Open Access Mini Review Papers

The Excessive Use of Fossil Fuel and Its Impact to Climate Change in Africa

Bernard Anayo Udeh, Rana Kidak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/41680

Fossil fuel dependence in the African continent is so alarming with a constant emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), which includes methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor. The presence of these gases in the African climate has resulted in unprecedented change in weather conditions in Africa, and has accounted for low rainfall, constant flooding, and low food productivity. Many countries in Africa are continuously subsidizing petroleum products for their people and these may continue to worsen the situation. Curbing global warming through decarbonization of the African economy by reducing dependence on  use of fossil fuels will be a gateway to a cleaner environment. This will go a long way to minimize number of deaths from illness, such as cancer, heart diseases, stroke, and reduce negative impact of  extreme weather conditions as to flooding and low rainfall.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Combined Inoculation of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Endomycorrhizae Fungi on Microbial Population and NPK Uptake by Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Crop

Pooja Rani, Mahendra Singh, Manoj Kumar Dwivedi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46747

Aim: To study the response of co-inoculation of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to microbial population of soil and nutrient uptake by wheat crop .

Study Design: The used design was completely randomized design with three replications.  

Place of Study: The pot experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2017 taking wheat (cv. HD 2967) as test crop in experimental unit of the department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur (Bihar).

Methodology: The present study includes eight treatments with three replications. N P K uptake by wheat crop was measured from each treatment and microbial populations of soil were determined from the rhizospheric soils collected from each treatment by using standard protocol.

Results: Maximum microbial population viz., Bacteria, Actinomycetes, Fungi  (39.00, 21.33, 24.66 CFU × 105g-1 oven dry soil) were recorded under treatment T4 (T1+PSB @ 20 g kg-1 seed+AM fungi @ 5.0 g pot-1) for bacteria and actinomycetes and T(T1+AM fungi @ 5.0 g pot-1) for fungi, at flowering stage and similar trend was followed at harvesting stage. The treatment T4 significantly increased available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil as well as also contributed to comparatively better plant growth and higher uptake of N, P and K by grain and shoot. The maximum N, P and K content of wheat was also recorded under treatment T4 which was found to be most effective in modifying soil microbial population, microbial community structure and grain yield of wheat crop.

Conclusion: Application of co-inoculation of Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance the microbial population and N P K uptake from soil by wheat crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Instability of Chemical Fertilizers Consumption in Different Divisions of Karnataka (India)

Ravindra Chavan, Suresh S. Patil, G. M. Hiremath, B. S. Reddy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/47516

Chemical fertilizers have played a vital role in the success of India's green revolution and consequent self-reliance in food-grain production. Fertiliser consumption in India has been increasing over the years and today India is one of the largest producers and consumers of fertilisers in the world. The analysis of growth is usually used in economic studies to find out the trend of a particular variable over a period of time. The necessary secondary data about consumption of NPK in Karnataka were collected from Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Karnataka for the year 1989-90 to 2015-16 and was estimated using the compound annual growth rate function. The results of CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rates) in consumption of nitrogen fertilizer revealed that the consumption of NPK (Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium) fertilizer witnessed significant growth during period-I (1989-90 to 1996-97) compared to period-II (1997-98 to 2009-10) and period-III (2010-11 to 2015-16). In the overall period, the growth in consumption of NPK fertilizer from 1989-90 to 2015-16 was noticed positive across all the divisions which were highest annum in Kalburagi division (24.74%) followed by Belagavi (24.50%), Mysuru (21.32%) and Bengaluru (20.53%). Higher growth was noticed in the Kalburagi division and has less variability as compared to other divisions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Existing Water Productivity and Cropping Intensity of Right Bank Canal Command of Samrat Ashok Sagar Project of Vidisha District, Madhya Pradesh, India

S. S. Basediya, S. K. Pyasi, Akhilesh Solanki, Ashok Kumar, R. N. Shrivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/44185

