Open Access Case Study

A Survey on Traditional Designs and Colors of Telia Rumal

Sushma Duguta, Sirisha Deepthi Sornapudi, Khateeja Sulthana Shaik, Padma Alapati

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45403

Handloom weaving is one such art, which requires immense workmanship following spinning, dyeing, finishing, etc. activities. In India Ikat, a unique technique of fabric construction where yarns are tie and dyed before weaving to obtain designs on textiles, is one of the most important textiles which has mounting markets at Gujarat, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana State holding their respective styles of heritage in ikat designs. Puttapaka, a place in Telangana is famous for Telia Rumals also called Asia Rumals, one of an Ikat kind was marketed in the name of Pochampally. The main focus of this article is to portray the Traditional motifs and colour combinations of the Telia Rumals. With this regard, data were collected from 30 expert weavers using the snowball technique. According to the collected information nine traditional motifs/designs (Pachhis Kana/Nilam Peka, Uditakallu, Mungi Chakram, Malle Pulu/Nakshtram, Kaya/Muddabanti, Mungi, Mungi kaya, kaya and Badam) and three colors (white, red and black) were identified that are style statement of the Telia Rumals. With the changing trend presently the client interest and fashion forecast is influencing in the change of designs and colour combinations making the product more customised.

Open Access Minireview Article

Lead Contamination of Soil in Africa: A Review of the Sources, Effects and Remediation Strategies

Godswill Hygienus

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46073

Lead is one of the trace metals frequently found in the soil, air and water bodies. Since lead has no known biological value and highly toxic even at low a concentration, its ubiquity in the environment has become a major issue of concern globally. In this work, a review was conducted to identify the major sources of lead in African soils, its effects and remediation strategies. Literature search was conducted on the internet databases including Google Scholar, Google, Jstor and Oare. The keywords used for the search were ‘Lead, Soil, Contamination, Sources, Effects, Remediation Strategies, Physical, Chemical, Biological Method, Africa’. The articles selected were those written solely on lead or which lead was a component of, with reference to Africa and published between 2003 and 2018. From the review, the major sources of lead in African soils were agriculture, mining, industrial and domestic wastes, leaded-gasoline, lead-battery recycling and leaded-paint. The harmful effects of lead exposure could manifest in different forms in living organisms and may result to death. In the remediation technologies for lead contamination, there are physical, chemical and biological methods. The chemical and physical methods are relatively more effective and rapid as compared to the biological method. However, the biological method is cost-effective and more ecofriendly than both the chemical and physical methods. In order to protect the environment from secondary contamination originating from the chemical and physical methods, the biological remediation was recommended for large scale adoption since is it equally effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Dangers of Corrosion in Marine Heat Exchanger Performance Using Cast Steel C-1030 and Copper C-642

Clement A. Idiapho, William E. Odinikuku, Onoriode K. Idiapho

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45822

This research was undertaken to comparatively determine the effects of corrosion in cast steel C-1030 and copper C-642 used as selected materials in marine heat exchanger design. Cast steel C-1030 immersed in freshwater at 0.0003M after twenty one (21) days (0.0567yr) gave corrosion rise from 0.0493 mmpy, 0.0555 mmpy to 0.0656 mmpy while copper C-642 at 0.000004M in freshwater experienced no corrosion rise for the 1st and 2nd week, although a corrosion increase of 0.0006 mmpy was revealed at the third week of immersion. Also results at 0.0015M of cast steel C-1030 gave corrosion increase from 0.0365 mmpy to 0.0617 mmpy while copper C-642 gave corrosion rise from 0.0351 mmpy to 0.0409 mmpy. Results at 0.002M of saltwater gave corrosion rise from 0.0369 mmpy to 0.0452 mmpy and 0.0351 mmpy to 0.0363 mmpy for cast steel C-1030 and copper C-642. The overall results confirmed higher corrosion rise in cast steel C-1030 compared to copper C-642 sample. The comparative results of both selected materials by weight loss technique and surface analysis by inverted metallurgical microscope at the various concentration of the media revealed the effects of corrosion, as higher corrosion rate was evident in cast steel metal, thus, confirming copper C-642 to be  more resistive to corrosion attack than cast steel C-1030.


