42) selected locations in oil producing area of Niger Delta. The following parameters were estimated to determine the level of occupational exposures by crude oil production pipes dealers and customers. The result of the highest exposure rate was observed in Warri Steel Village, Delta State and the lowest value was in Ogunu, Warri, Delta State with respective values of 61.4 and 12.2 µRh-1. The mean exposure rate value for all the test study locations was 19.18 ± 10.25 µRh-1. The absorbed dose values ranged from 106.1 to 533.7nGyhr-1 with mean value of 166.73 ± 89.08 nGyh-1 while the calculated annual effective dose range from 162.71 to 818.23 µSvy-1 with an average value of 255.60 ± 136.57 µSvy-1 and the excess lifetime cancer risk ranges from 0.45 to 2.25 × 10-3 with mean value of 0.70 ± 0.38 × 10-3. All the radiation hazard parameters determined exceeded their respective world safe values. This research work indicated that the crude oil production pipes radioactive scales may have impacted the storage locations radiologically. The elevated radiation hazard parameters observed in this study may pose ill health effects to those working and leaving in the studied locations especially long term ionizing radiation exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Kunapajala and Sanjibani, Their Nutritional Contributions, Microbial and Pesticidal Effect

Bishal Chakraborty, Indrajit Sarkar, Swathi Kulukunde, Soumen Maitra, Arpita Mandal Khan, Sekhar Bandyopadhyay, Abhas Kumar Sinha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230278

A study on nutritional and microbial analysis of Kunapajala with different storage time interval was conducted in the Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry and the Department of Plant Pathology, UBKV, Coochbehar-736165, West Bengal during March, 2019. The motive of this work was to estimate the physicochemical properties, macro and micro nutrient content and various microbial load of Kunapajala with different storage time interval. Kunapajala had the highest P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu & Mn 40 days after preparation and it had highest N and S 20 days after preparation. It had the highest beneficial microbial load of Fungi, Actinomycetes, Pseudomonus, Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria (PSB), Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Rhizobium and Trichoderma 40 days after preparation. So, continuous foliar and soil application of Kunapajala from 20 days after preparation to 40 days after preparation was beneficial to get maximum utilization. Moreover, Kunapajala can be used as an alternative against chemical fertilizers and pesticides to develop organic farming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Promotion of Efficacy in the Regulation of Noise Pollution in Kenya through Devolution and Public Participation

Emojong Amai Mercy, Eliud Garry Michura, Aloyce Ndege

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230280

This research article examines the promotion of efficacy in the regulation of noise pollution in Kenya through devolution and public participation. The prevention of noise pollution has been recognised as a component of a clean and healthy environment. In many countries, Kenya included, comparatively little attention is paid to noise pollution, despite its importance in the urban and industrial scene.  For example, although the provisions of sections 115 and 175 of the Public Health Act and the Penal Code respectively, prohibit and criminalise public nuisance, their enforcement is outside the competence of the individual. Rarely does one hear of a court action by public health or other officers yet pollution continue to occur.  It appears that there has been total apathy by the officers concerned with the enforcement and the community affected by the nuisance. Lack of efficacy in the implementation and enforcement of the Regulations is a major reason for the existence of noise pollution in Kenya. Among the challenges faced is the lack of resources in terms of logistics to create awareness with regards to the problems associated with noise pollution. The Kenyan public are yet to appreciate and understand that noise is an unnecessary evil in the society. As the level of noise pollution rises every day at an alarming rate a serious problem is looming to the members of the public and the country in terms of the health issues, communication troubles, general nuisance, and its corresponding effects on wildlife. There is a limited research field study and gaps in this area regarding noise pollution control and how to enhance its efficacy in Kenya. New strategies, beyond the simple command and control instruments currently in place at the national level, shall help in changing behaviours in ways that shall be beneficial to the society as a whole. This paper tends to look at how the various tiers of national and county governments have embraced these principles in the promotion of efficacy in the environmental governance in Kenya, especially in noise pollution control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Land Use on Soil Quality in Afaka Forest Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

