Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Engineering Economic Analysis of a Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) and Mini-Split Air Conditioning System

A. T. Layeni, C. N. Nwaokocha, S. O. Giwa, M. A. Sulaiman, K. A. Adedeji, A. I. Olanrewaju

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130111

Design and Engineering Economic Analysis of two widely used Air-Conditioning (AC) systems, Mini-Split and Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF), in the new Engineering Complex Building under the same indoor and outdoor conditions for an entire year is carried out by using Carrier Hourly Analysis Program software for cooling load estimation, and the Net Present Worth Analysis for Economic Analysis of both systems. Both systems are direct expansion air conditioning systems; hence the cooling load estimation was done using the ASHRAE transfer function method embedded within the Carrier software. Equipment to be used in analysis were selected from the Toshiba selection catalogues (Mini Split system), while that for the VRF system was selected using Toshiba simulation software. The annual energy analysis of both systems indicated that the VRF system will require more energy to run on an annual basis than the Mini Split system. However, the analysis was carried out without considering the part load potential energy savings of the VRF system. Net Present Worth Analysis carried out also favoured the Mini Split system in terms of Net Present Value of the systems. Based on the Engineering Economic Analysis carried out on the two systems, the overall Net Present Value for the VRF system is N77,891,808.66, while that of the Mini-Split system is N46,641,828.74. This result shows that the VRF system has a higher cost implication than the Mini-Split system. Hence, in terms of cost, the Mini-Split system is a more viable option.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Heavy Metals Pollution in the Coastal Marine Sediment of Ondo State, Nigeria

Ayeku, P. Oluwagbemiga, Ogundele, L. Tunde, Adeniyi, I. Funsho

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130112

The present study was carried out to assess the pollution status of heavy metals in the marine sediment in Ondo coastal area. A total of 36 sediment samples were collected from the three locations (Awoye, Abereke and Ayetoro) once in a month in 2015 covering both dry and wet season. The sediment samples were subjected to digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to measure the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn. The measured concentrations data were used for evaluating the contamination level and accumulation status of heavy metals in sediment by employing several pollution indices: contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cdeg), pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The results showed that Fe had the highest average concentration values of 248.00§ 20.00 and 324.33§ 5.80 mg/kg at Awoye sampling site for wet and dry season, respectively while the highest mean concentration of Mn were 271.77±9.50 and 295±10.06 mg/kg at Abereke and Ayetoro, respectively. The contamination factor (CF) values for As, Cd and Mn were 1 < CF < 3, indicating a moderate contamination. The results of Cdeg were ranged from 8.6 to 12.5 for both dry and wet season except in Ayetoro site that had 7.8 in the wet season. The PLI values were 0.47, 0.50 and 0.54 (<1) for Abereke, Awoye and Ayetoro sites, respectively, denoting unpolluted conditions. The EF values for Pb and Ni obtained from all the sites ranged from 20.8 to 38.9, showing their significantly enriched in sediment. The Igeo values of As, Cr, Fe, V, Zn and Cu were less than one (Igeo <1) for the three sampling locations in both seasons, implying that the sediments in the study area are practically uncontaminated by these metals. Pb had the Igeo values of 2.80 and 2.85 during dry and wet season at Awoye sampling site while Ni had 2.57 at Abereke only in the dry season. The heavy metals in sediment might be derived from the upstream rivers from the top soil, mechanically weathered rock materials and anthropogenic activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Low Pressure Multi Briquetting Machine for Rural Areas

A. Ashok Kumar, R. Jhansi, U. Harsha Vardhan, S. M. Gousia, A. Kesav Kumar, C. Ramana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130113

A hand operated low pressure biomass multi briquetting machine was developed and evaluated which works using a screw press mechanism. The developed system mainly consists of multi square moulds, multi circular moulds, single circular mould pressing plates, base plate, supporting stand and steering wheel. Rice husk, tamarind kernels, groundnut shells, and sawdust were used as raw materials along with cow dung and tamarind powder as binding material for preparation of briquettes. The developed machine was tested with various combinations of agricultural residues and developed various combinations and proportions of raw material briquettes and studied the thermal and physical properties of developed briquettes. The developed machine is low cost and simple in operation and able to produce sixty briquettes per hour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variation and Pattern of Daily Rainfall Intensity in the Middle Belt Region of Nigeria

Johnson O. Mage, Bernard T. Tyubee

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130114

The study analyzed the spatial variability of daily rainfall intensity in the Middle Belt region (MBR) of Nigeria for 46-year period (1961-2006). Daily rainfall (≥0.3mm) data were collected from eight synoptic weather stations in the study area. Daily rainfall intensity were classified into six categories using percentiles (P) namely; extremely light (≤ P10), light (P11 - P20), moderately light (P21 – P50), moderately heavy (P51 – P80), heavy (P81 – P90) and extremely heavy (> P90). To compute the percentile threshold values of the intensity categories, the population of rain days was first extracted and then ranked. The threshold values of the percentiles were extracted for each of the six categories among the eight stations and the annual number of daily rainfall for each station were then determined. The result showed a zonal pattern of increase in annual number of days for extremely heavy and heavy events from eastern to western parts of the MBR. There are enclaves of high annual rain days for the light and moderate categories in Jos plateau. The study concludes that the spatial variation will have tremendous impact on water resources and crop production as well as hazards of erosion and flooding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Catalyst Screening for Conversion of Waste Polyethylentherphtalate Plastic in to Liquid Fuel

