Open Access Method Articles

Feasibility Achievement without the Hassle of Artificial Variables: A Computational Study

Syed Inayatullah, Nasir Touheed, Muhammad Imtiaz, Tanveer Ahmed Siddiqi, Saba Naz, Hafsa Athar Jafree

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130163

The purpose of this article is to encourage students and teachers to use a simple technique for finding feasible solution of an LP. This technique is very simple but unfortunately not much practiced in the textbook literature yet. This article discusses an overview, advantages, computational experience of the method. This method provides some pronounced benefits over Dantzig’s simplex method phase 1. For instance, it does not require any kind of artificial variables or artificial constraints; it could directly start with any infeasible basis of an LP. Throughout the procedure it works in original variables space hence revealing the true underlying geometry of the problem. Last but not the least; it is a handy tool for students to quickly solve a linear programming problem without indulging with artificial variables. It is also beneficial for the teachers who want to teach feasibility achievement as a separate topic before teaching optimality achievement. Our primary result shows that this method is much better than simplex phase 1 for practical Net-lib problems as well as for general random LPs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Consumption Pattern of Value Added Products of Pearl Millet

Raveena Kargwal, Yadvika ., V. K. Singh, M. K. Garg, Vinod ., Mohit Kumar, Monika Mathur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130160

Pearl millet is one of the major food crops in most of the arid and semi arid cropping region of India. Being the fourth most important cereal crop, pearl millet gives more nutrients and minerals to the rural people. The main purpose of the present study was to carry out an analysis of energy utilized during processing of pearl millet for preparing two different bakery products (i.e. cake and biscuits) under laboratory conditions. The present study was conducted at established lab. of Centre for Excellence, Pearl Millet, HAU, Hisar. In this lab, processing of pearl millet is done on regular basis for preparation of cakes and biscuits for demonstration as well as selling purpose through ATIC (Agriculture Technology and Information Centre) of HAU, Hisar. Pearl millet processing involves various unit operations such as cleaning, drying, milling, baking and packaging. Basically two types of energy i.e. manual and electrical were used during processing of pearl millet. Electricity was the main energy source for the value added products of pearl millet. Electricity was used to run electric oven, spiral mixer, dough maker, mill, packaging machine, lights etc. In pearl millet processing, some of the operations were done manually like, cleaning, sun drying, feeding of biscuits in package and weighing etc. Manual energy used was around 8% while electrical energy used was around 92%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fabrication of TiO2/Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) Using Dye Extracts and Their Mixture as Photosensitizers

T. O. Ahmed, P. O. Akusu, N. Alu, A. L. Aluko

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130161

In this work we have reported an investigation on Hibiscus sabdariffa and Delonix regia dye extracts and their mixture as natural sensitizers for TiO2/DSCs. A shift in the absorption maximum toward the lower energy of the ultraviolet-visible spectrum was observed for the dye mixture and a shift in the absorption maximum towards the higher energy of the ultraviolet-visible spectrum was observed for the dye extracts. The optical band gaps obtained at the point where the absorption spectra showed strong cut offs range from 1.79eV to 2.40eV. Also, we have used TiO2 thin films of thickness 5.2μm and the Light Harvesting Efficiencies (LHE) of the dye extracts and the dye mixture adsorbed onto TiO2 surface were close to unity. The average diameter of the TiO2 films obtained from SEM is in the range of 25-40nm reflecting that the TiO2 films are transparent and suitable for DSC application. The XRD pattern revealed the TiO2 films to be of anatase form and the structure type is tetragonal with 3.53217Å as the d-spacing for the most prominent peak, 2θ=25.2139° (ICDD data file: 01-075-8897). Three (3) DSCs each of 0.52 cm2 active area were assembled and subjected to current-voltage characterization using a standard overhead Veeco viewpoint solar simulator equipped with AM 1.5 filter to give a solar radiation of 1000 W/m2 and coupled to Keithley source meter (model 4200SCS). The photoelectrochemical performance of the fabricated DSCs showed open-circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.42 to 0.53 V, the short-circuit current densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.10mAcm-2 to 0.90mAcm-2 and the fill factors (FF) varied from 12 to 38%. The best overall solar power conversion efficiency of 0.13% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation and a maximum short circuit current density of 0.90mAcm-2. Nevertheless, pure Hibiscus sabdariffa and Delonix regia dye extracts proved to be rather poor sensitizers as can be seen by the low spectra absorption at lower energies with current densities of 0.17mAcm-2 and 0.10mAcm-2 respectively. The solar power conversion efficiencies for Hibiscus sabdariffa and Delonix regia dye extracts were 0.01% and 0.02% respectively. In our earlier studies, we highlighted an established fact that raw natural dye mixtures exhibit better performance than pure dye extracts. Thus, the power conversion efficiency of 0.13% observed for the dye mixture sensitized TiO2/DSC corresponds to an increment in the neighborhood of 85% to 92% over the pure dye extracts sensitized TiO2/DSCs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis of Ocimum Spp. - An Important Medicinal Plant