Open Access Original Research Article

Geotechnical Evaluation of Some Lateritic Soils from Ore, Southwestern Nigeria as Liners in Landfills

S. O. Daramola, B. I. Ilesanmi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/19778

Liners are very important part of engineered landfills as they control the migration of leachates and other toxic constituents into underlying aquifers or nearby rivers, thereby contaminating the local water. Hence, materials to be used as liners should be able to stand the test of time and provide reliable leak protection. The suitability of some lateritic soils from Ore in southwestern Nigeria has been investigated for the purpose. Six bulk samples of lateritic soils were collected from the study area and subjected to engineering geological tests which include grain size distribution, Atterberg limit, specific gravity, compaction and permeability.  Results indicate that the soils contain clay (24-37%), silt (18-28%), sand (19-38%) and Gravel (10-16%). Atterberg limits test also indicate that the liquid limit values range from 37-46%, plastic limit from 17.26%-19.20% and plasticity index from 16.58%-21.81%. Specific gravity values range from 2.60-2.70, maximium dry density range from 1730.25-1780 kg/m3, optimum moisture content varies from 17.96-19.20 while the permeability varies from 2.95 ×10-12 m/s to 8.34 ×10-12 m/s.  The soils were adjudged suitable for use as liners as they compare favorably with the recommendations of earlier investigators.


Open Access Original Research Article

Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a Tropical Estuarine Epipelic Sediment and Its Associated Bacterial Degrading Potentials

Nsikak A. Abraham, Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong, Owen P. Ukafia, Patrick E. Akpan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/42891

The present study was designed to evaluate the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the degradation potentials of bacteria associated with the Iko River estuarial epipelic sediment using standard analytical and microbiological techniques. The results of the analysis revealed that the mudflat of the ecosystem contained varying levels of PAHs with lower molecular weight (2-3 rings), with concentrations ranging from 4.9 – 5.2 mg/kg. The levels of 4-ringed, 5- ringed and 6-ringed PAHs ranged from 1.30 to 1.44, 2.14 – 2.47 and 0.20 – 1.53 mg/kg, respectively. The molecular diagnostic ratios of relevant PAH congeners revealed that the ecosystem is contaminated with PAH from multiple (petrogenic and/or pyrogenic) sources. Among the bacterial strains isolated from the sediment samples, Pseudomonas aeruginosaBacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus were found to possess strong PAHs degrading capabilities. The isolation of bacteria with PAH degradability from the mudflat is an indication that the ecosystems have the capability to recover through natural attenuation over time.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Learning Motivating Strategy for Engineering Education

K. Daqrouq, M. N. Ajour

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/44042

Because the scientific theories tackled in engineering education are relatively sophisticated, the education strategies should be subjects of investigation by researchers. In this study, a learning motivating strategy for engineering education was proposed. The proposed strategy was based on a method that is divided into two parts: the effective learning language and effective learning tools and ideas. For testing the learning strategy proposed in this study, 300 students of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, at King Abdulaziz University, participated in the questionnaire. The results showed the high effectiveness of the proposed effective learning language and the effective learning tools and ideas. The results showed the importance of the ‘Why’ driving question in addition to ‘How’ driving question that helps the student to have a versatile image. The students claimed the influence of the lecturer voice quality on attracting the attention. We recommend using the useful language structures proposed in the study because of the immense effect on the student persuasion.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Internet Addiction among Young Adults in Hyderabad

Aprajita Raj, M. Sarada Devi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45652

