Open Access Original Research Article

Land Surface Temperature Analysis of Kigali City

Ndayisenga Jean Bosco, Matabaro Thomas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45426

The paper entitled land surface temperature analysis in Kigali city; is established to analyze the change in temperature due to the cover in place and inform everyone to take care of land cover. The study was conducted in Kigali city by using remote sensing technique. The study design is shown on the follow chart.

The modification and transformation of land cover in a city, affect an evapotranspiration process, storage, and emission of the heat in the urban environment. Therefore, to retrieve Land surface temperature in Kigali City was done by calculating at satellite brightness from TOP radiance, calculating land surface emissivity from the proportion of vegetation, finally to convert at satellite brightness temperature to land surface temperature. Land cover detection was done by analyzing Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS using supervised classification technique in the help of ERDAS imagine 2014, NDVI and NDBI were calculated by using argis10.3 and finally shape file of Rwanda administrative boundary was used to delineate the study area boundary.

Land cover classification results show that, the area is dominated 48% vegetation, 38% bare soil, 13% built up and 1% water with the overall accuracy assessment of 95.7% and Overall Kappa Statistics 0.94. Maximum land surface temperature is 300C and lowest is 16°C.

The correlation between numerical values of LST, NDBI, NDVI and overlapping of land cover to LST map show that there is a positive correlation between NBDI and LST and negative correlation between NDVI and LST. This indicate that, there is an increase in land surface temperature with an increase of NDBI and there is a decrease if NDVI increase. Then by overlapping LST to land cover of Kigali city shows that where, vegetation is not concentrated imprecate the increase of land surface temperature.

The study of land surface temperature in Kigali city help to understand that land cover in place may play a big role on microclimate distribution. Therefore informs the urban planners, urban designers and policymakers for successful mitigation measures of temperature increase by improving the land cover and landscape.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring Oil Pipeline

A. O. Okpare, F. I. Anyasi, D. Ebegba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45506

This work presents a wireless sensor network (WSN) using pressure variations in monitoring oil pipeline against leaks. It incorporates pressure sensors, ardiuno board containing ATmega328P – 8 bit AVR family microcontroller, GSM module, and LCD for data acquisition, processing, communication, and analysis, to be used for the localization of leaks (either natural or man caused). An experimental investigation of the relationship between leaks or bursts and pressure variations was carried out at a designated location along the prototype oil pipeline. Results showed that a drop in pressure is associated with leak and the wider the size of the leak, the more drop in pressure that is observed. The wireless sensor network uses the concepts of signal (energy) conversion and processing following a modular approach where pressure parameter is monitored in the prototype pipeline (field or transmitting section). Whenever the monitored pressure falls below a minimum set pressure point, the pressure information (signal) is converted into electrical signal, processed, and transmitted as radio waves and received at the monitor or control centre (master or receiving section). The received radio signals are converted back into electrical signal and used to drive the LCD and buzzer. Analyzing the audiovisual signal received will determine any further necessary action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Standardisation of Banana Peel Extracted Insoluble Dietary Fibre Based Buns

Nidhi Budhalakoti

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45832

Banana peels are the waste products of banana industries which can be the cause of environmental pollution if not utilized properly. These peels are generally used as cattle feed; there utilization in human diet is not studied much. It is a rich source of dietary fibre which is considered to be beneficial in protection against several diseases. It is also rich in other nutrients such as proteins, fats etc. Keeping in view with the importance of dietary fibres in diet, in the present study efforts were made to extract banana peel insoluble dietary fibres and incorporate them into an edible bakery product i.e. buns. Nutritional profile of both the banana peels and the fibres was evaluated. Banana peel insoluble dietary fibres were found to be rich in various nutrients including antioxidants. Buns prepared from the extracted insoluble dietary fibres were subjected to texture analysis. Process of preparing the buns was optimized and further put into testing. Fibres were incorporated up to 40%. Buns containing up to 10% fibres were found to be more palatable and texturally acceptable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Performance of Setcreacea purpurea and Portulaca grandifora as a Green Roof Material Applied in a Tropical Climate

D. Nyame-Tawiah, L. Atuah, P. K. Tandoh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45910

The main objective of this paper is to present results on experimental fields about Green Roofs using two different plant materials such as Setcreasea purpurea and Portulaca grandiflora. It also describes how Green Roof is constructed in a tropical environment using available sustainable materials with the focus on Succulent plants. A Randomized Complete Design with three replications was used for the study. The main methodological procedure for collection of data was the installation of data loggers in nine (9) experimental test cells for (ten)10 months starting from November and ending August 2016 to record temperature and relative humidity in a time step of 6 (10 minutes). The experimental results shows that Succulent (Setcreacea purpurea) plants has the potential to reduce peak indoor temperature as compared to herbaceous plants such as Portulaca grandiflora. Setcresea purpurea recorded the lowest temperature throughout the whole year. The study concluded that a reduction in mean temperature is 0.39°C annually (P≤0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics of Aphid and Pod Borer on Lentil and their Natural Enemies during rabi Season 2017 at Pusa, Samastipur

