Open Access Short Research Articles

Rainfall Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for tarai Region of Uttarakhand

Pooja Yadav, Atish Sagar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530096

Rainfall prediction is clearly of great importance for any country. One would like to make long term prediction, i.e. predict total monsoon rainfall a few weeks or months and in advance short term prediction, i.e. predict rainfall over different locations a few days in advance [1]. Predicted by using its correlation with observed parameter. Several regression and neural network based models are currently available. While Artificial Neural Network provide a great deal of promise, they also embody much uncertainty [2,3]. In this paper, different artificial neural network models have been created for the rainfall prediction of Uttarakhand region in India. These ANN models were created using training algorithms namely, feed-forward back propagation algorithm [4,5]. The number of neurons for all the models was kept at 10. The mean squared error was measured for each model and the best accuracy was obtained by the feed-forward back propagation algorithm with MSE value as low as 0.00547823.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of the Composition of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on the Physicochemical Parameters of Leachate at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Nkolfoulou –Yaounde

M. L. Oben, A. Ngo Boum, F. Besack

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530092

This study highlights the influence of the composition of the municipal solid waste (MSW) on the physicochemical parameters of leachate at the municipal solid waste landfill in Nkolfoulou –Yaounde. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used as a chemical and analytical method for soil sample extraction to simulate leaching through a landfill. During TCLP procedure the pH of the sample material was first established, and then leached with an acetic acid / sodium hydroxide solution at a 1:20 mix of sample to solvent.  Electrical conductivity (EC) was determined using conductivity meter; Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand. (BOD) were determined using standard procedures. Phosphate was analyzed calorimetrically and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, and Manganese) by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method. Pearson’s correlation using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 .was used to estimate the degree of association between waste components and leachate parameters. The results indicate a strong influence of solid waste on leachate production and composition. We found a strong positive correlation between paper and Total Suspended Solids (TSS), r = 0.7724, Phosphorus, r = 0.7249, Fe, r = 0.6993 and Cu, r = 0.7249.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Yield Attributes of Sweet Corn as Influenced by Planting Geometry and Fertilizer Levels

Fakeerappa Arabhanvi, U. K. Hulihalli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530093

Aim: Field experiment was conducted to study the productivity of sweet corn as influenced by planting geometry and fertilizer levels.

Study Design: Split-plot design with three replications and nine treatment combinations.

Place and Duration of Study: Plot number ‘125’  ‘E’ block, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (India) during 2015-16 and 2016-17.

Methodology:  Treatments includes three planting geometry and three fertilizer levels were applied as per protocol.

Results: Individual yield parameters such as fresh cob weight with husk, without husk, cob girth and number of grains per row were significantly higher in wider planting geometry with higher fertilizer levels. But with respect to respect to fresh cob yield with husk and fresh fodder yield was recorded higher significantly in planting geometry of 60 cm x 15 cm along with higher fertilizer level (125:60:25 N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1) which was on par with planting geometry of 45 cm x 20 cm along with higher fertilizer level (125:60:25 N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1).

Conclusion: Planting geometry of 60 cm x 15 cm along with higher fertilizer level (125:60:25 N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1) was found superior with respect to fresh cob yield with husk and fresh fodder yield, which was on par with planting geometry of 45 cm x 20 cm along with higher fertilizer level (125:60:25 N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Dealcoholized Beverage from Pineapple Wine and Sorghum Beer

Jude O. Iwouno, Chigozie E. Ofoedu, Anasthecia O. Ugwuegbulam, Obinna M. Nwokoro

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530095

Aim: The recent increase in demand of non-alcoholic beverages (alcohol-free beer and wine) due to health reasons, religious doctrines, tribal influence and personal perception in the past few years, has triggered research interest in alcohol removal and separation processes. This study is aimed at producing and evaluating alcohol-free beer and wine using a simple distillation technique.

Study Design: This study was made to fit into using a combination of T-test and one way Analysis of Variance.

Place and duration of Study: The research was carried out at Department of Food Science and Technology laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, between February 2018 and November 2018.

Methodology: The physicochemical properties of pineapple juice and sorghum wort as well as pineapple wine and sorghum beer were evaluated and the parameters measured were pH, brix, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, specific gravity, ethanol content, esters and higher alcohols.

Results: Wine from pineapple juice and beer from sorghum wort were dealcoholized using distillation technique to obtain a dealcoholized wine and dealcoholized beer respectively. The dealcoholized products were also evaluated for pH, brix, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, specific gravity, ethanol content, esters and higher alcohols using recommended methods. Results showed that significant difference (p<0.05) exists between dealcoholized products and their corresponding wine and beer for pH, brix, titratable acidity and specific gravity.

