Open Access Short Research Article

Perceptions of Ex-convicts on Rehabilitation Programmes in Preparation for Reintegration in Botswana

Boipelo Milly Raboloko, Kgosietsile Maripe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630208

The re-integration of ex-convicts is a concern globally and nationally yet a forgotten phenomenon. It is assumed that families are prepared for the release from custody of their incarcerated member. While the family may be longing to see ex-convict, it may be truamatised by his or her release from prison. The thinking about the known and anticipated behaviour of the ex-convict may affect the acceptance and supported needed by the ex-convict. This may complicate relationship problems and may perpetuate the negative labelling which affects positive integration. The unpreparedness of families and community may be hostile than being in prison leaving the ex-convict with no choice but to re-offend and be reconvicted and at most, a recidivist. As a result of this background, it was necessary to explore the process of re-integration of ex-convicts in Botswana and identify the challenges it poses for the ex-convicts.  The researcher adopted a qualitative approach and interviewed 26 participants which comprised of ex-convicts, community leaders, professionals, and community members. The study was informed by the differential Association theory, the labelling theory, and within the ecological perspective. The findings revealed that the ex-convicts after release face an enormous mountain which is difficult to climb without adequate assistance. It was further established that preparation for release and integration process are inadequate. Furthermore, communities do not have interventions to receive, integrate, and support ex-convicts. Therefore, this paper argues that families and communities must be involved in the rehabilitation processes of prisons and in their release.

Open Access Minireview Article

Resurrection of Indian Agriculture through Revolutionary Innovations of Science and Technology

Suchismita Jena, Kirti Bardhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630207

Aim: The manuscript discussed on current and future challenges of Indian agriculture and recent innovations of science and technologies to achieve increased productivity, profitability and sustainability for Indian agriculture.

Background: Agriculture is the most important sector of Indian economy, but after involvement of more than half of the workforce in this sector, the contribution towards national GDP is still declining, due to the prevalence of the challenges like lower productivity, depleting resources, biotic and abiotic stresses, uncertainty in climate, higher yield gaps, and low farmers income.

Data Sources: Data sets and policy papers are from Government organizations and research articles from referred journals were used.

Conclusion: With the use and adaptation of revolutionary innovations, Indian agriculture can reform and overcome the limitation of low resource use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stresses, and post-harvest losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enzymatic Clarification and Preservation of Aloe vera Juice by Ohmic Heating

S. Bansode, R. C. Ranveer, A. R. Tapre, P. M. Ganorkar, S. B. Sadale, A. K. Sahoo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630204

Aims: The aim of this study was to optimize clarification process of the Aloe vera juice followed by its preservation by ohmic heating as no systematic study has been conducted on these aspects.

Study Design: The enzymatic clarification method was used for clarification of Aloe vera juice by using the enzyme pectinase. The enzyme concentration, incubation temperature and time were optimized for clarification of juice. The Aloe vera juice was treated at different Time (min) gradients, current, initial temperature and after temperature at particular current gradient and the ohmic heated juice was then stored in sterilized bottles for further analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were done in Department of Food Science and Technology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, M.S. (India) and completed within 12 months.

Methodology: The optimal conditions for the enzymatic treatment of Aloe vera juice were investigated in order to minimize the turbidity of the juice and maximize the TSS of the juice. The clarified Aloe vera juice was then treated with ohmic heating at different time and current combinations and stored for 60 days to study the physic-chemical and microbial parameters of stored juice.

Results: The recommended enzymatic treatment conditions were: enzyme concentration 1% incubation time 6 h and incubation temperature 45ºC and the TSS, acidity and Turbidity under these conditions were 3.5ºBx, 0.30% and 206.66 NTU respectively. During storage, increased in TSS value from 2.1 to 2.6ºBx, acidity from 0.21 to 0.33% were recorded in ohmic treated juice samples. A very high TPC (102x105 CFU/ml) and yeast and mold count (68x105 CFU/ml) was recorded in untreated sample at 30 days of storage whereas the juice samples treated with ohmic heating at different time and current gradients were observed to be within the limit of standard requirement of microbial quality even up to 60 days of storage.

Conclusion: Enzymatic treatments can reduce the turbidity in Aloe vera juice. Ohmic treatment at different time and current gradients can preserve the clarified juice with respect to its microbial quality for more than 60 days. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Harvesting and Potable Use of Rooftop Rain Water to Tackle Imminent Drinking Water Crisis in Coastal Gujarat, India

P. K. Shrivastava, D. P. Patel, Dileswar Nayak, K. F. Satasiya, D. C. Patel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630205

Rooftop water harvesting is an ideal technique to collect and store rainwater for drinking purposes. However, with time, in spite of all precautions, there is a possibility of development of microbes in stored water, making it unsafe for drinking. An attempt was made at Navsari Agricultural University, Gujarat to design the rooftop water harvesting system in such a way that stored water meets the annual water demand maintaining the quality of water at minimum cost. The water harvesting system was constructed at six locations and water quality in the storage tanks was monitored at regular intervals. Physical, chemical and bacterial quality of harvested rainwater was evaluated in laboratory and the water was found to be of excellent quality. However, microbial growth was found to be present at few places over the time. Laboratory study was undertaken to find economical solution to remove microbes from the stored water before consumption using copper vessel, silver strip of 30 cm × 10 cm × 0.03 cm size, commercially available cloth filter, earthen pot, and control (without any treatment). The results revealed that copper vessel showed maximum inhibitory effect on coliform as well as total bacterial count when water was stored for 12 h and 24 h. Though, there was a slight increase in copper residue, but it remained within the permissible limits. Therefore, vessel made up of copper could safely be used for antimicrobial treatment to purify the drinking water. The methodology could be useful to meet the precariously deteriorating potable water situation in rural areas especially for the poor people of developing economies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Distributed Agile Software Development Utilizing Cloud Computing: A Holistic Framework

