Open Access Short Research Articles

The Influence of Social Media on the Domestic Tourist's Travel Motivation Case Study: Kota Tua Jakarta, Indonesia

Darmawan Damanik, Suci Sandi Wachyuni, Kadek Wiweka, Ari Setiawan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630263

The growth of information and technology has given significant influence on the tourism industry and system, both positive and negative impacts. As of now, through social media, tourists and destinations or tourism attractions may interact with one another, monitor, and give opinions, as well as evaluate every form of service given firsthand, by various internet platforms. One of the heritage site tourism attractions that utilize social media in attracting tourists' interest is Kota Tua. This study aims to identify social media used by the Kota Tua tourism area manager as a media to promote; furthermore, this study compares the performance of each social media platforms. Also, this study examines the influence of social media toward tourist motivation in visiting Kota Tua Jakarta. The approach utilized in this study is quantitative with a descriptive method. Whereas the sampling technique used is incidental sampling with the number of involved respondents of 100 people. Gathered data is then analyzed through linear regression analysis method by using SPPS v.25.0 program. Linear regression analysis is conducted to see if there are any social media influences toward the tourist motivation of visit. This study has found that visitors that come to Kota Tua are mostly high school students, whereas the most frequently used type of social media to access information about Kota Tua is Instagram. The result of data analysis also shows that there is indeed a correlation between social media variable with the tourist motivation of visit to Kota Tua Jakarta. This study is expected to be a reference related to the role of social media for the tourism industry, especially historical heritage attractions. The limitations of this study are respondents who are limited and cannot represent or be generalized as domestic tourists in general (Indonesian scope).

Open Access Minireview Article

Rising Sea Level, Receding Boundaries and Freezing Baselines in a Warming Climate

Emojong Amai Mercy, Eliud Garry Michura

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630260

This paper discusses the less publicised but far from less significant, an issue of how the international community’s approach to maritime boundary delimitation will be impacted by climate change resulting in sea level rise with coastal lands submerging affecting the international boundaries and impacting on biodiversity and human survival in the future. The climate change effect is already creating pressure on international law regardless of the direction that the law of the sea takes in remedying this dilemma. It is quite apparent that global disputes and conflicts are arising and solutions are needed urgently. The climate change and the consequent global sea level rise are widely touted to submerge islands and coastlines without discrimination. The international community has been relatively slow to react to what could pose an unprecedented threat to human civilisation.  The policies that have been applied have arguably been reactive and not proactive.  In future climate change may develop other by-products which may not be understood at this moment and may require a proactive approach. Further discussion of the merits of the potential paths is ideal in ensuring that appropriate and well thought-out resolutions are negotiated. Regardless of the outcome, the thorough debate is required to ensure the correct decision is made and that the balancing act between fulfilling states' interests and achieving a meaningful result does not become detrimental to the solidity and the enforceability of the outcome. There is a need to establish a comprehensive framework for ocean governance for management and long-term development and sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reinforcement of Plaster of Paris (POP) for Suspended Ceilings Applications Using Kenaf Bast Fibre

E. U. Akubueze, C. S. Ezeanyanaso, S. O. Muniru, C. C. Igwe, G. O. Nwauzor, U. Ugoh, I. O. Nwaze, O. Mafe, F. C. Nwaeche

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630258

Natural fibers as Green-Engineering materials have been used since the dawn of civilization by mankind for various engineering applications and material reinforcement. It has also been extensively used in packaging, building and construction industries (hard board, partition boards, particle board, pulp and paper, textile and geotextile applications). This research and development paper demonstrated and domesticated the applicability of kenaf bast fibre for Plaster of Paris (Pop) Reinforcement. Plaster of Paris is a brittle material with a low capacity for deformation under mechanical load (as a result of tensile stresses and chemical reactions in the material, which leads to cracking and instability). Kenaf plant as a natural fiber was naturally retted and modified using Control System Tank Retting (CSTR) method and modified with 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) for 30 minutes. Extracted fibers were chopped and randomly distributed for Plaster of Paris (POP) Reinforcement. The properties of the modified material showed a significant increase in tensile strength and purity. The reinforced material was stable and the field trials of material indicated a good potential reinforcement for Plaster of Paris for suspended ceiling application at a reduced cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate-smart Agricultural Practices in Agro-climatic Zones of Meghalaya: A Social Network Analysis

Alethea Dympep, R. J. Singh, L. Hemochandra, R. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630259

Aims: To understand the flow of information of Climate Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices among the farmers, the factors that impede this flow and the impact of the social network on adapting CSA practices.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in hilly state, Meghalaya, India between August 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: A sample of 120 farmers was selected from agriculturally vulnerable villages to climate change by snowball sampling. The villages were selected from two Agro-climatic zones (ACZs) of the state, Meghalaya. UCINET software was utilised for analysing the Social Network Analysis (SNA) of the community with the performance index used to measure the impact in adopting CSA practices.

Results: The network centralization index obtained in Tropical ACZ was relatively high (0.63) depicting a fragile social network as farmers relied on certain central actors for information and if these actors were to be removed, many farmers would be left isolated. However, in Sub-tropical ACZ, a low index (0.37) was attained implying that farmers had maximum connections in the network. Very low cohesion density measures (<0.05) was obtained in both the ACZs portraying a slow rate of diffusion of information on CSA in the farming community. Further, the homophily index of SNA indicated that the farmers tend to associate more with other farmers having similar socio-economic characteristics. The impact of the social networks in both of the ACZs were highest (68.30%) under low, and (63.30%) under the medium adoption levels of CSA practices in Tropical and Sub-tropical ACZs.