The existing water productivity and cropping intensity of right bank canal (RBC), command area was found 0.60 kg m-3 and 163%, respectively. The right bank canal comprises of five water user association namely, Sarchampa, Ucher, Medaki, Sayar and Neemkheda whose existing cropping intensity was found to be 181, 149, 158, 177 and 172%, respectively. The cropping intensity of villages under study varies between 110 to 200%. It was also found that only six village, out of 55 villages were having cropping intensity less than 140%. On the higher side, only five villages were having cropping intensity of more than 190%. The lowest cropping intensity (115%) was found in Sunari village of Medaki water user association (WUA). The village had 245 ha net sown area in rabi season but very less net sown area (84 ha) in kharif season due to unavailability of water. Similarly, less cropping intensity (118%) was found in Anouriberkhedi village, was having 264 ha net sown area out of 455 ha in rabi season and 272 ha net sown area out of 455 ha in kharifseason. The total water supplied in M m3 excluding losses from RBC was collected from water resources department and the data on total production of wheat was collected from revenue record of Vidisha district to assess the existing water productivity. The existing water productivity of the command area was found to be 0.60 kg m-3 for rabi season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Major Farming Systems in Hyderabad-Karnataka

Raghavendra D. V., Suresh S. Patil, G. M. Hiremath, Amrutha T. Joshi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/47481

The study was undertaken in Hyderabad-Karnataka state to assess cost and returns under major farming systems, net income of the farmers from different sources and significant influence of area and dairy in major farming systems. Four major farming systems viz., Crop+Dairy (C+D), Crop+Horticulture (C+H), Horticulture+Dairy (H+D) and Crop+Dairy+Horticulture (C+H+D) were identified based on the preliminary surveys in the area. The study is based on primary data of 160 farmers covering equal samples under major farming systems elicited through the survey for 2016-17. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and  Gini coefficient.  Results revealed that net annual income realized by farm household was higher in Crop+Dairy+Horticulture (Rs. 8,62,897.70) farming system of which 72.42 per cent was from horticulture. The least annual net income was observed in Crop+Dairy (Rs. 2,17,982.21) farming system of which 55.49 per cent was from livestock enterprise. The inequality was relatively lower in Crop+Dairy (0.45) farm households. The inequality was more in Crop+Dairy+Horticulture (0.53) farm households.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Dielectric Study of Ethylene Glycol as a Coolant Using Davidson-Cole Relaxation Model

T. J. Ikyumbur, F. Gbaorun, S. A. Ochi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/38947

In this work, the dielectric properties of ethylene glycol as an additive to heat transfer fluid isstudied. To do this, the Davidson-Cole relaxation equations were derived from Debye equation. The static permittivity(), complex permittivity (∞)and the relaxation time ()of ethylene glycol were substituted in the derived equations. The dielectric constant ′and loss factor ′′of ethylene glycol were computed using Microsoft Excel. The result showed that the dielectric constant is higher at lower frequencies (i.e. 44.30 at 0.01GHz and 10°C) but decreases as the temperature increases. However, at high frequency, the dielectric constant increases as the temperature increases. The loss factor also decreases as temperature increases but increases to its maximum value as the frequency increases. It then decreases steadily after attaining its maximum value at further increase in the frequency. The decrease in the loss factor as the temperature increases showed that ethylene glycol does not generate so much heat when subjected to an applied field.The higher dielectric constant at lower frequencies, on the other hand, suggest that ethylene glycol as a coolant can perform optimally at those frequencies.

Open Access Review Article

Breeding for Tolerance to Heat Stress and on Changing Environment: A Case Study on Potato

Satish Kr. Subba, Pinkey Dukpa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/40897

Potato crop is the fourth leading food crops in the world after maize, rice, and wheat. It is characterized by specific temperature requirements and develops best at about 20°C. Temperature is one of the essential uncontrollable factors affecting crop yield and heat stress has become a serious concern in many areas of the world. As most commercial potato cultivars are developed in temperate regions, therefore producing the greatest yield under long photoperiods and high temperatures is a serious problem. Thus our need increases for developing potato germplasm that can tolerate these adverse conditions. However, the development of new methodology, such as association genetics in conjunction with marker-assisted selection, offers promise that stress-tolerant germplasm can be developed as our need increases.

Open Access Review Article

Ultrasonic Technology and Its Applications in Quality Control, Processing and Preservation of Food: A Review

Bogala Madhu, M. Sai Srinivas, G. Srinivas, S. K. Jain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46909

Ultrasound is one of the emerging technologies that were developed to minimize processing, maximize quality and ensure the safety of food products. In recent years, ultrasound technology has been used as an alternative processing option to conventional thermal approaches. Although Ultrasonication methods have been used for years in research and diagnostics, major advances have been made in the last decade. The applications for which high power ultrasound can be used range from existing processes that are enhanced by the retrofitting of high power ultrasonic technology, to the development of processes up to now not possible with conventional energy sources. The present paper reviews the generation, principle mechanism, properties, process parameters, applications, merits and demerits and future trends of the ultrasound technology in the food processing.