Kiran ., Pradeep Kumar, Simran Kirti, Anjali Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130162

The antioxidant activities of four genotypes of basil species were selected for biochemical studies, viz., Ocimum sanctum L. (Rama Tulsi), Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Krishna Tulsi), Ocimum gratissimum L. (Van Tulsi), and Ocimum basilicum L. (Babui Tulsi) for the antioxidant properties. Ocimum L. is considered useful in the treatment of respiratory system disorders, reduction of blood glucose level and is regarded as an 'adaptogen' or anti-stress agent. The phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves extract to the estimation of standard biochemical methods such as peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase activity, antioxidant, flavonoids, total phenols, protein as well as total carbohydrates, starch and reducing and non-reducing sugar. The biochemical studies revealed that the starch (98 mg/gfw), the content was found to be higher in O. gratissimum. Similarly the other parameters such as total sugar (159 mg/gfw), non-reducing sugar (61mg/gfw), Peroxidase (142 U/mL), Catalase (188 U/mL), SOD (92.47 U/mL), PPO (462 U/mL) were found to be higher in O. sanctum. On the other hand, soluble protein (62 mg/gfw), total flavonoids (325 mg/gfw) and total flavonols (486 mg/gfw) were found to be higher in O. tenuiflorum. Total antioxidants (136.45 mg/gfw), reducing sugar (108 mg/gfw) and phenol (479 mg/gfw) were found to be higher in O. basilicum. The result shows that the best genotype among the four follows the trends O. sanctum > O. basilicum > O. tenuiflorum > O. gratissimum. On the basis of the result, the two genotypes can be recommended for medicinal purpose in the pharmaceutical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isozyme Pattern and Morpho-agronomical Traits Based Genetic Divergence Studies in Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbreds

Ranju Kumari, A. K. Singh, V. K. Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130164

The present investigation was carried out with an objective to study genetic divergence based on morpho-agronomical traits and isozyme pattern in eight maize inbreds. These inbreds were evaluated in randomized block design with three replication for ten morph-agronomical traits. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis technique used to study the isozyme polymorphism in different tissues of eight inbreds. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the inbreds for all the ten morpho-agronomical traits. Nature and extent of genetic divergence for morpho-agronomical traits was measured using average taxonomic distances as a measure of dissimilarity coefficient. Eight inbreds were clustered into four groups (A, B, C, D) based on dissimilarity coefficient. Cluster B and cluster D showed the highest inter cluster distance (2.2422) and the lowest was observed between clusters B and C (1.0401). Cluster A exhibited the highest intra cluster distance (0.8519). Based on inter cluster distances inbreds present in cluster B and D were found more diverse  consisted of inbred CML 186 and CM 600 respectively. Six isozyme systems were used for characterization and divergence studies based on similarity coefficients. Inbreds were classified into six clusters (A, B, C, D, E and F). The lowest (0.5957) similarity coefficient exist between inbreds CM 600 and CML 176 and the highest (0.8132) existed between inbreds CML 186 and CML 144. Cluster analysis in both cases reflected the moderate level of genetic divergence among the inbred lines but result may not be completely similar, but somewhat distinct and complementary in nature. Isozyme patterns was found to effective in revealing the nature of relationship among the inbred lines Therefore, divergence study using one estimate can’t replace the need to evaluate the relationship on the basis of the other which may be to used as parents in hybridization programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ingestion of Microplastics by Ichthyofauna in the Southern Coastline of Cameroon

