Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Flour Blends for Domestic and Industrial Application

Leticia Amoakoah Twum, Akash Pare

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/40852

Aim: To determine the combined effect of brown rice, soybean, yellow corn, and pineapple pomace on physicochemical and proximate quality of their flour blends.

Study Design: Design Expert mixture model

Place and Duration of Study: Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology, Thanjavur, Tamil-Nadu - India. Nov, 2016- May, 2017. 

Methodology: Flours were made from brown rice, yellow corn, soybean and pineapple pomaces and blend at 20 different levels with the help of design expert mixture model. The 20 flour blends were analyzed for their physical, functional and proximate values.

Results: Analyzed data from the individual flour samples showed each individual flours had unique characteristics and these impacted positively on the proximate and functional properties of the flour blends based on their levels of incorporation. The flour blends showed improvement in the proximate quality and functional properties at the different levels of the combination.

Conclusion:  The final flour products can be recommended for winning food, baking or for extrusion cooking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Torque Ripple Minimization in Switch Reluctance Motor Using Model Predictive Control for Water Pumping Application

Aguemon Dourodjayé Pierre, Agbokpanzo Richard Gilles, Houngan Kokou Théophile, Vianou Antoine

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/44861

This paper presents the torque ripple minimization in switched reluctance motor (SRM) for water pumping. The model predictive control (MPC), one of the rugged control, is used to minimize this torque ripple. According to the receding horizon, the MPC predicted the behavior of the system by generating the control signal to minimize the torque ripple. At each sampling time, an optimal control for torque ripples minimization is elaborated and only the first element is applied to the system according to the receding horizon control. The MPC minimized the real stator currents to reach the objective. The simulations on Matlab demonstrated that a very low rate of ripples could be obtained by setting the parameters of the MPC indicating the high potential of MPC in the control of SRM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nb-Ni Influence on the Mechanical Behavior in a Cu-Al-Be Shape Memory Alloy

José Joelson de Melo Santiago, Carlos Cassio de Alcântara, Enilson de Sousa Costa, Ieverton Caiandre Andrade Brito

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46341

Aims: The objective was to investigate the modifications induced by grain refiners on microstructural and mechanical behaviour of Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy.

Study Design:  The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: the experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Rapid Solidification of the Center Technology - CT, Federal University of Paraíba – UFPB, João Pessoa Campus, Paraíba, Brazil, between October 2017 and December 2018.

Methodology: The alloys were prepared by induction melting and hot rolled into strips of 1.0 mm thickness at room temperature without protective atmosphere, followed of heat treatments. Subsequently the microscope analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical tests were carried out.

Results: The shape memory alloys produced present phase transformations corresponding to the superelastic effect (SE). Grain size reduced considerably with increases content of Nb-Ni. Additionally, the mechanical tensile testing and hardness tests verified that the addition of Nb-Ni increases the stress of the alloy.

Conclusion: The manufactured of Cu-Al-Be alloys by induction melting and hot rolled without protective atmosphere is viable. The microstructure analysis shows the grain refinement in Cu-Al-Be alloys containing 1.0 wt% and 1.5wt% of Nb-Ni alloy with considerable reduction in grain size. The reduction in the grain size shows the improvement in the hardness and mechanical tensile properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Different Irrigation Levels on Vegetative Parameters of Sweet Cherry Grown in a High Density Planting System

Rehana Javid, W. M. Wani, G. H. Rather, J. A. Wani, S. A. Bhat, N. A. Khan, Tawseef Rehman Baba, Shahid Qayoom Dar, Sumaya Mumtaz, Aamina Sadiq

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46902

A field experiment was conducted on four year old plants of Sweet cherry cv. Regina grafted on Gisela- 5 rootstock (planted in 2013) at SKUAST-K Shalimar Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir. The period of experiment covers the years from 2016-2018. The experiment consisted of four irrigation treatment combinations I0(0%), I1  (50%), I2  (75%) and I(100%) based on Class A Pan Evaporation percentages (0%, 50%, 75% and 100%) that were applied at four growth stages viz Fruit set stage (T1), Pit hardening stage (T2), Fruit growth stage (T3) and Fruit bud differentiation stage (T4). The quantity of water required was applied through drip irrigation on daily basis as per crop evapotranspiration. The difference between water levels was 25%. The vegetative parameters such as plant height, plant girth, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) and annual shoot extension growth of young dwarf sweet cherry plants cv. Regina on Gisela-5 were investigated in temperate climate. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Block Design with three replications. Maximum average values of vegetative growth parameters were obtained in Itreatment followed by I2. Highest plant height and annual shoot extension growth was recorded at T1 stage however maximum plant girth was recorded at T3 stage and highest TCSA was obtained at T4 stage. Furthermore the highest plant girth was recorded in I3T3 combination. Plants treated with 100% and 75% ETc level of irrigation excelled in vegetative growth parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sequential Leaching of Vanadium from Heavy Fuel Oil Fly Ash Generated from Saudi Arabia Thermal Power Plants

A. Aburizaiza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46032

The leaching characteristics of vanadium (V), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) from fly ash (FA) waste of power station in Saudi Arabia were studied. The kinetics and thermodynamic characteristics of V leaching from FA using a series of leaching agents (H2O, NH4OH, HCl, H2SO4) were studied. The rate of leaching of V was fast; reached equilibrium in a short time and followed a first-order rate equation with an overall rate constant k of 0.076 min-1. The thermodynamic parameters of V leaching in different leaching agents were critically investigated. The negative values of ∆H and ∆G were interpreted as the exothermic and spontaneous reaction of V leaching onto the leaching solution. Sequential proposed scheme for V leaching is also included.

