Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Extent of Interaction of Thiobarbituric Acid and Two Selected Amino Acids with Three Divalent Metal Ions in Aqueous-organic Medium at Different Temperatures

M. A. Oladipo, K. T. Ishola, T. A. Ajayeoba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330230

The formation constants of binary and ternary complexes of Thiobarbituric acid as primary ligand and L-tyrosine and L-histidine as secondary ligands have been examined in 40% (v/v) ethanol-water mixture at 27oC and 35oC and at ionic strength of 0.02 NaNO3 by potentiometric method. The ligands formed 1:1 binary complexes with the metal ions. The primary and secondary ligands simultaneously coordinated to the metal ions to form 1:1:1 ternary complexes. The difference in stability constants of binary and ternary complexes were determined by △logK and RS%. Ternary complexes exhibited enhanced stability than the binary complexes. The stability of the complexes decrease with increase in temperature. The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb’s free energy change (ΔG), entropy change (ΔS) and enthalpy change (ΔH) accompany the interactions were evaluated. The interactions were found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and entropically favoured.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geochemical and Petrographical Evolution of the Weathering Mantle Derived from Basalt in Bangam Locality (West-Cameroon): Implication in the Bauxitisation Process

Taylor Moise Sojien, Estelle Lionelle Tamto Mamdem, Armand Sylvain Ludovic Wouatong, Dieudonne Lucien Bitom Oyono

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330231

A petrographical and geochemistry study of weathering mantle derived from the basaltic parent rock (plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene, zircon) has been conducted in the locality of Bangam (West-Cameroon). The weathered profile shows a vertical lithology succession of weathered parent rock, isalteritic clayed domain and superficial duricrust (alloterite). The weathering of basalt started by the formation of “pain d’epices” structure rich in gibbsite, metahalloysite, kaolinite. The geochemistry analysis of major elements indicate that SiO2 (46% -1.33%), K2O (0.84% - 0.01%), Na2O (3.6% -0.01%), MnO (0.3% - 0.04%), P2O5 (1.9% - 0.38%) and CaO (5% -0.02%) decrease from the bottom to the surface, however TiO2 (2.3% - 4.08%) remain constant, Fe2O3 (24.2% - 24,6%) and Al2O3 (14.5% - 45.2%) increase. The different weathering index such as, chemical index of alteration (55% - 99%), index of lateritization (41% - 103.5%) and Ruxton Ratio (0.12 - 3.21) just indicate an evolution of parent rock dominated by an alumina and iron phases under a control of hydrolysis phenomenon as bisialitisation, monosiallitisation and allitisation with the formation of minerals smectites group, kaolinite group gibbsite and iron oxides group. The fractionation patterns of rare earth elements (REE) show a positive and negative anomaly in Cerium and other rare earth elements, one more, the correlation between major, trace and REE prove a link of different pedological horizons developed on the basalt in redox condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adolescents’ Coping Strategies Influence Their Psychosocial Well-Being

Vanda L. Zammuner

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330232

Aims: Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by many physical, psychological and social transformations, eliciting experiences of emotional arousal that might increase psychopathology risk (e.g. affective and behavioral disorders). The study tested adolescents' use of coping strategies and their psychosocial well-being.

Methods: Participants (N 1060) were Italian students, 14 to 21 years old, attending senior high school or first years of university, who completed a survey. Psychosocial well-being, and its relation to coping strategy use, was assessed by measuring subjective health perception, life satisfaction, positive and negative felt affect, emotional and social loneliness.

Results: Adolescents were found to use the healthier strategies of Seeking social support, Problem Orientation, and Positive attitude more than the less functional strategy of Avoidance; a Transcending Orientation was also not much reported. Preferences for strategy type formed a coherent pattern - e.g., Problem Orientation was positively associated with Positive attitude. Preferences for strategy type were significantly associated to well-being levels in the expected direction. Avoidance was found to be the most important coping strategy, negatively associated with most well-being indicators, e.g. predicting greater Emotional loneliness, and lower perceived Health; vice versa, Seeking social support and Problem solving were associated with lesser Social loneliness and higher levels of Positive affect and Life satisfaction. Although result patterns were quite similar across age groups and sex, some differences were observed.

Conclusion: Preferences for more or less functional coping strategies impact on well-being, suggesting that a better understanding of these processes in adolescence and early adulthood may help us understand individual differences in mental health and adjustment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Nigella (Nigella sativa L.) Collections Using Principle Component Analysis

S. P. Singh, Avinash Kumar, Banshidhar ., Sandeep Kumar Suman, Ashutosh Kumar, P. P. Singh, Kaushal Kishor, U. K. Singh, V. K. Choudhary, Rajesh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330234

