Study the Space –Time Variations of Indus River Flow Propagation

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230174

River flow is the most important geophysical process of the earth and its ecosystem. Being very unpredictable in nature, at several times its ensemble flow propagation along the network becomes hazardous flood, that causes enormous damage and loss. Pakistan is an agricultural country with one of the world’s largest Indus River system. The system undergoes great climatic, strong seasonal and inter-annual variability dominated by both monsoon and snow-glacier dynamics of the Himalayan and Karakoram regions. A better understanding of the variability may provide insight into the problems associated with unpredictable variations in river flow and their propagation. This paper is an attempt to enhance the current knowledge of the Indus River flow dynamics along the network. For this purpose linear and nonlinear methods of propagation analysis of the mean 10 daily river flow (TDF) are utilised. The linear and nonlinear schemes employ cross-correlation and the normalized average of cross-mutual information (MI) method respectively. The overall dominant mechanism of the system shows a linear behaviour, however, some stations demonstrate nonlinear propagation in the network. The results of these analyses may also provide the viability to study the behaviour of regional and global climatic parameters related to the type of information propagated.

Evaluation of Operational Performance and Economic Analysis of a Gas Turbine Power Plant: A Case Study of Ibom Power Station

N. O. Ubani, K. O. Ikebudu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230176

This work evaluates the performance indicator of Ibom Power Plant as one of the Independent Power Producers (IPPs) in Nigeria. The operational performance and the economic analysis of the three gas turbines present there-GTG 1 (Model PG 6551B), GTG 2 (Model PG 6561B), and GTG3 (Model PG 9171E) with combined installed capacity of 190MW were investigated. The study showed that the average station load factor, average capacity utilization index and the average generation utilization index were about 42%, 51% and 46% respectively, which were low when compared with 70% as recommended by the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC); while the average plant heat rate was found to be 12,659.60MJ/MWh which also tends to be higher than the 10,000MJ/MWh allowed by NERC. The average thermal efficiency and the average capacity factor gave a result of 28.44% and 19% respectively. The NERC’s Multi Year Tariff Order (MYTO) of N10.70 per KWh for generation companies’ was used in evaluating the company’s revenue with reference to the application of Net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). Obviously, the cost of power generation can be reduced by improving capacity factor; running the power station at high load factor; increasing the efficiency of the power plant and proper maintenance plan to avoid breakdowns. An upward review of MYTO tariff to ensure economic viability of Nigerian Electricity Supply Industry was recommended.

An On-Farm Study for Feeding Impact of Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in Milking Cow

Nathu Ram Sarker, Dilruba Yeasmin, Farah Tabassum, Md. Ahsan Habib

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230168

Aims: To compare the compatibility of maize stover based Total Mixed Ration (TMR) over conventional feeding in terms of dry matter intake, milk production and composition and economic outcome from cows.

Study Design: CRD.

Place and Duration of Study: This field trial was carried out for a period of 60 days on 10 early lactating Holstein Friesian crossbred cows belonging to the farmers of Sirajgonj district.

Methodology: Cows were divided into two homogenous groups considering lactation status and yield. In control (T0) group, cows were provided conventional feeds comprising of 20.0 kg Napier grass, 5.0 kg paddy straw, 2 kg pelleted feed and 10.0 kg concentrate mixture (composed of 5 kg wheat bran, 2 kg pulse bran, 2 kg red gram bran and 1.0 kg oil cake), while in another group (T1), cows were fed TMR comprising of maize stover and concentrate with 50:50 proportions, according to their nutrient requirements. The DM and CP contents in concentrate mixture of T0 and T1 were 90.33% and 15.6% and 38.01% and 16.7%, respectively. The data were analyzed by "SPSS 20.0" statistical program.

Result: Fresh feed intakes were significantly (P<0.001) higher in T0 (37.4±0.008) than those of animals in T1; CP intakes were significantly (P=0.008) higher in T1 (1.60±0.02). Differences were not significant (P=0.07) in case of DMI and DMI on %live weight between two treatment groups. Milk yield and fat content significantly (P=0.05) differed between groups. Highest milk yield (9.99±0.07 kg) and milk fat (3.62±0.06%) were observed in cows of T1. However, milk protein, lactose and SNF did not vary significantly between groups. Considering milk price @BDT 60.0/ltr, profit gained maximum in T1 group.

Conclusion: TMR improved substantial amount of milk yield and quality with concurrent reduction of milk production cost.

