Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency of Bio-fungicides (Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on Seedling Emergence, Vigour and Health of Infected Chilli Seeds (Capsicum annuum) by Colletotrichum capsici

Y. N. Priya Reddy, S. S. Jakhar, O. S. Dahiya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530198

Damping off and fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum capsici are the major constraints in production and marketability of chilli. Systemic fungicides are commonly used to control this disease. However, continuous use of chemical fungicides leads to negative impact on environment, soil and human health. Therefore, present studies (blotter and pot experiment) were conducted to explore the bio-fungicides (as an alternative to chemical fungicide) in comparison with carbendazim using chilli seeds infected with Colletotrichum capsici.

Experiments were conducted at the CCSHAU, Hisar, India during 2016 in completely randomized design with nine treatments replicated three times. Six months old seeds having germination above the Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standard, were infected with Colletotrichum capsici and such infected seeds were treated with Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma viridae, Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and their combinations to control the disease incidence. The infected, un-infected and seed treatment with carbendazim served as controls. Results revealed that the seed germination was significantly higher (94.7%) with Trichoderma viride treatment compared to all other treatments including controls in blotter method. However, the seedling emergence in pot culture was significantly superior with Carbendazim treatment, the seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viridae was on par to that of Carbendazim treatment. The seedling length was significantly superior with Trichoderma viride compared to the carbendazim and other controls both in blotter and pot culture. The seedling dry weight and seedling vigour were significantly higher with carbendazim as compared to the Trichoderma viride treatment or other treatments in both blotter and pot culture. However, the overall seedling vigour obtained with Trichoderma viride was similar to that of carbendazim treatment. The disease incidence was significantly lower with Pseudomonas fluorescens as compared to the Trichoderma viride and carbendazim in blotter method and; T. viride + P. fluorescens treatment was on par to that of carbendazim treatment in pot culture. Therefore, use of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually or in combination are suggested as an alternative to carbendazim to control the Colletotrichum capsici.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Suitability Evaluation for Rubber in the Tropical Humid Region of Kerala, India

M. Chandrakala, R. Srinivasan, K. S. Anil `Kumar, K. Sujatha, Rajendra Hegde, S. K. Singh, H. R. Nirmala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530199

Aims: To assess the suitability of the rubber in Elamdesam block, Idukki district, Kerala.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil survey done and soil samples were brought from Elamdesam block, Idukki district, Kerala, India in the year 2016 and laboratory characterization and suitability assessment was done during 2017 in National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Regional Centre, Hebbal, Bangalore

Methodology: Soil suitability of rubber in Elamdesam block has been worked out in two steps. In the first step suitability criteria for rubber crop have been evolved with the help of existing literature with special reference to a tropical humid region of India. Emphasis was placed on land characteristics or land qualities which determine the limitations. Together, these diagnostic features (limitations) determine soil suitability when matched with crop or ecological requirements. In the second step, the defined suitabilities are shown on soil maps according to the map legend (soil composition) to prepare a relative suitability map for rubber in Elamdesam block.

Results: Results revealed that rubber is moderately suitable in the area constituted 23.4 per cent of the total with the limitation of root restriction, soil fertility, topography and soil texture. Marginally suitable in 20.75 per cent of the total geographical area with the limitation of topography, root restriction and soil fertility and 20.23 per cent of the total area is unsuitable with the limitation of depth to water table and root restriction in the Elamdesam block.  

Conclusion: More than 60 per cent of the total geographical area is under rubber cultivation in Elamdesam block, Idukki district, Kerala apart from soils are having the limitation of root restriction, soil fertility, topography, depth to water table and soil texture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Shelflife Study of Papaya-Black Grape Blend Fruit Rollups

V. Saranya, K. Uma Devi, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, K. B. Suneetha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530200

The study aims to standardize papaya – black grape blend fruit rollups in proportions of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 with experimental Ezidri food dehydrator and to compare them with 50:50 of control cabinet dryer rollups. Experimental Ezidri 50:50 ratio rollups were accepted by taste panel judges compared to other ratios and control sample. The results revealed that moisture content, TSS, thickness, pH, vitamin C, β – carotene, L*, a* and b* color values of fruit rollups decrease while, titrable acidity and microbial counts increase in storage period to 10 weeks at room temperature. It was concluded that Ezidri papaya – black grape sample showed superior qualities than control sample (cabinet) during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biocontrol of Sclerotium rolfsii Using Antagonistic Activities of Pseudomonads

Sangita Sahni, Bishun Deo Prasad, Tushar Ranjan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530202

Thirty well-characterized pseudomonad isolates for plant growth-promoting traits were screened for their antagonistic activities against 20 isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii.

Out of the 30 pseudomonad isolates, PUR46 was found to be best against all 20 isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii, because of its unique ability to suppress the growth of mycelia as well as the sclerotia formation of most of the S. rolfsii isolates in vitro conditions. In our previous study, PUR46 was also found to be positive for growth promoting traits like phosphorus solubilization and ammonification. The results suggested that expression of one or more of the traits like antagonistic activity against S. rolfsii and solubilization of tri-calcium phosphate may help in controlling the pathogen besides enhancement of plant growth. In this study, our investigations clearly indicate that PGPR isolates PUR 46 may be exploited to be used as potential biocontrol agents against S. rolfsii in agriculture system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management and Bio-regulators on Yield and Economics Attributes of Sprouting Broccoli {Brassica oleracea (L.) var. italica}