Meskerem Tsehaye Siyoum, Nigus Gabbiye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130115

The world-wide use of PET has gradually increased from time to time. And most of the PET waste is being dumped into the environment instead of recycling. This creates serious environmental pollutions. In thermal degradation process, PET is being decomposed to liquid fuels. Conversion of recycled PET bottle into fuel through effective catalyst has been investigated as a strategy for wastes into useful energy. The main objective of this research was to screen out an effective catalyst for the conversion of PETE into liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In this study, Zinc oxide, ZnO/AC, Calcium Hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2) and Ferric oxide (Fe2o3) catalysts was used at different operation condition of temperature ranging from 400 to 500°C. The optimum liquid fuel productions from PET plastic bottle were obtained. And the significance result of the maximum temperature through the use of catalyst was enhancing to identify the most effective Catalyst with respect to oil yield.  The oil yield increase when the temperature increases within the range of temperature (400°C-500°C). It was observed that gas/liquid fuel yield significantly affected by type of catalyst and temperature. Ca (OH)2 catalyst result higher yield compared the two catalysts. Finally, during the characterization process it was categorized kerosene and crude oil; these oil were obtained by PET and PET with the combination of LDPE & HDPE respectively, and the analysis were under taken from the two types of oil samples and identified Benzene by the use of GC (Gas Chromatography).

Open Access Original Research Article

Construction of Knowledge Test to Measure Knowledge Level of Apple Growers of Arunachal Pradesh on Package of Practices of Apple

Bai Koyu, Rajkumar Josmee Singh, L. Devarani, Ram Singh, L. Hemochandra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130116

The knowledge test was developed to measure the knowledge level of apple growers. 32 items were primarily fabricated on the basis of ratifying rational rather than root memorization and to classify the sound erudite apple growers from the ailing erudite ones. The scores obtained from sample respondents were exposed to item analysis, embracing of item difficulty index & item discrimination index. In the ultimate selection, the scale consisted of 22 items with difficulty index ranging from 30-80 and discrimination index ranging from 0.30 to 0.55. To check the reliability of knowledge test being developed Split-Half method was employed and it was found to be 0.701.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Nutrient Management of Rice Soil in Hilly Region of Meghalaya, India

Rupabakor C. Warjri, Sayan Majumder, Gautam Kumar Ghosh, Dipankar Saha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130117

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of inorganic fertilizers (S and Zn coupled with recommended doses of NPK) in conjunction with organic manure (FYM) on availability of different macro and micro elements including organic carbon in a hilly soil of Meghalaya, India. Two Field trials were conducted consecutively for 2 years (2013-14 and 2014-15) with Rice variety Arize-6444 at Nongpoh village in Ri-Bhoi District of Meghalaya to fulfil the objectives of the experiment. The field experiment was conducted following Randomized Block Design. Altogether 11 treatments with 3 replications were included in the experiment. Results revealed that irrespective of treatments, exchangeable NH4+, soluble NO3, available P2O5 and K2O decreased with the period of crop growth. However, changes in organic C in soil showed an opposite trend of results. Regardless of treatments, organic C content enhanced with increment in the age of rice crop. Among the treatment combinations, significantly higher amount of exchangeable NH4+, soluble NO3-, available P2O5 and K2O is accumulated in the soil which received recommended doses of N, P and K along with FYM at 10 tonnes ha-1 as well as 40 kg S ha-1 and 5 kg Zn ha-1 (T8). Results further pointed out that balanced fertilization increased the availability of nutrients (particularly N, P and K) which maintained throughout the cropping season of rice.  However, SO4-2-S content reduced with crop duration. No drastic variation is observed in DTPA-extractable Zn content in soil over the whole cropping season of rice. Incorporation of FYM in the treatment combinations improved and maintained available nutrients including organic C in soil particularly in the 2nd season of rice cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling and Forecasting of Mung Production in India

K. P. Vishwajith, P. K. Sahu, P. Mishra, Monika Devi, Anurag Dubey, R. B. Singh, B. S. Dhekale, Chellai Fatih, Suman .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v34i130118

A large proportion of the Indian population is vegetarian and pulses are important sources of protein in the daily diet .In this paper an attempt has been made to summarize the overall nature of area, production and productivity of mung in India. By and large there has been considerable expansion in area, production and productivity of mung in all the states under study including whole India during the study period. Among the states under study, the maximum annual growth in area (9.75%) and production (14.55%) of mung was observed in Rajasthan. Bihar stands first in productivity of mung among the states under study. Rajasthan, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh have fails to reach national average per hectare production of 367.37 kg/ha. In this paper an attempt has been made to summarize these measures along with some new measures with an objective to study the yield sustainability of particular crop over the growing regions and compare across the states/regions. Sustainability in yield of mung in different states along with whole India has been measured with the help of existing and proposed measures of sustainability indices. Whole India is showing higher sustainability in yield of mung as per the two existing and proposed methods. According to all the indices including developed two methods Rajasthan is having comparatively lower sustainability to produce mung among the states under study. Results of existing measures and proposed measure are almost in conformity with each other. From the forecasted value, it can be said that, mung productivity of India would increase to 408.84 kg/ha in 2022 as compared to 2012. In Mung, area, production and productivity Rajasthan would be leading state of India in 2022.This projection would be helpful for policy implication and planning.