Seventeen land races of Nigella along with one released variety (Rajendra Shyama) as a check; collected at farmer’s field from different parts of Bihar were evaluated in Randomized Block Design with three replications at Seed production Farm, TCA, Dholi, Bihar during Rabi 2015-16 to identify  diverse Nigella genotypes. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that first three PCs had >1.00 Eigen value and accounted to 84.71% of total variation. Rotated component matrix for various traits revealed that PC1 was strongly associated with secondary branches/plant followed by yield/plant, length of fruit, fruit per plant, primary branches/plant, height of the plant, days to 50% flowering and grains/plant. The traits that mostly contributed to PC2 were grains/plant followed by height of the plant and width of fruit whereas, days to maturity followed by width of fruit, height of the plant, days to 50% flowering and length of fruit contributed mostly to the PC3.  The characters that contributed most to the PC4 were height of the plant, fruit/plant and length of fruit. Therefore, intensive selection procedures can be adopted to bring about rapid improvement of above mentioned traits. The k-mean of different clusters indicated that genotype falling in cluster III possess high values for all the traits under study indicating their potentiality as a parent in hybridization programmes for further improvement of Nigella. Highest inter-cluster distance was noted between cluster III and V indicating the genetic diversity among genotypes of these two clusters. Therefore, genotypes from these two clusters are recommended to use in hybridization programmes for further improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meteorological Models for Determination of Surface Radio Refractivity over Nigeria

O. O. Ajileye, O. S. Popoola, F. F. Kayode, A. B. Rabiu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330235

Previous studies showed that linear meteorological expressions obtained were localized and could not be generally applied. It is therefore required that more locations should be investigated to deduce new linear meteorological models best suitable for estimation of surface refractivity. Surface meteorological data, including pressure, temperature and relative humidity, was downloaded from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Application (MERRA - 2) for six locations defined by different climatic conditions over Nigeria, namely Yenagoa, Abakaliki, Ibadan, Anyigba, Jalingo and Sokoto for a period of 40 years partitioned into two periods of 20 years each. The 1979 – 1998 dataset of atmospheric temperature, T (K), atmospheric pressure, P (hPa) and relative humidity, Rh (%) were extracted using text import wizard to calculate surface refractivity using existing model (Nitu-r). Regression analysis was carried out to obtain new linear meteorological expressions as function of temperature (Nt), relative humidity (Nrh), and combination of relative humidity and temperature (Nrh,t). The new expressions were tested using 1999 – 2018 meteorological dataset and the results of surface refractivity from the new linear expressions were compared with values from existing equations.

It was observed that high relative humidity and low temperature values prevalent in the three southern stations – Yenagoa, Abakaliki and Ibadan – significantly enhanced the suitability of Nrh,t linear meteorological model for estimation of surface refractivity values comparable toNitu-r. Contrary to the observations in the southern stations, in the northern stations, relative humidity contributions (Nrh) had the best linear correlation of 0.96 at Anyigba, 0.98 at Jalingo and Sokoto. Estimation of surface refractivity from the new linear meteorological models was found to be best as a function of temperature and relative humidity in the south and a function of relative humidity in the north. Linear meteorological models as a function of relative humidity and temperature were best suitable for stations in the south with minimum correlation of 0.98 while linear expressions as a function of relative humidity only were best suitable for the stations in the north with minimum correlation of 0.96.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sedimentological Analysis of Core Samples to Decipher Depositional Environments: A Case Study of ‘Valz-01’ Well Niger-Delta Basin, Nigeria

G. E. Maju-Oyovwikowhe, F. A. Lucas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330237

Sedimentological studies of ninety-seven feet (97ft) of core, covering 1643 -1797.74 m from ‘Valz-01’ well Offshore Eastern Niger Delta was carried out using twenty-four (24) core slabbed samples with the aim of identifying the textural characterization of sediments from the various sectors of the lithologic unit and to determine the environment of deposition. Six lithofacies units were identified within the cored interval. They include: Muddy heterolith, laminated fine sandstone/siltstone, Fine sandstone/siltstone, Hummocky fine sandstone/siltstone, laminated shale sandy, and shale. Three depositional environments identified include marine environment, transitional and continental environment. The marine environment is characterized by the deposits of shale (1644.27 - 1709) m, while the continental environment is characterized by sandstone (1779 - 1781) m. The transitional environment is characterized by alternation of siltstone and shale (1643 – 1644.22 and 1781 – 1797.74) m. From the studies most of the analyzed samples are deposited in the delta influenced by fluvial and waves actions revealing beach sediments and turbidites.

Open Access Review Article

A Review: Usage of Biofertilizer in Cereal Crops

Bishnupriya Patra, Jagdev Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330233

Productivity of crops under various abiotic stress conditions can be increased through the application of suitable fertilizer levels along with biofertilizers. Nitrogen is one of the most important mineral nutrients for plants, influencing growth but the application of increased doses of N increases cost of production. Thus, there is a need to economies the nitrogen dose for various crops. Use of biofertilizer inoculation is one way to save the nitrogen level in crops and it will help in reducing the cost of production as biofertilizer is a cheap source of nitrogen.

Open Access Review Article

Antimicrobial Proteins: Key Components of Innate Immunity

Bishun Deo Prasad, Sangita Sahni, Tushar Ranjan, Diksha Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v36i330236

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the small ubiquitous self-defence products which are extensively distributed in plants. They can be classified into several groups, including thionins, defensins, snakins, lipid transfer proteins, glycine-rich proteins, cyclotides,  and hevein-type proteins. AMPs are important mediators of an innate host defence system, with antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. AMPs can be extracted and isolated from different plants and plant organs such as stems, roots, seeds, flowers and leaves. They perform various physiological defensive mechanisms to eliminate viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and so could be used as therapeutic and preservative agents.