Arjun Lal Ola, L. N. Bairwa, O. P. Garhwal, O. P. Regar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530203

The field experiment was conducted at Horticulture Farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Jaipur) during Rabi seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18. The experiment consisted of thirty five treatment combinations including seven INM (100 per cent RDF through inorganic fertilizer, 75 per cent RDF through inorganic fertilizer + 25 per cent through FYM (5 t/ha), 50 per cent RDF through inorganic fertilizer + 50 per cent through FYM, 100 per cent RDF through FYM, 75 per cent RDF through inorganic fertilizer + 25 per cent through VC, 50 per cent RDF through inorganic fertilizer + 50 per cent through VC and 100 per cent RDF through vermicompost and five bio-regulator levels [Control, Brassinoids @ 5 ppm, Brassinoids @ 10 ppm, Salicylic acid @ 100 ppm and Salicylic acid @ 150 ppm] were under taken in Split plot design with three replications. The results showed that the maximum weight of primary curd (222.51 g),  number of secondary curds per plant (6.58), weight of secondary curd (154.05 g), yield per plant (384.56 g), yield per plot (7.69 kg), yield per ha (189.90 q), biological yield per ha (1081.85 q) and net returns ( 304019/ha) were recorded with the application of 50 per cent RDF through inorganic fertilizer and 3.5 t/ha vermicompost (F5) in sprouting broccoli. Whereas, the maximum B:C ratio (4.39:1) was recorded under 75 per cent RDF supplied through inorganic fertilizer and 1.75 t/ha vermicompost. Harvesting index was found non significant. In the case of bio-regulators maximum weight of primary curd (213.17 g), number of secondary curds per plant (6.20), weight of secondary curd (147 g), yield per plant (362.57 g),  yield per plot (7.42 kg), yield per ha (183.19 q), biological yield per ha (1002.18 q), net returns ( 287563 / ha) and B:C ratio (3.99:1) were recorded significant by superior over control with foliar application of 5 ppm brassinoids. While harvesting index was found non significant to broccoli.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Pharmacological Profile of Medicinal Vine: Tinospora cordifolia

Kumar Antul, Paul Amandeep, Singh Gurwinder, Choudhary Anuj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530196

Tinospora is highly distributed in the tropical and subtropical region of India. This climbing deciduous shrub widely reported in China, Bangladesh and Srilanka. The plant is rich in many phytoconstituents that are useful in drug designing. It is highly used against cancer, tumour suppression, and act as an anti-allergic compound. It is commonly known as gudhuchi, belongs to the family Menispermeaceae. Tinospora is most valuable herb known for its medicinal properties from Vedic periods and cures various diseases such as malaria, asthma and urinary disorders. The genus Tinospora consists of many classes of chemicals such as alkaloids, diterpenoids lactones, steroids, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. It is the best remedy for both children as well as adults against respiratory tract diseases. The plant shows various antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-neoplastic and hepatoprotective properties. In this review article medicinal property, chemical constituents and full description have been explored.

Open Access Review Article

RNA Interference: A Versatile Tool for Functional Genomics and Unraveling the Genes Required for Viral Disease Resistance in Plants

Tushar Ranjan, Namaste Kumari, Sangita Sahni, Bishun Deo Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530197

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful reverse genetics technology used to unravel the functions of genes. It uses viruses as vectors to carry targeted plant genes. The virus vector is used to induce RNA-mediated silencing of a gene or genes in the host plant. The process of silencing is triggered by dsRNA molecules, the mechanism is explained in this chapter. Over the years a large number of viruses have been modified for use as VIGS vectors and a list of these vectors is also included. As the name suggests, virus-induced gene silencing uses the host plant’s natural defense mechanisms against viral infection to silence plant genes. VIGS is methodologically simple and is widely used to determine gene functions, including disease resistance, abiotic stress, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and signal transduction pathways. Here, we made an attempt to describe the basic underlying molecular mechanism of VIGS, the methodology and various experimental requirements, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we discuss the future prospects of VIGS in relation to CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Besides using it to overexpress or silence genes, VIGS has emerged as the preferred delivery system for the cutting edge CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology.

Open Access Review Article

Development of Tall and Diara Land for Sustainable Agriculture in Central Bihar, India

S. K. Choudhary, Rajesh Kumar, S. K. Gupta, Arun Kumar, B. K. Vimal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i530201

Mokama tall (lake) area is located in central Bihar (India). It is ephemeral in nature and comprises a group of seven continuous tall. It is spread over a rest area and acts as a delta to several rivers that flow into it. This area is suffering due to stagnation of water during monsoon period; it is submerged under 4 to 6 meter deep water during monsoon. Cultivation of rainy season crops over it is not possible, even cultivation of winter season crops suffers if the drainage and reclamation of the area get delayed beyond sowing time (15 October); thereafter, this is a mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good yet the quantity and quality of produce is poor. This is considered to be the main problem. A number of schemes have been executed to solve this but without any substantial success. The diara land is found in between the natural levees of the river and formed due to its meandering and course changing behaviour. The topography of diara land is mostly undulating and intersected with numerous dead and disconnected channels;- Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) are reliable techniques to prepare a comprehensive inventory of land use pattern of an area. The tall and Diara which are rich biodiversity of and biological resources, have not been given due attention and multiple uses of various resources have not been attempted. In this paper, authors have presented general features of the tall and diara lands; existing cropping pattern and sowing time, soil characteristics and major problems. Involvement of appropriate holistic management strategies have been suggested to improve the agricultural production in this area.