In this present era, the Internet is considered to be most important tool for education, entertainment, communication, and information-sharing. Internet, being widely accessible globally, the risk of “internet addiction” is emerging as severe behavioral addiction pandemic. The study examined the level of internet addiction among young adults and also determines the gender differences in pattern of internet usage, duration of internet usage and level of internet addiction. Exploratory research design was used for the study. College of Home Science in Hyderabad was purposively selected for this study. 60 young adults (including 30 females and 30 males) who were using internet daily and consented to participate, in the age group of 18-25 years were randomly selected. Young’s Internet Addiction Test (YIAT) was used to study the level of internet addiction. Frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations and independent t- test were used to analyze the collected data. Results showed higher internet addiction among males as compared to females. Mean Internet addiction score among males were 54.9 as compared to 41.6 among females and the difference was statistically significant.  Males were using internet for more hours than females. Females were using internet for educational purpose and males were using more for non-educational purpose. Majority of the females were having low internet addiction. Almost half of the males were having moderate internet addiction. Overall majority of the respondents falls under moderate category of internet addiction.College need to come up with workshops and seminars to bring awareness among students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Vulnerability to Climate Change among Coastal Communities in Ghana: The Case of Dansoman of the Greater Accra Region

Isaac Sarfo, Jude Issa Dontoh, Henry Otchwemah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45659

Policy-makers, development-practitioners, international organizations and academic scholars have over the years taken stern initiatives to tackle climate change issues. Climate adaptation along with various commitments and political will have given much weight to a growing concern of treating this global phenomenon with urgency. This study sought to determine the level of awareness and vulnerability to climate change and knowledge among coastal households and officials in Dansoman, within the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The study adapted both qualitative and quantitative research strategies in data collection, analysis and presentation. Response from informants constituting officials from various institutions and vulnerable groups in the area were subjected to descriptive analytical statistics. Findings show high level of climate awareness among respondents but low level of knowledge on climate change issues. Results show that the majority of the respondents believe that climate change related issues and impacts are very serious and need urgent attention to avoid severe consequences on key economic sectors and food security. The researcher believes that the study will serve as a baseline exploratory study to inform decision on enhancing environmental education and campaign programs in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Antioxidant Content in Mature Human Breast Milk and Diet in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Matogoma Digbé Ble, Assi Roméo Boni, Sadikou Touré, Michèle Aké, Jean David N’Guessan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45960

Background: Cell damage due to oxidative stress during the neonatal period has been associated with diseases. Human breast milk is an important source of antioxidants which protect newborn against oxidative stress damages. However, the dietary habits of lactating mothers may influence the nutritional value of milk during lactation period.

Aims: The principal aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant content of mature human milk during two periods of lactation in Ivorian women who consumed different diets.

Methodology: Samples of mature human milk were collected from healthy breastfeeding women on the 45th and 105th day postpartum. Food intake frequencies of mothers were obtained using questionnaire and infants were also weighted. The Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of mature milk samples were determined using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assay and free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.

 Results: In this study, a final sample size of 75 breastfeeding women was retained. Two predominant basic diets which are cooked rice with oil palm seed juice sauce (R-SG) and cooked pasty mixture of plantain and cassava accompanied with eggplant sauce (F-SAU), involving, respectively, 50 and 25 lactating women, were determined. Regarding R-SG and F-SAU diets, a significant increase (< .05) in level of TAC was observed between milk collected on 45th and 105th day postpartum, while no significant difference was found concerning percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical at the same periods. Also, TAC and antiradical activity in breast milk of women who received R-SG diet and F-SAU diet as well as day 45 and day 105 postpartum were statistically comparable (P > .05). Otherwise, TAC and antiradical activity of women’s breast milk following these diets were correlated with weight of the newborns on 105th day postpartum.

Conclusion: Based on our results, it is concluded that antioxidant activities in breast milk of women from R-SG diet and F-SAU diet were comparable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Physical Properties of Char (Buchanania lanzan) Seed

