Open Access Short Communication

Indigestible Plastic Bags are Hindering Profitability of Dairy Production in Peri-Urban Kampala

Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Rodney Okwasiimire, Christine Kesiime, Esther Nansubuga, Steven Kakooza, Mariam Komugisha, Ismail Asiimwe, Paul Ssuna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630037

Many Ugandans living in the urban and peri-urban areas have started dairy farming to tap into the demand for milk and its products, driven by the population growth. Unfortunately, they operate on a small scale because land and cattle feeds in the urban and peri-urban areas are limited. In addition, the peri-urban areas are contaminated with indigestible materials such as plastic bags which once consumed by the cattle impair health, cause loss of milk productivity and death. This report documents the findings from three cases referred to the ambulatory clinic at the Central Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) in 2018. The cases were diagnosed as hardware disease and surgically treated by rumenotomy. In addition, a review of the patients’ data sheets in CDL was performed to identify other cases of hardware disease documented in 2018. Both metallic and non-metallic indigestible materials were recovered from the rumen and reticulum of the three animals operated. The indigestible foreign materials included nails, wire, plastic bags and a sisal rope. The common clinical signs coherent with the presence of indigestible materials were chronic emaciation and loss of appetite. The review of the patients’ data sheets showed that blood samples of 23 cases of suspected hardware disease were submitted to CDL in 2018 for diagnosis. It is paramount that farmers are sensitized about the effects of indigestible materials on the production of dairy animals. For, such an intervention would liberate the peri-urban dairy farmers from losses attributed to hardware disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screen Time and Physical Activity Pattern of School Children (11-17 Years) from Different Cultural Regions of Punjab, India

Sukhdeep Kaur, Kiran Bains, Harpreet Kaur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630033

Aim: To assess regional disparity in the screen time and physical activity pattern of school children (11-17 years) from Punjab (India).

Study Design: A school-based cross sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Government schools of three regions of Punjab, namely, Majha, Doaba and Malwa region, between June to December 2015.

Methodology: A survey was conducted including 1050 children, randomly selected from government schools of three regions of Punjab, namely, Majha (n=210), Doaba (n=210) and Malwa (n=630), to obtain information on their physical activity pattern (school sports, leisure time physical activity/LTPA and mode of commuting to school) and screen time.

Results: Malwa region children were spending more time (7.2 h/wk) in school sports than Majha (6.3 h/wk) and Doaba region (6.6 h/wk) children. Majha region children were spending more time (6.0 h/wk) in LTPA than Doaba (3.5 h/wk) and Malwa region (5.4 h/wk) children; whereas, Doaba (11.7 h/wk) region children had higher screen time than Majha (8.9 h/wk) and Malwa region (9.2 h/wk) children. Significant (P≤0.01) regional disparity was noted in the mean time spent by school children in LTPA and screen activities; whereas, no regional difference was found in the mean time spent in school sports. The percentage of active commuters was more from Doaba region (96%) as compared to Majha (89%) and Malwa (88%) region. Most (85, 85 and 72%) of the children from Majha, Doaba and Malwa region had low screen time, respectively.

Conclusion: Based on AAP and WHO levels, irrespective of region, school children studied had adequate physical activity level, low screen time and were mostly active commuters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Rice Cultivation System under Different Establishment Methods

Rakesh Kumar, Vikas Paradkar, Shashank Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630034

Energy utilization efficiency depends on different factor of cropping systems such as physiochemical properties of soil, land preparing operation, plant protection, fertilizer application, threshing, harvesting operation and grain and straw yield. India is developing county and rice crops are one of the most energy intensive crop and its major component are irrigation, land development (tillage), FYM (Farmyard manure) and fertilizers. The importance of Mechanization in cultivation system involves higher input cost but at the same time, it can reduce operation cost of cultivation, increases grain yield and can reduce operational time. Cost of cultivation of rice in different treatment was calculated by adding the cost of all input parameter such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, fuel, and labourer. Grain output was observed considerably higher in mechanized transplanting seedling compare to direct sowing. Direct sowing and zero till mechanical transplanting methods produced the low grain yield because of poor crop growth as compare to transplanting seedling of rice in a standing water table. The grain yield in mechanical transplanting varied from 29.5 to 32.6 q/h where as in direct sowing treatment 31.2 to 32.1 q/ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predicting Activities of Daily Living of People Occupying Smart Environments

