Open Access Short Communication

Innovation as Part of Electrical Engineers Education

Sam Mil’shtein, Steven Tello

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130044

Unprecedented dynamics of the development of electronics could be easily tracked by comparing market figures for electronics versus steel, chemical and automotive industries in US and across the world. The multifaceted nature of semiconductor technology is clearly visible. Spinoff of such products as solar cells, Micro Electronic Machines, where electric motors of 3 microns in diameter are produced on silicon chip, biological sensors capable to monitor about 26 parameters of human body and extremely intelligent robots, these are based on already existing and future subfields of electronics. We would like to underline that the major factor, which made success of semiconductor electronics possible is the human factor, i.e., existence and participation of highly qualified electronic engineers and scientists. We examine how our electrical engineering education programs teach creativity and innovation. We suggest the ways of how can an innovation theory and practice be integrated into a very full engineering curriculum, so the electronic engineers graduating today, continue to create and innovate. This article examines engineering education trends at University of Massachusetts that reflect a growing commitment to assuring 21st century engineers have the knowledge and skills required to develop innovative technologies and products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Speciation and Distributon of Heavy Metals in Alluvial Soils of Ondo State

Fadojutimi Paul Olawale, Aiyesanmi Festus Ademola, Adelaja Oluwaseun Adekoya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130042

Floodplains are very important for agriculture, since it allows planting of arable crops throughout the year. In order to asses pollution levels of the floodplains due to contamination from flooding,soil samples were collected from six locations across each of the floodplain of Owena river, Ogbese river and Ala river in Ondo State. The study investigated the chemical speciation of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the alluvial soil matrix due to deposition of metals as result of inundation of the floodplains. The heavy metals were quantified using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer. The concentration of heavy metals in  exchangeable fraction  are in the order of Ni (BDL-0.26 mg/kg) < Cd (BDL - 0.41 mg/kg) < Cu (0.08-1.33 mg/kg) < Zn (0.27-7.08 mg/kg), in carbonate fraction: Ni (BDL-0.53 mg/kg) < Cd (BDL – 1.83 mg/kg< Cu (0.13-3.02 mg/kg) < Zn (0.64-11.88 mg/kg), in Fe-Mn Oxide fraction: Cd (BDL-0.21 mg/kg)  < Ni (BDL-0.53 mg/kg)  < Cu (0.68-3.03 mg/kg) < Zn (3.05-17.32 mg/kg), In organic fraction: Cd (BDL-0.15 mg/kg) < Cu (0.51-6.00 mg/kg) < Ni (0.73-7.84mg/kg ) < Zn (1.80-21.82 mg/kg), In residual fraction: Cd (0.20-1.28 mg/kg)  <  Cu (1.18-6.19 mg/kg)  <  Zn (2.77-13.97 mg/kg) < Ni (1.54-13.59 mg/kg). Cd and Ni were most abundant in residual fraction, Cu was found to be predominantly associated with organic and residual fractions while, Zn was  predominantly bound to oxidizable and organic fractions The mean concentration of the heavy metals in the floodplains soil were of the order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The speciation study futher revealed both geogenic and anthropogenic sources contributed to the total metal load of the floodplain soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Massive in vitro Cloning of Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) via Cultured Nodal Segments

D. Bele, Nishi Mishra, Sushma Tiwari, M. K. Tripathi, G. Tiwari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130045

Nodal segments of sandalwood were cultured on MS medium amended with different plant growth regulators in varying concentrations to search out higher in vitro response leading to plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis. Higher proportion of direct somatic embryogenesis, number(s) of somatic embryo per explant and plantlet regeneration via direct organogenesis were recorded on MS medium supplemented with a moderate concentration of TDZ (1.0 mgl-1) in combination with comparatively a lower concentration of NAA (0.5 mgl-1). A relative higher concentration of BAP (1.0-2.0 mgl-1) in combination with a lower concentration of NAA (0.5 mgl-1) promoted frequency of indirect somatic embryogenesis. Ratio of organ formation directly from surface of cultured explants was recovered from culture medium fortified with a higher concentration of BA at the concentration of 4.0 mgl-1 in combination with a lower concentration of NAA (0.5 mgl-1). Maximum plantlets regenerated via somatic embryogenesis (direct and/or indirect) on regeneration medium supplemented with 2.0 mgl-1TDZ  in combination with 1.0 mg l-1GA3, while plantlets in higher frequencies via indirect organogenesis was attained with regeneration medium amended with comparatively lower concentration of TDZ (1.0 mg l-1) in combination with 0.5 mgl-1 GA3 and 0.5     mgl-1 NAA. The plantlets were transferred to pots and hardened in Environmental Growth Cabinet and Net House during preliminary weaning period and transferred to field successfully. Morphologically normal plants were recovered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Threshing Device for Pearl Millet

Akinwonmi Ademola Samuel, Kolawole Adenike Alice, Seckley, Emmanuel Mawuli, Adedotun O. Adetunla

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130046

Millets are high energy and nutritious foods recommended for the health and well- being of infants, lactating mothers and elderly people. Threshing of this crop still poses a lot of problems to local farmers. To make millet farming integral in Ghana, engineers are making concerted efforts to produce simple farm implements. This will complement other measures adopted by other stake holders to ensure that there is food security. This paper therefore presents a community based millet thresher to reduce the burden farmers go through in threshing pearl millet. The millet thresher has a thresher welded to a steel shaft and then supported on a frame. Connected to the thresher are; an input mounted on the thresher and an output fitted to the exit of the thresher. The output comprises a sieve and a tray. A centrifugal fan supported on the frame supplies air that winnows the threshed grain coming out of the tray and the cleaned millet grains fall into a collector. The millet thresher mainly employs the effects of friction (taking advantage of the fact that millets can be effectively threshed by rubbing the panicles on a rough surface) for threshing. Results show that the thresher rotates in the anticlockwise direction at a speed of 950 revolutions per minute with shaft diameter of 30.88 mm calculated from the equivalent torque. The millet thresher would reduce the long laborious hours spent in threshing and improve the quality of the grains since the possibility of the wind introducing foreign materials into the millet is reduced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human-Baboon Conflict on Resettled Farms in Zimbabwe: Attitudes and Perceptions among Local Farmers