P. K. Nishad, S. Patel, R. K. Naik, N. K. Mishra, P. Sahu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46137

Size, shape, volume, surface area, density, porosity are some physical characteristics, which are important in many problems associated with the design of a specific machine. The physical properties of wild variety of Buchanania lanzan seeds have been evaluated as a function of seed moisture content, varying from 10.1 to 20% (db). In the moisture range, seed length increased linearly from 7.28 to 12.98 mm, width from 5.97 to 11.2 mm, thickness from 5.36 to 10.34 mm and geometric mean diameter from 6.04 to 11.45 mm, respectively with an increase in moisture content. The sphericity, surface area, and volume increased nonlinearly from 0.850 to 0.881, 118.8 to 412.28 mm2, and 121.9 to 787.37 mm3, respectively. One thousand seed weight increased linearly from 0.211 to 0.433 kg. The bulk density and true density decreased linearly with moisture content from 639.01 to 521.36 kg/m3 and 867.73 to 797.73 kg/m3, respectively, while porosity values of seeds increased linearly from 26.45 to 33.36%. Static friction coefficients were found to increase as moisture content increases. Static friction coefficient was highest on rubber surface and lowest on glass surface ranging from 0.594 to 0.730 and 0.249 to 0.329, respectively, while the largest increase (34.71%) in static friction coefficient with moisture content was observed for plywood. The angle of repose increased linearly from 26.45 to 33.75º with the increase of moisture content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oil Pipeline Leak Detection and Localisation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

A. O. Okpare, F. I. Anyasi, D. Ebegba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45505

This paper describes the development of a wireless sensor network that uses pressure variation to detect and locate leaks in a prototype oil pipeline. The HK1100C oil pressure sensor is used as a sensing unit to sense/monitor pressure variation inside the prototype oil pipeline and outputs the corresponding voltage variation to a microcontroller. The whole network comprises mainly of HK1100C oil pressure sensor, Arduino Uno board containing ATmega328P microcontroller, SIM800L GSM module, JHD162ALCD module, audio alarm buzzer, 9V supply. The ATmega328P microcontroller was programmed in C++ programming language. If deployed in Nigeria, the wireless sensor network will be able to monitor oil pipelines against leaks and therefore reduce environmental degradation and economic losses resulting from oil leakages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cocoa Farmers` Involvement in Cocoa Production-Related Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria

A. O. Orimogunje, B. A. Ogundeji, T. I. Ademola, T. I. Omirin, E. E. Agbebaku, T. M. Orisasona, D. J. Awodumila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45002

Aims: Assessment of the involvement of farmers in cocoa production-related activities with a view to improving qualities and quantities of cocoa production in Oyo State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Oyo State, Nigeria; 2017/2018.

Methodology: This study specifically ascertained the socio-economic characteristics (of the respondents in the study area), the source of information on cocoa production-related activities and constraints faced by farmers in cocoa production-related activities. The involvement of farmers in pre-planting, post-planting, processing and marketing activities were also looked into. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 110 cocoa farmers in the study area. Data was collected using a comprehensive questionnaire and analysis was done using means, frequencies, percentages, Chi-square and Pearson Product Moment correlation.

Results: The study revealed that 42.8% of the respondents cultivated between 2-4 acres, 39.1% had a yield of 343 kg-513 kg per hectare, while 43.8% sold their cocoa beans between N685-N777 (1.90-2.16USD) per kilogram during the peak season. 45.0% of the respondents were fully involved in weed control, 50.9% of them were fully involved in planting, 50.9% of the respondents were fully involved in pest and disease control. About 55.5% of the respondents accessed information from Cocoa Farmers’ Association of Nigeria (CFAN).

Conclusion: Myriads of financial and infrastructural constraints militated against the mostly small cocoa farmholders' production capabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This study is therefore expected to assist local and state governments, non-governmental organisations and policy makers to begin appropriate development interventions to boost the quantity and quality of cocoa production in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterisation and Classification of Rubber Growing Soils of Kerala, India

M. Chandrakala, R. Srinivasan, K. S. Anil Kumar, K. Sujatha, M. Ramesh, Rajendra Hegde, S. K. Singh, H. R. Nirmala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/44649

Aims: Is to detailed Land Resource Inventory at block level. The objective of the study was the characterization and classification of soils of the Elamdesam block, Idukki district Kerala.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil survey done and soil samples were brought from Elamdesam block, in the year 2016 and laboratory characterization and soil classification was done in National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Regional Centre, Hebbal, Bangalore

Methodology: Using base maps soil profiles and auger observations from selected transects were studied in such a way that soil survey and mapping observations have been taken in all landform units and the location of soil profiles was recorded using GPS. Horizon-wise morphological properties were described following USDA soil survey manual (Soil Survey Staff 2014). Soil samples were collected horizon-wise, air dried and processed (2 mm sieve) for various analyses following standard methods. Twelve soil series were identified in the block using the method employed by Reddy (2006). Soil map prepared manually followed by in GIS environment.

