Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Biofertilizers and Biocontrol Agents on Growth and Yield in off Season Brinjal under Low Cost Polyhouse

Khwairakpam Lily Devi, Smriti Chettri, Aribam Priya Mahanta Sharma, Deepak Jhajharia, R. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530143

An experiment was conducted to determine the combined effect of biofertilizers and biocontrol agents on growth and yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under low cost polyhouse during off season in the experimental polyhouse of the College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology (CAEPHT), Central Agricultural University (CAU), Ranipool, Sikkim, India. The experiment was planned with 3 treatments and six replications viz. T1- Farm Yard Manure 5 kg/m2, T2- FYM 5 kg/m2 + biofertilizer (a mixture of Azotobactor + PSB at the rate 10 g/kg FYM each), T3- FYM 5 kg/m2 + biofertilizer + biocontrol agent (a mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens + Trichoderma at the rate 5 g/kg FYM each). There was a significant variation in vegetative growth and yield among all the treatments. The maximum plant height (45.62 cm), the number of branches/ plant (11.17) and the number of leaves/ plant (50.05),the number of fruits/ plant (38.9) and fruit yield/ plant (810 g) were observed with treatment T3 which was at par with the treatment T2 and were significantly higher than the treatment T1 receiving FYM singly. Organic manure (FYM) inoculated with biofertilizers may therefore, be recommended for organic brinjal production for cultivation under low cost polyhouses in Sikkim (India) and application of biocontrol agents may be limited to areas having some history of occurrence of diseases because it involves an extra production cost in the application of biocontrol agents.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Distributions of Nitrogen Dioxide in Nigeria using Neural Network

G. F. Ibeh, B. C. Udochukwu, T. Sombo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530144

Nitrogen dioxide emission is part of atmospheric pollutant that has been linked to climate change. Artificial neural network model were used to investigate nitrogen dioxide distributions in Nigeria at a selected points. The study areas used in this work are thirty six (36) points over Nigeria as shown in Fig. 1. The data used in this work is a satellite nitrogen dioxide () obtained from Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) under the programme of Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC). The data used in this work is a satellite nitrogen dioxide data obtained from 2003-2014. The neural network processed the available data by dividing them into three portions randomly: 70% for the training, 15% for validation and the remaining 15% for testing. Input parameters were chosen to be latitude, longitude, day of the year, year. Observed nitrogen dioxide was inputted as targeted data, while the output nitrogen dioxide data were the estimated data. The results reveal that dry and wet season variations differ in Nigeria. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were observed to be higher in the North during dry season, but were higher in the South during the wet season. This could imply that weather condition and seasons influences the concentrations and variations of nitrogen dioxide in Nigeria. The similar trend of the estimated and observed nitrogen dioxide of both diurnal and annual distributions suggests good performance of the model. The result shows that high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide contribute to climate change in Nigeria, resulting to global warming. Consequently, if left unchecked, increase in nitrogen dioxide may cause alteration in rainfall regimes and patterns, floods, and so on. These in turn will bring about adverse effects on livelihoods, such as crop production, livestock production, fisheries, forestry and post-harvest activities. Finally, we recommend analysis of nitrogen dioxide distributions in Nigeria to be regular.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wavelet Entropy Based Probabilistic Neural Network for Classification

Khaled Daqrouq, Sheng Chen, Emad Khalaf, Ali Morfeq, Muntasir Sheikha, Abdulrohman Qatawneh, Abdulhameed AL-Khateeb

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530145

Recently, wavelet transform (WT) has been enormously effectual in various scientific fields. As a matter of fact, WT has overcome the FFT in the difficult nature data tackling. A wavelet entropy based probabilistic neural network (PNN) for classification applications is proposed. Specifically, wavelet transform is performed on the original input feature data, and the entropy values of the wavelet decomposition signals are then extracted to use as the input to the PNN classifier. Two benchmark data sets, Breast Cancer and Diabetes, are used to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed wavelet entropy based PNN (WEPNN) classifier. The test classification rates of 80.3% and 77.0% are achieved respectively for the two data sets using the WEPNN with Shannon entropy. Other published methods are used for comparison. The method is promising. For results accuracy enhancement, large data set might be utilized in the future work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and Essence of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

Z. Sheykholeslami, M. Qasempour Almdari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530146

This study compared organic and chemical fertilizers on qualitative yield and essence content of peppermint. The experiment was carried out as Randomized Complete Design in Agricultural Farm Center, Sari, Iran, in 2013. The treatments were as control, vermicompost, composed sheep manure and basic chemical fertilizers at N60, P50, K60; N60, P80, K60; N90, P50, K80 and N90, P80, K80, and replicated four times. The results showed that all the measured characteristics were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by both organic and chemical fertilizers at the two harvest times. The values of the quantitative (wet and dry yield) and qualitative characteristics (essence content and essence yield) were also more at the first harvest than the second harvest. At the first harvest, the maximum value for dry and wet yield, and the maximum essence value and its yield were attained by using both sheep manure and chemical fertilizers at the rate of N90, P80, K80. The highest value for dry (96 kg ha-1) and wet (207 kg ha-1) yield, and yield (0.46 lit ha-1) and content of essence (0.48 g/100 g) were obtained with vermicompost. The values obtained for vermicompost and sheep manure were not significantly different. Application of sheep manure and vermicompost as organic fertilizer was recommended for production of peppermint. Whereas essence content and yield for first harvest were significantly higher than other treatments and control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clientele Satisfaction of Extension Services Provided by KVKs of Meghalaya