Conclusion: The dealcoholization process performed using simple distillation technique caused complete removal of ethanol from pineapple wine and sorghum beer. Higher alcohols and esters which contributes significantly to the sensory quality in alcoholic beverages were also completely lost because of the distillation operation. Hence, flavour enrichment may be required to produce a pleasurable and delicious alcohol-free product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wavelet Analysis of Winter Rainfall Variability over Victoria

Bilal Ahmed Usmani, Saqib-Ur-Rehman ., Abdul Jamil Khan, Kamran Khan, Syed Adnan Hussain, Syeda Sadia Zia, Tanveer Ahmed Siddiqui, Syed Inayat Ullah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530097

This study employ Wavelet analysis to investigate the winter (May-Aug) rainfall variability with respect to the intensity of Indian Ocean Subtropical High Pressure (IOSHPS) System and its longitude, Indian Ocean Subtropical High Longitudes (IOSHLN), positions. The physical relationship among these predictors and winter rainfall were analyzed using composites of atmospheric circulation patterns. We have found inverse association between IOSH indices and winter rainfall. We have observed that maximum rainfall variability occurred in 1-3 years periodicity during 1951-1979 when IOSHPS was located around Southern Australia. This caused moisture onshore and Victoria received more rainfall. We have also observed that highest variability from 1980-2016 with similar periodicity in IOSHPS. The shifting of IOSHPS from Southern to Southeastern Australia and increase in its intensity from the post 1979 period of the analysis era (1951-2016) cause further declined in winter rainfall over Victoria.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Subtropical Indian Ocean Anticyclone over Tasmania Precipitation

Bilal Ahmed Usmani, Saqib-Ur-Rehman ., Abdul Jamil Khan, Kamran Khan, Syed Adnan Hussain, Syeda Sadia Zia, Tanveer Ahmed Siddiqui

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530100

Aims: To explore the association between observed frequency of anticyclones over subtropical Indian Ocean (10°S-50°S, 102.5°E-142.5°E) and average autumn rainfall over the districts of Tasmania.

Methodology: We have divided the rainfall amounts over nine districts of Tasmania into three categories (Above average, average and below average rainfall) by using z-scores technique for each autumn (March-May) month for the period of 1951-2016. We have also categorized the calculated frequency of anticyclone over the subtropical Indian Ocean in a similar fashion.

Results: Our analysis suggests inverse association between each category of average rainfall and the corresponding frequency of anticyclones for each month of autumn. This association revealed that during below average rainfall, the high frequencies of anticyclones were occupied over the most of the area of subtropical Indian Ocean that resulted less rainfall in the districts while during above average autumn rainfall, the high frequencies of anticyclones observed in the west of 110°E this enabled more autumn rainfall over the districts. We have also found the negative correlation coefficients between mean sea level pressure over the same domain of Indian Ocean and average rainfall over each district in each month of the autumn (March-May).

Conclusion: The slightly shift of Mean Central Pressure (MCP) to the north from the west coast of Tasmania from March-May enabled the extra-tropical activity of rainfall systems. This causes enhanced rainfall during average and above average rainfall conditions than March-April over nine districts of Tasmania.

Open Access Review Article

Overview and Applications of RNA Silencing in Fruit Crops

Ashok Chhetri, B. N. Hazarika, Thejangulie Angami, H. Lembisana Devi, Lalhmingsanga ., Athikho Kayia Alice, Lakidon Khonglah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530094

RNA silencing has recently gain momentum in the scientific world mainly due to its sequencing-specific gene inactivation that is conserved in among various organism including animals and plants. In fruit crops, various mechanism such as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), DNA methylation, Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) and Anti-sense mediated gene silencing has been reported. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are highly useful in fruit crops as it suppresses or silences gene responsible for undesirable morpho-agronomic characters.

Open Access Review Article

Battery Powered RC Boats: A Review of Its Developments for Various Applications

C. Z. Eugene, J. J. Lim, Umar Nirmal, Saijod T. W. Lau

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i530098

This paper presents a review of the developments in the battery powered remote control (RC) boat for various applications. In recent time, RC boat stands no more a mere toy or instrument that is solely used for a hobby. Various researches into the applications of RC boats have been undertaken in recent years and its performance has been a continuous growing concern for society. Many researchers have also exerted strenuous efforts into modifying the shapes and materials that are used to manufacture the boat hull, in order to improve its efficiency. In lieu to this, this paper provides information on different types of boat hulls and their characteristics. Knowing the fact that the performance of the RC boat has been directly affected by its component parts such as the motor, ESC, rudder, propeller and others, the paper highlights an overview of the RC boat’s basic components and its setup. Owing to the review works presented, future research is proposed which may open new research pathways to the subject of interest.