Ali Sever

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630206

In distributed agile software development, to conquer the problems raised by rapid development of complex products with ever changing technological advances and risks, there is a need of a model with specific tools and technology supported approaches to manage them. Distributed environment has challenges and complexities in many ways of over collocated teams. However, they seem to enhance the basic principles in which agile methodology thrives on. Agile projects and distributed projects are compatible and therefore practices, principles, tools, and techniques for distributed agile software development are introduced to the distributed teams to ensure that the agile projects become successful. Although cloud computing is well established for software system developments, its effect on agile methodology has not been extensively studied. This study outlines how agile projects can be modeled in the cloud-computing era, namely, seamless agile-cloud integration. We propose a model to improve Agile Methodology in distributed computing platform. This model has uncovered a gap between the distributed agile development phases that are overemphasized and the phases that require actual attention. In addition to this, emphasis on appropriate phases would help build desired software that can exploit the benefits of cloud computing in numerous ways.

Open Access Original Research Article

Time Series Modelling of Monthly Temperature and Reference Evapotranspiration for Navsari (Gujarat), India

D. K. Dwivedi, P. K. Shrivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630209

Time series modelling has been proved its usefulness in various fields including meteorology, hydrology and agriculture. It utilizes past data and extracts useful information from them to build up a model which could simulate various processes. The prior knowledge of evapotranspiration could help in estimating the amount of water required by the crops that is useful for optimizing design of irrigation systems. In this study, the time series modelling of monthly temperature and reference evapotranspiration has been carried out utilizing past data of 35 years (1983-2017) to assist decision makers related to agriculture and meteorology. 30 years (1983-2012) of temperature and evapotranspiration data were used for training and remaining 5 years of data (2013-2017) were used for validation. The monthly evapotranspiration was estimated using Penman-Monteith FAO-56 method. Mann-Kendall test was used at 5% significant level for identifying trend component in mean temperature. The time series of temperature and evapotranspiration was made stationary for modelling the stochastic components using ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) model. In order to check the normality of residuals, the Portmantaeu test was applied. The time series models for temperature and evapotranspiration which were validated for 5 years (2013-2017) and further deployed for forecasting of 5 years (2018-2022). It was found that for modelling temperature and reference evapotranspiration for Navsari, seasonal ARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 and seasonal ARIMA (1,0,1)(1,1,2)12 were found to be appropriate models respectively. Mann Kendall test used for trend detection in monthly mean temperature revealed that October and November months had significant positive trend. Negative trend was observed only in the month of June.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Instability in Area, Production and Productivity of Barley in Haryana vis-à-vis India

Parveen Kumar Nimbrayan, Sunita ., Jitender Kumar Bhatia, Heena .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630210

The present study has made an attempt to examine the instability in the area, production and productivity of barley crop in India and Haryana during three phases i.e. pre-green revolution, green revolution and post green revolution period. The study is based on secondary data and used three analytical methods.  The results showed that in case of area, the instability is more in the post-green revolution than pre-green revolution period as the focus of the green revolution was mainly on other crops like rice and wheat. In case of production, instability showed a decreasing trend from pre- to post-green revolution period due to the adoption of new technology and good quality seeds during the green revolution. A same decreasing trend was observed in yield instability also. In case of growth pattern, the area in Haryana and India both shows a negative growth trend in the pre-green revolution. In case of production, in Haryana, negative growth trends were observed in the green revolution period but in the post-green revolution, it was positive growth; while in India as a whole growth rate was negative. In case of yield, the growth rate was positive in both Haryana and India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Adaptation Strategies among Coastal Communities in Ghana: The Case of Dansoman in the Greater Accra Region

Isaac Sarfo, Otchwemah Henry Bortey, Terney Pradeep Kumara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i630211

Global climate action plans risk resulting to climate maladaptation and shocks when prudent measures are inapt. Adaptation strategies require multidisciplinary approach from all sectors with periodic monitoring and evaluation which are carefully planned, locally adaptable and results-oriented. For decades, various governments, development practitioners and international organizations have made concerted efforts in tackling large scale climate events. These stern initiatives forms part of Millennium Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically SDG 13 meant to combat climate change. The increasing demand for frameworks that effectively monitor and examine the outcomes of these huge investments made by policy-makers across regions have enhanced the evaluation and monitoring of various climate change adaptation strategies. This study sought to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of initiated adaptation strategies. The study used descriptive statistics based on informants’ knowledge and experience to assess the effectiveness of adaptation strategies in Dansoman and compare the results with the case of Nador-Berkane coastal community in north eastern part of Morocco where the “no-regret strategy” concept was adopted. Assessing the effectiveness of strategies is one of the key components of monitoring and evaluation process of climate change and is often overlooked, hence, the need for this study. Results from this study based on the informants’ experience and assessment show that climate change adaptation strategies in the study area are not effective and sustainable. This study serves as a baseline information for relevant stakeholders on critical areas, which ought to be prioritized to reduce the locals’ vulnerability to climate hazards. Assessing the effectiveness of adaptation strategies aid in ensuring efficiency and efficacy of planned and already initiated projects. Further research could be conducted on the cost of adaptation mechanisms and willingness to pay for sea defense systems in the area.