Abubaker Elbayoudi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630035

Aims/ objectives: To interpret the trends of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Activities of Daily Working (ADW) of people who are occupying Ambient Intelligence (AmI) environments and predict the next activities’ time values. This research has two main contributions; A novel proposed technique called Activity Prediction Moving Average (APMA) based on Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) and propose a new framework to be used in our research based on the Adaptive-Network based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Computer science, Institute of Science and Technology, between August 2018 and November 2018.
Methodology: Three datasets are included in this research of people who are occupying smart environments. These datasets are examined using APMA and ANFIS techniques.
Results: The results of the applied techniques show a good indicator of using them in human behaviour forecasting.
Conclusion: we investigated prediction techniques that can be applied to the human behaviours’ data. The proposed solutions demonstrate the feasibility of interpreting this kind of data. These techniques will support the supervisor to get clear information about the situation of the participant who occupying a smart environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement with Sawdust Ash in Concrete

L. S. Gwarah, B. M. Akatah, I. Onungwe, P. P. Akpan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630036

The investigation of sawdust ash (SDA) as a partial replacement for cement in concrete was studied owing to the high cost and increasing demand for cement in a harsh economy and considering the presence of limited construction materials and waste to wealth policy. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of SDA. Slump test and consistency test (flow table apparatus test) were conducted on the freshly mixed concrete sample, and compressive strength test was conducted on the hardened concrete cubes of 150mm2, which was cured between 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The results revealed that the slump decreases as the SDA content increases in percentage, while the consistency of the freshly mixed concrete remarkably moves from high, medium to low as the SDA content increases. The compressive strength of the hardened concrete undergone a decrease in strength, as the partial replacement of OPC with SDA increases. By the results interpretation, it is observed that 5% to 10% SDA when replaced with OPC can still result in the desired strength of concrete.

Open Access Original Research Article

Single Site Extreme Wave Analysis in the Pacific Ocean Comparing Stationary and Non-stationary GEV Models

F. Calderón-Vega, C. Mösso, A. D. García-Soto, E. Delgadillo-Ruiz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630038

The adequate knowledge of the weather behavior is very important for the design and management of socioeconomical, environmental and sustainability human interests in the coasts and oceans.  In the present study an extreme value analysis of maximum significant waves recorded at a buoy located in the Pacific Ocean was carried out.  The analysis was carried out from two perspectives, by considering a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) model with stationary distribution (i.e., the time variations are not accounted for), and by considering a non-stationary GEV model, which incorporates the monthly seasonality of maximum observed values in time increments; the maximum significant wave behavior was parameterized using harmonic functions for the distribution measures. Both approaches were compared for a single buoy. In the study a seasonality effect was found, which was also present at the Gulf of Mexico in previous studies, and which cannot be captured by a stationary model. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Developing an Intellectual Learning Scale to Test Knowledge Level of Kiwi Growers of Arunachal Pradesh on Package of Practices of Kiwi

Bai Koyu, Rajkumar Josmee Singh, L. Devarani, Ram Singh, L. Hemochandra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630039

The knowledge test was developed to measure the knowledge level of kiwi growers. In all 36 items were predominantly fabricated on the basis of indorsing rational rather than root memorization and to discriminate the sound knowledgeable kiwi growers from the ailing knowledgeable ones. The scores obtained from sample respondents were imperilled to item analysis, embracing of item difficulty index & item discrimination index. In the ultimate selection, the scale consisted of 15 items with difficulty index ranging from 30-80 and discrimination index ranging from 0.30 to 0.55. Split-Half method was employed to check the reliability of knowledge test being developed and it was found to be 0.711.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Historical Perspective of Botnet Tools

Maxwell Scale Uwadia Osagie, Osatohanmwen Enagbonma, Amanda Iriagbonse Inyang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630040

Bot as it is popularly called is an inherent attributes of botnet tool. Botnet is a group of malicious tools acting as an entity. Furthermore, history has it that the aim of what gave rise to botnet was the idea to simplify the method of message exchange within networking platform. However, this has led to several botnet tools ravaging the server environments in recent times. The working principle of these botnet tools is to get client systems that are vulnerable and thereafter, steal valuable credentials. This work is part of a comprehensive research work into botnet detection mechanism but, on this paper it primarily look at how botnet as threat tool began, the trend since inception and as well as few approaches that have been used to curb it.