Deepak Ranjan Kishor, Rabindra Prasad, Shriti Moses, P. P. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46409

In order to determine the seasonal incidence and to explore the possibilities of management of aphid and pod borer on lentil through various tactics, a series of field experiments were conducted at Research Farm of Tirhut College of Agriculture, Dholi, Muzaffarpur, The incidence of aphid (Aphis craccivora),  started from 4th meteorological standard week (MSW) (23.80 aphid/10 cm apical twigs). The aphid population gradually increased and reached to its peak (35.4 aphid/10cm apical twigs) on 7th MSW (22nd February) and thereafter its population gradually decreased from 8th MSW 4th  week of February (31.30 aphid/10 cm apical twigs) to 12th MSW(4th  week of March) (9.0 aphid/10cm apical twigs). The incidence of pod borer (Etiella zinckenella)  was observed from 7th MSW(3rd week of February) (4.00%) and the per cent pod damage gradually increased and reached to its peak (14.30 %) on 9th MSW (1st week of march). Its infestation gradually decrease 10th MSW (12.10 %) onwards. Initially Coccinella. septempunctata   population was very low in 4th MSW of January, 2018 (0.90/plant) and after that the population gradually increased. The maximum population of C. septempunctata (4.50/plant) was recorded in 8th MSW of February, 2018. Spider population was very low (1.10 spider/plant) in 4th MSW of January, 2018 and the maximum population (2.00 spider/plant)of spider was recorded in 6th SMW of February.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Quantification of Major Insect Pests of Rice and Their Natural Enemies

Shriti Moses, Deepak Ranjan Kishor, A. K. Misra, Md. Abbas Ahmad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46433

This survey was conducted in rice field during kharif season of year 2017 at Pusa farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Samastipur, Bihar. The rice stem borer, leaf folder and plant hopper are the major insect pest of rice in Pusa region. Rice ecosystem favorable for proliferation of insect-pests is equally congenial for multiplication of the natural enemies of these pests. The month of August and September is identified as the peak activity period for most of the insect pests in sweeping net and hand picking method. Yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) were found as the dominant species at Pusa. In species composition study, Scirpophaga incertulas (YSB) is the dominant species of rice stem borer, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was the dominant species of leaf folder and Nilaparvata lugens is the dominant species of plant hopper. The important predators observed in the rice ecosystem of Pusa are spider, lady bird beetle, staphylinid beetle, green mirid bug, dragonfly and damselfly. Predatory spider, dragonfly and damselfly were found most active during the month of July while lady bird beetle, staphylinid beetle and green mirid bug were found most active in the month of August and September in sweeping net sampling and handpicking method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Importance Value Index and Assessment of Carbon Stocks in Western Bhutan Himalaya (Thimphu)

Sangay Tshering

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46398

This study assessed the importance value index to determine the importance of each tree species in relation to carbon stocks. The assessment was based on woody stem ≥10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height.  Biomass was estimated using volumetric equations and carbon stock by multiplying constant factor 0.5 to the biomass. The results showed biomass and carbon stock varied in different territorial forest ranges. Maximum biomass recorded from Thimphu forest range with 62.306 Mgha-1 followed by Khasadrapchu forest range 55.503 Mgha-1, Chamgang forest range 41.556 Mgha-1 and Gidakom forest range 32.133 Mgha-1 with carbon stock of 31.153 MgCha-1, 27.752 MgCha-1, 20.778 MgCh-1 and 16.066 MgCha-1 respectively. Total respective biomass and carbon stock of Thimphu conifer forest from sampling plots were 191.501 Mgha-1and 95.740 MgCha-1. All forests range had a similar tree size with dominant DBH class at ≥10-40 cm contributing greater biomass and carbon stock. Carbon storage potential in plant biomass using non-destructive method was never conducted before in the present study area. To reduce research gaps, present study used non-destructive methods and concludes that Thimphu conifer forest has enormous potential to accumulate biomass and carbon stock.

Open Access Review Article

Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Calotropis Species and their Applications: A Review

R. L. Danhalilu, Aliyu I. Kankara, Samaila Muazu Batagarawa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46052

Biosynthesis of metallic nanomaterials has become an important field of research. The synthesis of metallic nanomaterials using plant extracts is a single-step, simple, rapid, and eco-friendly. The reducing agents involved include the various water-soluble secondary metabolites (Alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, carbohydrates etc.) of the plant extracts. Diverse salts of metals of the transition metal series such as Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) etc, have been used in the synthesis. This review focused on the use of extracts of Calotropis species (spp) in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. The methods of synthesis and various applications of the synthesized nanoparticles were also discussed.