H. Haruna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230281

Land use changes from forest into cultivated ecosystems result in negative impact on soil structure and quality. The purpose of this study was to determine effect of land use on soil quality in Afaka forest northern guinea savannah of Nigeria. Land use systems, including natural forest and cultivated land were identified. Eighteen (18) composite disturbed and undisturbed samples were collected from depth of 0-5 and 5-10 cm for analysis of pertinent soil properties in the laboratory using grid procedure. Most physical and chemical properties show relative variations in response to land use types and geomorphic positions. Results  indicate  that the soils had  high degree of weathering potentials, low  to moderate  bulk density at 0-5cm depth values between 1.42 to 1.49 Mg m-3 in  forest and  cultivated land, bulk density of  1.34 and 1.46 1.Mg m-3at 5 -1ocm depth   for forest and  cultivated land respectively. The soil water at 0-5cm depth is from 4.20 to 2.63 cm3/cm3, while at 5-10 cm depth these values vary from 4.32 to 2.13 cm3/cm3 under forest and cultivation land use. The pH (H2O) is 6.9 to 7.16 with low electrical conductivity of 0.13 dS/m(forest) and 0.12 dS/m (cultivation). The CEC of soils is recorded as 8.60 cmol kg-1 (forest) to 8.54 cmol kg-1 (cultivated)whereas  total nitrogen content of 1.21 g kg-1 and 1.11 g kg-1 and available phosphorus of 8.78 mg kg-1 (cultivated) and 5.47 mg kg-1 (forest).. Results indicate that soil fertility parameters were moderate to low for cultivated land and at all slope positions, suggesting that soil fertility management is required in order to make agriculture sustainable on Afaka area.

Open Access Original Research Article

AHP Method for Selecting the Best Strategy to Enhance Safety Culture: A Case Study at “XYZ” Company in Qatar

Cece Hadian, Kholil ., Syahfirin Abdullah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230282

Lack of safety culture awareness in the ambulance services affects not only locally but internationally in different countries, including at "XYZ" a company in Qatar. Many studies mentioned about risks and hazards associated with ambulance services that result from illnesses, accidents, or property damaged because of a lack of safety culture. The results of the safety culture survey in ambulance service of XYZ Company were showing less of commitment and involvement of ambulance personnel to safety 52.6% and less motivation 57.9%. It supports by the achievement of key performance index of ambulance services that was 85 % – 96 % from the target. This paper discussed a strategy to improve safety culture in ambulance services. The authors conducted a research study utilizing the AHP method to select the best approach by following the real condition.  This study compares the essential factors in improving safety culture based on eight criteria and three strategies safety climate which the result shows that (a) The commitment of senior management with a value of 0.247 or (247%), and (b) Operational approach strategy with a value of 0.386 or (38.6%), with CR of 0.03 are among the top priorities needed in the operational of ambulance services to run optimally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spirituality and Psychological Well-being of Elderly: Gender Perspective

Ritu Singh, Niharika Bisht

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230283

The present study was undertaken to assess the differences in the level of spirituality and psychological well-being among institutionalized and non- institutionalized elderly (above 65 years of age) across gender. The study was based on the sample of 200 respondents: Institutionalized elderly (n1=100) drawn from the Society Registration Act (SRA) recognized old age homes of Uttarakhand through census method and equivalent sample of non-institutionalized elderly (n2=100) drawn through lottery method from the nearby localities adjacent to the old age homes. The level of spirituality and psychological well-being was assessed through standardized scales. The findings of the study revealed that females irrespective of residential setting were found to have higher levels of spirituality whereas males irrespective of residential setting were found to have significantly higher level of psychological well-being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Different Intercropping Systems of Maize under Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Levels

T. Ananthi, M. Mohamed Amanullah, C. Vennila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v37i230284

A field experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the economics of different intercropping systems of maize under mycorrhizal inoculation and different fertilizer levels at Eastern Block Farm, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the winter season in 2011 and 2012. The experiments were laid out in split-split plot design with three factors. In main plots viz., intercropping systems [sole maize (I1), maize+cowpea (I2), maize+greengram (I3)]. Two mycorrhizal treatments viz., no mycorrhizal inoculation (control) (M-) and inoculation of mycorrhiza (M+) were included under sub plot. Three fertilizer levels viz., 75% RDF (F1), 100% RDF (F2), and 125% RDF (F3) under sub-sub plot. Data regarding net field benefit, benefit cost ratio, dominance analysis, and marginal rate of return were collected. The experimental results showed that maximum Net Field Benefits of Rs. 1,25,990 during 2011 and Rs. 1,14, 215 during 2012 were recorded in maize +cowpea intercropping system along with mycorrhizal inoculation and 100% RDF (I2F2M+), respectively. While the maximum benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 3.45 and 2.74 was found in maize +cowpea intercropping system along with 100% RDF and with mycorrhizal inoculation (I2F2M+) during the year 2011 and 2012, respectively. Dominance analysis of maize intercropped with green gram along with mycorrhizal inoculation and different fertilizer levels at 75% RDF, 100%RDF and 125% RDF, respectively were dominated dominated due to their lower net field benefits as compared to other treatments, while maximum marginal rate of return (8911%) was obtained by sole maize without mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilizer level of 75% RDF (I1F1M+) during 2011. In 2012, maize intercropped with greengram without mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilizer level at the rate of 100% RDF recorded maximum marginal rate of returns (6167%) than other treatments.