Conclusion: Hence improving access to climate information is an important step to improve the livelihood of people in such variable conditions. With a better understanding of the social factors that influence the flow of knowledge and the adoption of CSA practices in the agricultural sector, researchers and policy makers could be able to identify and reduce barriers to technology diffusion and adoption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evapotranspiration Based Micro Irrigation Scheduling of Tomato Crop under Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse

Atish Sagar, P. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630261

The present study was undertaken to investigate the Evapotranspiration Based Micro Irrigation Scheduling of Tomato Crop under Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse, at experimental field of Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand during 2017-18. The average of mean monthly ET0 estimated under polyhouse by FAO-PM (benchmark) model was 39.44 mm, but that of the FAO Penman, Hargreaves, Stanghellini, Priestley-Taylor and FAO Radiation models were 38.37, 18.18, 37.80, 48.17 and 53.87 mm, respectively. Whereas, the average of mean monthly ET0 estimated under open environment by FAO-PM (benchmark) model was 116.34 mm, but that of the FAO Penman, Hargreaves, Stanghellini, Priestley-Taylor and FAO Radiation models were 119.33, 133, 126.41, 113.17 and 117.37 mm, respectively. The FAO Penman and Hargreaves model are found to be most and least appropriate models for estimating daily ET0 under polyhouse. Whereas, FAO Radiation and Stanghellini model observed to be most and the least appropriate models in open environment for estimating daily ET0 under polyhouse for the Pantnagar tarai condition of Uttarakhand. During the six month growing period, the average water requirement for tomato crop under polyhouse and open environments were 0.2149 and 0.2924 liter per day per plant, respectively, showing that the water requirement in the open environment was estimated as 30% higher than that of polyhouse. The experimental results also revealed that the treatment T2 (100% water application of ETc without mulch under polyhouse) recorded significant yield (18.97 kg/m2), water use efficiency (135.26 kg/m3) and maximum fruit weight (106.66 gm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Micropellet Particles: A Vector of Hydrophobic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Lagos Lagoon

Olushola A. Abiodun, Fidelia I. Osuala, Adebayo A. Otitoloju, Carine M. D. Fotsing, Derek T. Ndinteh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630262

Introduction: The occurrence of plastic waste materials in the aquatic environment is receiving enormous attention all over the world due to its negative impacts on aquatic organisms. Micropellet litters have been found to adsorb and absorbs persistent organic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Endocrine disrupting chemicals are recognized toxic chemicals to human and organisms.

Aim: This study quantifies occurrence of micropellet particles in Lagos Lagoon and their EDCs contents.

Methodology: The sampling was conducted from 2016 to 2018 at eight sampling locations with three points established in each of the sampling station. The chemical analysis of EDCs was conducted by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and flame ionization detector.

Results: Micropellet particles occurrence was highest in surface water (67%) compared to (33%) in sediment during the period of sampling. EDCs contents reflect contamination of PCBs and PAHs in the extracted micropellet particles. Some sampling stations contained relatively higher PAHs concentrations but very low concentration of PCBs.

Conclusion: Since, micropellet particles and EDCs cannot be removed completely from the aquatic environment; reduction of impending hazards ought to rely on curtailing disposal of plastic materials and sensitizing the populace on general disposal methods in order to minimize interaction of plastic particles with EDCs which are likely to pose significant effects on aquatic fauna.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimum Process Parameters for Activated Carbon Production from Rice Husk for Phenol Adsorption

Iheanacho Chamberlain Ositadinma, Nwabanne Joseph Tagbo, Onu Chijioke Elijah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630264

Aim: The determination of optimum process parameters in the production of activated carbon from rice husk for the uptake of phenol from aqueous solution was the focus of this work.

Study Design: The optimization was designed using response surface methodology.

Methodology: Central composite design (CCD) was used to generate the design matrix and analyze the result obtained. Carbonization temperature, percentage acid concentration and carbonization time were the factors considered. Tetraoxophosphoric acid (H3PO4) was employed in the activation process. The surface area was determined using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption method.

Results: The result indicated the optimum process conditions as carbonization temperature of 575ºC, time of 240 minutes and 45 percentage acid concentration. This gave 96.5% adsorption efficiency of phenol from aqueous solution. There was good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted values. The BET surface area of the activated carbon was 471.1 m2/s.

Conclusion: This work has optimized the process conditions for activated carbon production from rice husk for effective adsorption of phenol from wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitudes on Practices of Occupational Safety and Health in the Informal Non-food Manufacturing Sector in Kampala City, Uganda

Stephen Aurice Wekoye, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, Stanley Maingi Makindi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i630266

The informal non-food manufacturing sector is an engine of growth and development in both developed and developing countries. The sector is unregulated and unregistered in official government statistics. However this particular sector is faced with occupational safety and health hazards without preventive measures. The study assessed knowledge and attitudes on practices of occupational safety and health in the informal non-food manufacturing sector in Kampala City, Uganda. It adopted across sectional survey design that involved both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. A total of 424 firms were sampled from the 6 clusters of the informal sector. Respondents were moderately knowledgeable on hazards with 39.7% compared to 25.5% who reported high level of exposure. Overall the knowledge on occupational safety and health hazards was inadequate while attitude especially on the use of PPE was poor. There was a high level on knowledge towards hazard control measures by complying with the safety measures (PPE 52.6% and good housekeeping 54.4%) although no significant difference was observed in their adherence to control measures. Attitude towards the use of control measures was found to moderate with PPE 62.9% and good housekeeping 61.1% Creation of awareness, training, and application of Occupational Safety and Health Regulations, inspection and enforcement by the relevant regulatory agency as well as proactive multi-media strategies to improve the situation is recommended.