Open Access Original Research Article

Scenario of Dowry in Rural Punjab - Perceptions and Suggestions

Gaganpreet Kaur, Lakhwinder Kaur, Devinder Tiwari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46822

The phenomenon of dowry remained an integral part of marriage in India since time immemorial. In general, dowry is defined as offering of gifts, money and valuables given by bride’s family to that of groom to permit their marriage. The rural sector of Punjab has been witnessing sharp increase of spending on dowry. Demonstration effects have engulfed all sections and communities in the vicious circle of ‘increased dowry’. Dowry death is one of the most heinous crimes against the women. So this paper is planned to study the perceptions about the dowry consideration as well as suggestions to curb this trigger. The present study was conducted in Rural Punjab by taking three socio-cultural zones that is Malwa, Doaba and Majha into an account. So, in all 360 families were taken accounting for 360 mothers-in-law (G1) and 360 daughters-in-law (G2). As regard to the perception of the respondents regarding the things that make them feel happy at their in-laws house, less than half of G1 respondents felt that their good nature made them feel happy at their in-laws house followed by their intelligence whereas majority (60.83 per cent) of the respondents stated that dowry made them feel happy at in-laws family. People perceived dowry as social evil yet they recognize dowry for achieving long term relationship and achieve healthy marriage. The new phenomenon of “reversal trend” came into light, as, now grooms were ready to pay dowry for the brides who were settled abroad and for the girls who were eligible to settle abroad either on student visa or on permanent residency. On the issue of controlling the curbing the phenomenon of dowry most of G1 respondents were of the view that the dowry practice could be controlled by spreading awareness against dowry followed by Government interventions whereas G2 respondents viewed by raising pressure through NGO’s and Panchayats followed by educating girls could help to control this problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Slope Position and Land Use Effect on Select Soil Properties, Quality and Carbon Stock in Surface Soils at Afaka Forest Area, Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Odunze Azubuike Chidowe, Hamza Haruna, E. Y. Oyinlola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46375

Population increase and the need to achieve food security; especially in Nigeria, necessitated encroachment into forests and marginal lands for agricultural land uses in the Savanna ecologies. However, tropical soils are inherently fragile and prone to rapid degradation under intensive agriculture; especially when soil cover is removed and the soil tilled conventionally. Also, Savanna Alfisols are low in inherent fertility, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, dominated by low activity clays and sesquioxides. The increasing incidence of soil degradation and nutrient impoverishment of the savanna ecologies resulted in deceasing soil quality, agricultural production and increasing farmer food insecurity that generated interest in the need to evaluate effect of slope and Land use on soil properties, quality and carbon stock on Afaka soils in Nigerian Guinea Savanna. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA and significant means were determined using Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). Results obtained reveal that cultivation activities and erosion accounted for increased silt (19.10 %) in cultivated areas than forest areas (14.89%), while sand fractions (54.44%) dominate separates in the Forest and the Cultivated land uses. Upper slope positions had the highest sand content (71.67%), followed by lower slope with 68.00%, and then middle (67.67%) slopes. Silt contents at the middle slope positions were significantly higher than at upper (15.33%) and Lower slope Position (17.00%) and clay values increased in the lower slope terrains. Also, organic carbon varied significantly between the land use types and slope position on the toposequence. At the forest areas, organic carbon was 10.2 gkg-1 and higher significantly than Cultivated fields (8.2 gkg-1). At the upper slope fields under cultivation, organic carbon value was 8.7 gkg-1 and was significantly lower than Middle slope (9.60 gkg-1) and Lower slope terrains (6.30 gkg-1). Under Forest land use also, Middle slope terrains had significantly higher organic carbon content than Upper slope terrains. The high Carbon stock of the forest middle slope terrain (1.77 tCha-1), followed by forest land use type would discourage global warming and climate change within the Afaka environment However, carbon stock in forest Land use type in Afaka areas (1.41 tCha-1) was significantly higher than cultivated land use types (1.21 tCha-1). At cultivated slope terrains, middle slopes retained significantly higher SOC (1.37 tCha-1) than upper and lower slope terrains. Considering soils for prime quality, soils under forest lower slope terrain ranked best quality (SQ1; prime quality) for sustainable cultivation purposes, followed by cultivated middle slope and forest land use type that ranked SQ2. Cultivated upper slope soils ranked least (SQ6) in quality for use in crop production, while cultivated lower slope and cultivated land use type soils ranked SQ5. However, increasing loss of forests to intensive cultivation activities without adequate soil management practices would portend increase in global warming and climate change in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Vocational Training Courses Conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Punjab on Establishing an Enterprise

Manjot Kaur, Kanwaljit Kaur, Kiranjot Sidhu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i430019

The attempts were made to assess the impact of vocational training courses conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Punjab on establishing an enterprise. All thirty long duration vocational training courses conducted by the Krishi Vigyan Kendras namely Bathinda, Ferozpur, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur and SBS Nagar from 2009-2013 were taken up for the study. A sample of 140 trainees was drawn by applying probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling method and data were collected personally from the selected trainees by using an interview schedule. The findings of the study revealed that the highest adoption status was achieved by value added household products & preparation and garment construction & enrichment training courses with 1.44 & 1.36 mean scores respectively. The lowest mean score of Management of family resources (0.68) and fabric painting & preparation of household products (0.62) indicated the low adoption status of these training courses. Major reasons for non-establishment of an enterprise after receiving training from KVKs as reported by the highest percentage of trainees were financial constraints and high cost of equipments. It can be concluded that the marketing components and linkages related to establishing an enterprise should be an integral part of the vocational training programme. KVKs should provide suitable facilities in the form of resource centre to their trainees for reducing the cost of initial set up of enterprise.