Enhanced Biodegradation of Degreaser Using Pseudomonas and Bacillus Species in Fresh Water Ecosystem

Renner Renner Nrior, Indutimi Mathias Otuogha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230171

Aim: The aim of this study is to enhance the biodegradation of degreasers used in upstream sectors of Nigeria Petroleum Industry using bio-augmenting organisms such as: Pseudomonas and Bacillus species in freshwater Ecosystem.

Study Design: This study employs experimental designs, Randomized Block Design treatment set up, statistical analysis of data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Freshwater sample for this research was collected from Asarama Andoni, in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study lasted for six months.

Methodology: The experimental set-up was carried in 500 ml conical flask with two species of bacteria, two types of degreaser and fresh water sample giving a total of 8 set-up including controls. The Pseudomonas and Bacillus species used in this study were isolated from the freshwater ecosystem and identified using standard microbiological methods. The bioremediation potential of the respective test organisms were monitored at ambient temperature 28±0.2°C for 28 days at a constant interval of 7 days using the following Physiochemical parameter; Total dissolved Solid, Hydrogen concentrations ions and Total Hydrocarbon Content. While the following Microbiological parameters; Total heterotrophic Bacteria, Total Heterotrophic Fungi, Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria, and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi were monitored.

Results: The percentage of degradability of the respective set-ups ranged from Control (Rigwash) (3.29%) < Pseudomonas sp. + Rigwash (27.56%) < Pseudomonas + Bacillus + Rigwash< (31.57%), Bacillus sp.+ Rigwash (37.57%) Control 2 (Aquabreak) (9.45%) < Pseudomonas sp.+ Aquabreak (26.77%) < Pseudomonas + Bacillus + Aquabreak (31.32%)< Bacillus sp.+ Aquabreak (32.46%). Overall evaluation revealed that Bacillus sp. had a higher biodegradation potential on both degreaser (Rigwash and Aquabreak) in freshwater than Pseudomonas sp. Five species of bacteria: Escherichia coli, Micrococcus, Citrobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas species and four fungal species: Penicillium, Mucor, Aspergillus and Rhizopus species were isolated and identified as hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi organisms respectively.

Conclusion: The results revealed that Bacillus species have more degradability potential than Pseudomonas species for both Aquabreak and Rigwash. These results also indicated the low biodegradation potential of Rigwash in fresh Ecosystem.

Biometrical Relationship between Body Weight and Body Measurements of Black Bengal Goat (BBG)

Md. Ahsan Habib, Ambia Akhtar, A. K. Fazlul Haque Bhuiyan, Md. Panir Choudhury, Most Farhana Afroz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230172

Aims: To develop regression equations for estimation of live weight from the external morphological measurements.

Study Design: CRD with non-orthogonal hierarchy.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at 3 rural village communities of Bhaluka Upazila in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh from 2009 to 2013.

Methodology: All animals were ear-tagged and maintained under semi-intensive management system with scheduled vaccination and de-worming. Data were collected from a baseline survey along with 3 progressive generations produced from the community foundation stocks. Body length, chest girth, wither height, hip height and body weights were measured in a same day and recorded individually from birth up to 15 month age. Body weights were measured in kilogram by a hanging spring balance and other morphological parameters were measured in centimeter by a measuring tape. The data were analyzed by "SPSS 17.0" statistical program.

Results: A total of seven regression models were adopted and analysis of variance showed that all models were fitted significantly (p<0.001). The correlation coefficient was higher when multiple body measurements were included in the model. The study also revealed that when chest girth as a single body measurement was included in the model gave the highest correlation coefficient (R=0.92). For including multiple measurements, body length and chest girth are the best external body measures which exposed same correlation coefficient (R2=0.92) when included more than these two body measures in the model. The differences between actual body weight and body weight predicted from regression equation for different ages were less than 1% (p>0.05) and correlation coefficient between weights was 0.92 (p<0.01).

Conclusion: There are strong correlations among morphometric body measurements. Thus, body weight can be estimated from a single or multiple body measurements by regression equation. Chest girth is the best single predictor for estimating live body weight with high accuracy.