D. Mboglen, L. M. Oben, S. Ntyam Ondo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130165

The study was designed to provide evidence of microplastic ingestion, abundance and composition in the catches of Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Pseudotolithus typus and Ethmalosa fimbriata in the dockyard of Londji and Mboa-manga on the Southern Coastline of Cameroon. The methodology involved visual observation and identification of anthropogenic particles in the stomach content (SC) and an extraction procedure involving hypochlorite digestion and isolation. In this study 45(18.37%) of a total 372 of the E. fimbriata and Pseudotolithus sp had ingested microplastics. We also found a majority abundance of 12 microplastic particle in four size classes [18-21] cm for E. fimbriata, and 20 and 23 microplastic particles in six size classes [40-45] cm and [35-39] cm for P. senegalensis and P. typus respectively. The average percentage composition of the microplastics included rope filaments (23%), fishing lines (47%), strings (13 %), pieces of plastic cloth (9%) and others (8%) with a colour diversity of white, red, yellow, grey and light blue. The results provided an improved evidence base to support policy and management decisions on measures to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies for plastic debris in the Southern coastline of Cameroon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulating the Impact of Climate Change on Growth and Yield of Maize Using CERES-Maize Model under Temperate Kashmir

Bilal Ahmad Lone, Shivam Tripathi, Asma Fayaz, Purshotam Singh, Sameera Qayoom, Sandeep Kumar, Zahoor Ahmad Dar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130166

Climate variability has been and continues to be, the principal source of fluctuations in global food production in countries of the developing world and is of serious concern. Process-based models use simplified functions to express the interactions between crop growth and the major environmental factors that affect crops (i.e., climate, soils and management), and many have been used in climate impact assessments. Average of 10 years weather data from 1985 to 2010, maximum temperature shows an increasing trend ranges from 18.5 to 20.5°C.This means there is an increase of 2°C within a span of 25 years. Decreasing trend was observed with respect to precipitation was observed with the same data. The magnitude of decrease was from 925 mm to 650 mm of rainfall which is almost decrease of 275 mm of rainfall in 25 years. Future climate for 2011-2090 from A1B scenario extracted from PRECIS run shows that overall maximum and minimum temperature increase by 5.39°C (±1.76) and 5.08°C (±1.37) also precipitation will decrease by 3094.72 mm to 2578.53 (±422.12) The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of climate variability and change on maize growth and yield of Srinagar Kashmir. Two enhanced levels of temperature (maximum and minimum by 2 and 4°C) and CO2 enhanced by 100 ppm & 200 ppm were used in this study with total combinations of 9 with one normal condition.  Elevation of maximum and minimum temperature by 4°C anthesis  and maturity of maize was earlier 14 days with a deviation of 18%  and  26 days with a deviation  of 20% respectively. Increase in temperature by 2 to 4°C alone or in combination with enhanced levels of CO2 by 100 and 200 ppm the growth and yield of maize was drastically declined with an reduction of about 40% in grain yield. Alone enhancement of CO2  at both the levels fails show any significant impact on maize yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of CCTV Camera Security Project on the Sustainability of Tourism Industry in Zanzibar: A Case of Old Stone Town, Urban West Region, Zanzibar

Ayoub Mohammed Mahmoud

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v35i130167

This study reveals the less known role of CCTV camera security project on the sustainability of tourism industry in Zanzibar. This study attempted to answer the following three research questions: firstly what is the level of awareness of CCTV camera security project practices? secondly what are the impacts of CCTV camera security project on tourism industry? and thirdly what are the factors influencing the effectiveness of CCTV camera security project? The study applied a descriptive case study method of cross-sectional research design. Various data collection methods including observation, interviews and questionnaire survey were used to collect information from 120 respondents from the study area. The analysis of the collected qualitative and quantitative data was done through content analysis and descriptive statistics respectively. Based on the analyzed data, the findings revealed 33% of all 120 respondents were very much aware of CCTV camera security project practices in Zanzibar. Also the study revealed the presence of six major common types of crimes in the study area namely stealing, robbery, vehicles disorders, theft by servants, breaking and assault. The study findings further revealed the main impacts of CCTV camera security project on tourism industry including ensuring secured business environment, crime prevention, decline in private security costs and increase opening hours for business. The study finally concludes CCTV security project being of high usefulness in ensuring secured business environment. Finally the study recommends the use of public-private partnership model to enhance access and adoption of CCTV security cameras in many areas of Zanzibar.