Results: The study revealed that, the soils were very deep to very shallow, well drained to somewhat poorly drained, brown, dark brown, reddish brown, dark reddish brown, dark yellowish brown, yellowish brown, dark gray, yellowish red and red in colour. Soils are non-gravelly to gravelly; clay content is 11.37 to 41.60 percent in the surface soil and ranges from 8.95 to 63.52 per cent in the subsoil. The cation exchange capacity ranges 5.94 to 15.12 cmol (+) kg–1 in the surface soil and 2.48 to 14.47 cmol (+) kg–1 in the subsoil. Base saturation is 6 to 44 per cent in the surface soil and ranges from 2 to 55 per cent in the subsoil. The organic carbon content is medium to very high and it ranges 0.89 to 3.34 per cent. Soils acidity ranges extremely acid to moderately acid. Based on the morphological, physical and chemical characteristics soils were classified as Ustic Haplohumults, Humic Dystrustepts, Ustic Kandihumults, Lithic Ustorthents and Oxyaquic Haplustepts.

Conclusion: Soils in the foot hills, high hills and midlands and low land region of rubber growing soils of Kerala qualify as Ultisols or Inceptisols. The information generated can help the researchers, farmers and planners to comprehend the natural resources of Elamdesam block for future planning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variation of Radio Refractivity of Some Selected Stations in Northern Nigeria

M. M. Tanko, M. U. Sarki, M. A. Bilya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/45326

The seasonal variation of radio refractivity of some selected stations (Abuja, Lafia, Bauchi, Kaduna, Maiduguri, and Sokoto) in Northern Nigeria was analysed using surface meteorological data sourced from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency for five years (2007-2011). From the analysed result, seasonal variation of radio refractivity was observed with higher refractivity during the wet season. The maximum refractivity during the study period was about 385 N-unit recorded in Lafia during the month of August and the minimum was about 282 N-unit recorded in Maiduguri during the month of March. The mean field strength recorded was found to be between 19 dB and 3 dB for the study stations. This implies that the output of the receiving antenna in the region may be subjected to variations of not less than 3 dB on a year and can be as high as 19 dB.

Open Access Review Article

Comparative Study and First Principle Calculations of the Ternary Halide perovskite CsSnBr3 in its Three Phases

Karima Benyahia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/46444

Perovskites are very interesting for applications such as optoelectronic devices emitting light, such as OLEDs and lasers. On the other hand, one can consider using these perovskites in a very special architecture: the tandem cells. The principle of these tandem cells is to put in series two types of absorbers to optimize the absorption of the solar spectrum and thus increase the efficiency of the cells: the perovskites could make it possible to increase the collection of the UV part of the solar spectrum. Many perovskite crystals (ABX3) have been discovered to present second order properties for NLO, they undergo phase transitions in which they transform into slightly disordered structures of the original crystals. Perovskite crystal CsSnBr3 undergoes three successive phase transitions at T = 19.1 and 26°C. The crystal symmetry is sequentially transformed from rhombohedral to monoclinic then to cubic with a decreasing temperature, and this phase transition influences the structural properties and consequently the electronic and optical properties of this material. The results found for the perovskite cubic structure have been compared with experimental values ​​and other theoretical works and they are in good agreement, but concerning the monoclinic structure, our results consist of a prediction. The calculation of the electronic properties shows the semi-conductor character of this material since there is a small spacing of the valence (Br-4p5) and conduction (Sn-5p2) bands which is estimated at Eg = 0.5375 eV in the cubic structure. This gap energy plays a key role in evaluating the use and yield of this material in solar cells.