Construction and Standardization of Knowledge Test to Measure the Level of Knowledge of Tribal Farmers on Seed Banking

A. Srinivas, V. Sudha Rani, I. Sreenivasa Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230173

Intense knowledge on seed banks is prerequisite for ensuring seed banking and the associated traditional knowledge in tribal areas. Hence, it was thought necessary to construct a test for the purpose and an attempt has been made to develop a test for measuring knowledge of tribal farmers on seed banking. Pertinent items were collected covering all aspects of seed banking. The knowledge test was developed following step by procedures which included preliminary screening of the items based on Likert’s method through calculation of t-statistics and mean score, followed by the item analyses through derivation of difficulty index, discrimination index and point biserial correlation coefficient. The final knowledge test contained 45 items which were retained from 60 items. Each item can be measured through two-point scale. The test was found to be highly stable and reliable which was indicated by highly significant value of reliability co-efficient (0.78). The social science researchers can use this to measure knowledge of tribal farmers on seed banking. It can help the extension personnel to formulate sound strategy to exploit the strong areas of knowledge and develop the weak areas of knowledge of the farmers regarding seed banking.

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Daniella oliveri (Africa Balsam Tree) Wood

Ebenezer Adeyemi Iyiola, Babatola Olufemi, Victoria Olubukola Oyerinde, J. M. Owoyemi, Ayanleye Samuel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230175

Aims: This work investigated the effect of thermal modification on some of the physical properties and mechanical properties of Daniella oliveri wood.

Study Design: The study design used for this experiment was 3 x4 Factorial experiment in Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Federal University of Technology, Akure wood laboratory and the study lasted for 6 months.

Methodology: Wood samples were thermally treated at the temperature of 120, 140, 160 and 180°C, for different durations of 1, 1.5 and 2 hours in a muffle furnace. The planks were air-dried to reduce the moisture content and then machined into the required dimensions in the direction parallel to grain with a circular saw. Thirty-nine defect-free samples of dimensions 20 mm × 20 mm × 60 mm were prepared for dimensional stability and compression test, static bending tests and the hardness tests to make a total of 117 samples.

Results: The result showed that the average weight loss of the treated wood samples varied from 3.79% at 120°C for 1 hour to 7.51% at 180°C for 2 hours. The treatment led to reduction in density from 528 to 459 kg/m3 at 180°C for 2 hours. The heat treatment also led to reduction in water absorption and volumetric swelling of the treated samples. The mean value for Modulus of elasticity (MOE) ranges from 2.17x103 N/mm2 to 2.96 x 103 N/mm2 for the treated samples while the untreated was 2.22x103 N/mm2. Heat treatment brought about improvement in the maximum compressive strength and the Janka hardness parallel to the grain of wood samples. The value of compressive strength increased from 26.58 N/mm2 to 41.71 N/mm2 and hardness from 69.24 N to 75.5 N. It can therefore be concluded that thermal modification greatly enhanced the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of wood samples.

Genetic Expression of Different Coat Colour Variants of Black Bengal Goat (BBG) in Bangladesh

Md Ahsan Habib, Ambia Akhtar, Abul Kashem Fazlul Haque Bhuiyan, Most Farhana Afroz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i230177

Aims: To investigate the genetic expression of different coat colour variants in Black Bengal Goat (BBG) of Bangladesh.

Study Design: CRD with non-orthogonal hierarchy.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at 3 rural village communities of Bhaluka Upazila in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh from 2009 to 2013.

Methodology: All goats in community breeding program under this study were ear-tagged and maintained under semi-intensive management system with three breeding strategies in progressive generations. Data were collected from a baseline survey for goat population study along with 3 progressive generations produced from the community foundation flocks. The colour distribution and the colours of kids from matings among different colour parents were observed and recorded accordingly. The recorded data were analyzed by "SPSS 20.0" statistical program.

Results: The highest colour populations of about 53% were solid black in colour and others being Bezoar (31%), black with Toggenbergpattern (9%), black with Dutch belt pattern (6%) and solid brown (only 0.5%). Sex and generation had no significant effect on coat colour expression, while, coat colour in different locations differed significantly. For the analysis of coat colour inheritance, two categories of offspring were considered in this study; one from known coat colour dams mated with unknown coat colour sire and another from known coat colour parents. In the earlier category, most of the offspring exposed their dam’s coat colour when mated to unknown coat colour sires. For later category, there were varieties of coat colours offspring, produced from matings between two different or same colour parents.

Conclusion: Although the segregation of coat colours among offspring showed dominance of parents colour, there were also offsprings other than parents` coat colours. This might be due to polymorphism of coat colour gene in BBG.