Sao Evalwell Dkhar, Loukham Devarani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530169

The Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) are very important organisations for promoting agricultural development at the district level through the various trainings and other development programmes they offer. One way of knowing how effective these KVKs are in catalysing district agricultural development is to study the clienteles’ satisfaction of the farmers involved with those KVKs. In this study, 150 farmers across five districts of Meghalaya were interviewed to study the clienteles’ satisfaction, it was found that the client farmers of the KVKs were highly satisfied with the outputs and services of the KVKs since the overall clienteles’ satisfaction index was found to be 76.49. The farmers however did express a few problems such as non-timely delivery of relevant inputs/services, lack of innovative need based technologies and the lack of relevant market information. There should be more initiatives from the KVKs to provide regular market information to the farmers through the use of ICTs. Development programmes should be delivered timely so that farmers can plan their farming activities accordingly and more effort should be given by the KVKs to increase participation of farmers in programme planning and execution to help develop innovative need based solutions in accordance to the farmers’ problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Uniformity Coefficient and Soil Moisture Distribution under Drip Irrigation System

A. Selvaperumal, E. Sujitha, I. Muthuchamy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530170

Drip irrigation system uniformity can preserve a higher crop yield and deplete the initial investment of cost. The experiment was conducted at precision farming development centre research farm, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to evaluate the uniformity coefficient and soil moisture distribution under drip irrigation system. The experiment was designed under Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) which included three fertigation levels 80%, 100% and 120% of Recommended Dose of fertilizers which were replicated thrice. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) was obtained as 0.0207 per cent kept at a constant pressure of 50.66 kPa, Statistical Uniformity (SU) as 97 per cent and Coefficient of Uniformity (CU) as 0.9518. As the elapsed time increased, the rate of increase of wetted zone diameter decreased. A high R2 value of 0.97 shows the goodness of fit for the horizontal movement. The mean soil moisture distribution 39.2 per cent was observed below the emitter at the depth of 10 cm immediately after irrigation.

Open Access Review Article

Nitrogen Management in Baby Corn: A Review

S. P. Singh, M. P. Neupane, U. Sai Sravan, Sandeep Kumar, Tikendra Yadav, S. K. Choudhary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530147

Baby corn (Zea mays L.) is a short duration crop, relatively new introduction in India and a potential option for raising farmer’s income being a high value crop. This crop may open new alternatives since fits well in the cropping systems and grown year round in a wide range of climatic conditions. Production technologies of baby corn differ from maize thus, development and standardization of location specific agro-techniques are required before popularization among the farmers. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a wide spread phenomenon in Indian soils and its proper management is of enormous significance from economic and environmental point of view. Efficient utilization depends on the right time, method and optimum N application synchronizing with the crop demands. Studies so far suggest N application in variable rates and proportions for different agro-ecological zones. Yield increases with N rates up to certain level but optimum economic N dose is found independent of plant densities. Baby corn-legume intercropping may be a viable option to improve N-fixation and system productivity. More studies needed on N management in baby corn based cropping systems. Integrated nutrient management (INM) practice should be adopted as core strategy for sustainability and reduce dependency on chemical fertilizers. Combined approach (soil application + foliar spray) enhances yield and quality in winter baby corn. Concentration and timing of urea foliar spray are two crucial factors to harness the desired benefit. Scope to harvest combined product (baby corn + green / mature cob) and its interaction with N may be explored to provide more flexibility to the farmers. Optimization of N quantities depends on season and location. Site specific nitrogen management (SSNM) approach can address the spatial and temporal variations for efficient N-management. However, cost effective and user’s friendly precision tools may be a viable option considering the real farm situations.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Managing Solid Waste Produced from Homes in Malaysia

W. C. Tang, Umar Nirmal, Saijod T. W. Lau, Sharmeeni Murugan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i530148

There has been a sharp rise in the rate of waste generated on a global scale, owing to a rapid growth in population and urbanization. Enormous amounts of waste are being produced yearly. To illustrate the gravity of this situation, in 2018, there was a gargantuan estimate of 85 tons of waste disposed in Malaysia. Most of this disposed waste is not properly recycled, thus making waste a prevailing global threat against mankind and the environment. Waste originates from several different sources such as residences, industries, agriculture and manufacturing plants. In this work, the writers seek to dedicate a compilation of developments in research for managing solid waste produced from homes in Malaysia. Further, the generation of solid waste from households, their characteristics and impacts are also reviewed herein. In addition, the flow of waste from the time it is produced in homes until its disposal in Malaysia will also be examined and presented. The concept of ‘3R’ is implemented to manage the waste generated. This paper attempts to examine and solve the shortcomings in past works and to pave the way for future research on the solutions to control the pollution cause by the waste produced from homes.