Jenias Ndava, Edmore Huge Nyika

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130047

As human populations expand into areas where wildlife exists, competition for resources and confrontation arises as a result. Some parts of rural Zimbabwe are typical of this problem especially in newly resettled areas. The aim of this survey was to examine the impact of crop raiding and livestock depredation by baboons (Papio ursinus Kerr) on farmers living around the edge of Makumbiri mountains in Concession, Mazowe District in Mashonaland Province of Zimbabwe. The survey was conducted from January to mid-April 2018 using a set of structured questionnaires complemented with field survey, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews. Fifty-nine crop fields were surveyed and forty newly resettled farmers within the five villages surrounding the mountains were interviewed. The purpose was to elicit information on their experiences with crop/livestock losses incurred from baboons, and to quantify these losses as well as to evaluate their attitudes and perceptions towards the baboons and their mitigation strategies towards their losses. Apart from maize, some respondents (20%) reported that other crops raided were vegetables and other small grains such as rapoko (30%). About 62.9% of the respondents indicated livestock losses by baboons during the 2017 cropping season. The total maize crop destroyed in each field was compared with the total estimate of the crops grown in that field producing an average percentage loss of 0.11%. The χ2 test showed that there was no relationship between the level of crop destruction and the distance from the edge of the forest (χ2= 4110, df = 58, p= 0.086). Many (62.5%) farmers felt that baboons were retarding their success as a community but many opted to coexist with baboons. Although baboons are vermin in a society relying on subsistence agriculture, their impact is perceived to be overly moderate. Peaceful coexistence between humans and baboons seems to be the favoured conservation strategy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Wind-Induced Sediment Resuspension Zones in the Patzcuaro Lake Using Empirical Equations

Felícitas Calderón-Vega, José-Alfredo González-Verdugo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130048

Aims: An analysis to determine sediment resuspension zones in the Patzcuaro lake (Mexico) through empirical equations is carried out.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Patzcuaro Lake in Michoacán, Mexico. The last stage of the project was finished during January 2019.

Methodology: The site wind force is considered as the main cause inducing the resuspension. Wind data recorded at two near stations (Chupícuaro and Pacanda) were processed and the main wind directions, in terms of intensity and duration, were obtained. Additionally, wind-induced wave values and the initial depth for the resuspension phenomenon were computed. Finally, bathymetry maps are plotted to indicate the zones where sediment resuspension occurs in the lake for the minimum water depth scenario concurrent with maximum winds and a sufficiently long duration to generate resuspension.

Results: Towards the north zone a larger particles motion is observed in the lakes riviera, form 5 m depth to the shore. In the middle part of the lake a larger incidence of the resuspension phenomenon is exhibited, since it is developed for all the considered depth levels. In the south part the resuspension is almost absent; only a spot between the Tecuén and Janitzio Islands show resuspension.

Conclusion: The empirical equations are a useful alternative to evaluate the quality of shallow lakes in terms of sediment resuspension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced by the Members in Functioning of Self Help Groups in Punjab District

Shikha Singh, Sukhjeet Kaur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130049

In Punjab the concept of SHGs has gained a huge popularity. Many institutions such as government organizations, non-government organizations, farmers clubs, health workers and banks are using this approach to empower women socially, economically and politically. SHG have brought tremendous change in the life of women at grass root level. But it requires a lot more efforts on part of the government, NGOs as well as banking sector to promote SHGs in the state. In spite of the speeding number of SHGs, the full potential of SHGs remains unexploited due to some challenges faced by the members of SHGs. Therefore the present study was planned to know the challenges faced by the members of SHGs in Punjab in proper functioning of the groups. The findings of this study revealed that lack of training opportunities were found to be the most serious problem perceived by the members of self-help groups. It was followed by lack guidance and support from promoting agencies and limited opportunities for income generating activities. There is need to overcome these hurdles by providing appropriate training and guidance for smooth functioning of self-help groups.

Open Access Review Article

Biotechnology: An Advanced Tool for Crop Improvement

Tinee Adlak, Sushma Tiwari, M. K. Tripathi, Neha Gupta, Vinod Kumar Sahu, Punamchand Bhawar, V. S. Kandalkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v33i130081

Plant breeding is mainly concerned with genetic improvement of crops through hybridization, screening and selection of advance lines. The conventional methods give advance varieties with desirable traits but take consume more time (6 to 12 years) to achieve. Biotechnology tools makes breeding methods more advance by reducing the time to get improved varieties. Other than conventional methods varietal advancement can be achieved by applying plant tissue culture, transgenic approaches and molecular breeding methods. Crop improvement by using biotechnology approaches is mostly concerned with protoplast fusion to get somatic hybrids, gene transfer to get genetically modified organisms and use of DNA markers to select trait of interests. Variety with improved biotic and abiotic stress resistance can be developed in less time and more accuracy using recent biotechnological approaches. Several advance tools are being utilized for that purpose including, nanotechnology, bioinformatics tools offers new era of genomics assisted molecular breeding. Next Generation Sequencing and high throughput genotyping approaches are increasing efficiency and output of biotechnological tools in agriculture. Current review focused on overview of biotechnological tools being applied for crop improvement.