Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

Manju Kumari, Jayant Kumar, Amrita Kumari, Vijay Kumar Singh, Nisha Rani, Anand Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45984

Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important commercial cucurbit of family Cucurbitaceae. For rational improvement of yield and its components in Bitter gourd, the understanding of nature and magnitude of variation in the available material and association of characters with yield and among themselves and the extent of environmental influence on the characters which is statistically determined by correlation coefficient is although useful in determining the relative influence of the various characters on yield they do not provide an exact picture of the relative importance of the direct and indirect influences of each of the characters towards the yield. Path coefficient analysis proved helpful in partitioning the correlation coefficient into direct and indirect effects. It gives an idea about the contribution of each independent character on dependent character i.e. yield. An experiment was conducted during 2017-18 at Vegetable Research farm, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (Bhagalpur) to study the existing genetic variability and to assess interrelationship among sixteen yield and its contributing traits in twenty eight genotypes of bitter gourd of Bihar. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the sixteen characters studied indicating that a significant amount of genetic variability present in the material. High GCV and PCV were recorded for chlorophyll content, vine length and fruit weight.  High estimates of heritability were observed for chlorophyll content, TSS, ascorbic acid, number of seeds per fruit, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit girth and number of fruit per plant is the characters under the study. High heritability accompanied with high genetic advance as percent of the mean were recorded for chlorophyll content this means that improvement in this trait made by simple selection. Correlation analysis revealed that total chlorophyll content; fruit weight and fruit length had a significant and positive association with yield per plant. Path analysis revealed that ascorbic acid, number of seeds per fruit, vine length, TSS, fruit weight, chlorophyll content, node number at which first female flower appear and days to 50% flowering had a positive direct effect on fruit yield. Correlation and path-coefficient analysis, concluded that, ascorbic acid, number of seeds per fruit, vine length, TSS, fruit weight, chlorophyll content, node number at which first female flower appear and days to 50% flowering exhibited maximum positive direct effect on grain yield seems to be primary yield contributing characters and could be relied upon for selection of genotypes to improve genetic yield potential of Bitter gourd. Hence, utmost importance should be given to these characters during selection for yield improvement.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Regeneration and Acclimatisation of Banana cv. Malbhog

Kiran Bharati, Muneshwar Prasad, Hidayatullah Mir, Awadhesh Kumar Pal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45985

Banana (Musa paradisiaca) cv. Malbhog is a very popular banana cultivar in the North Eastern part of India. A method has been developed to multiply it in vitro to standardise the best multiplication and rooting media for banana and hardening of rooted plantlets for field transfer using different potting mixtures. Media formulation using BAP alone or in combination with NAA were used for shoot initiation and multiplication. Minimum number of days for shoot initiation (18.4), the longest length of shoot (5.1 cm) and a maximum number of shoots/ explant (4.2) was obtained on PGR combination NAA 0.5 + BAP 5.0 mg/l.Half strength MS media supplemented with IBA 1.5 mg/l was found significantly higher over all other auxin treatments for various rooting parameters. This combination gave the best response in terms of root formation frequency (66.7%), least number of days for root formation (18), maximum no. of roots/explant (3.8) and longest length of the root (4.0 cm). Maximum survival frequency was found in case of coco peat (89%) followed by sterile soilrite (79%). Plant morphology in terms of plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf number, etc. coco peat gave better result over other potting media.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Floral Biology and Leaf Characteristics of Mango Hybrids and Their Parents

Abha Sinha, Hidayatullah Mir, Ruby Rani, Bishun Deo Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45986

Flowering plays a very crucial role in the production and productivity of mango cultivars. An experiment was conducted to investigate phenological behaviour of mango hybrids and their parents developed at BAU, Sabour. Results showed the earliest bud break in cultivar Sunderprasad on 24th January however, the late bud break was observed in Fazli on 14th February. The cultivar Fazli took maximum time (124.67 days) while Sunderprasad recorded minimum time (92.67 days) from full bloom to maturity. Cultivar Langra showed the higher percentage (74.18) of hermaphrodite flower while a lower percentage (37.60) was observed in Jawahar. The hybrids like Hybrid-60-1, Hybrid 140 and Hybrid 60 were recorded to have more than 50 percent hermaphrodite flowers. Mainly two types of inflorescence shapes were observed viz., conical and pyramidal except for Bombai where the shape of inflorescence was observed to be broadly pyramidal. The maximum leaf length was recorded in Fazli (29.04 cm) and maximum leaf width (9.38 cm), leaf area (132.69) was observed in Alfazli while the minimum leaf length (16.84 cm), width (4.06 cm) was found in cv. Gulabkhas. Mahmood Bahar, Prabha Shankar, Jawahar and Alphonso had oblong-lanceolate leaf shape while others were observed to have the lanceolate shape of leaf. At several occasions due to lack of information on flowering behaviour of parental cultivar, breeding efforts are under-performed. The information pertaining to time of bud break, initiation of flowering, flowering duration, hermaphrodite flower percentage etc. has significant implications on the success of breeding efforts.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Physicochemical Properties as Influenced by Various Weed Management Practices in Winter Maize (Zea mays L.)

Shashank Tyagi, S. K. Mandal, Rajesh Kumar, S. K. Pathak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45987

A field experiment was conducted in rabi season 2011-12 and 2012-13 at research farm of Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar to assess the impact of various weed management practices on physico-chemical properties of soil in winter maize. Experiment  consisted of nine treatments viz., acetochlor 90% EC at 1.25, 1.875, 2.5, 3.125 l ha-1, atrazine 50% WP at 2.0 kg ha-1, 2,4-DEE 38% EC at 2.65 l ha-1, weedy, weed free and acetochlor 90% EC at 5.0 l ha-1 laid out in randomized block design replicated thrice. Results indicated that bulk density, water holding capacity and moisture content of soil did not vary significantly at 45 DAS and harvest of maize due to acetochlor 90% EC and others. Soil pH, EC and organic carbon at 45 DAS and harvest did not differ significantly with acetochlor 90% EC and others. Total nitrogen, available P2O5 and K2O though varied significantly but there was not much variation among herbicides. Herbicide treated plots showed depletion of available N, P and K at harvest over weedy check due to higher nutrient removal by enhanced yield. Soil fertility status after harvest was recorded indicating a reduction in available N, P and K under weed free, acetochlor 90% EC @ 3.125 and 5.0 l ha-1 over initial and weedy check. Soil available N was lower in acetochlor 90% EC @ 5.0 l ha-1 and at par with its dose 3.125 l ha-1. Soil available P was lowest in acetochlor 90% EC @ 5.0 l ha-1, being at par with acetochlor @ 3.125 and 2.5 l ha-1 and was significantly lower over weedy check indicating highest soil available P which was at par with acetochlor 90% EC @ 1.25 and 1.875 l ha-1. Soil available K was lowest in acetochlor 90% EC @ 5.0 l ha-1 and similar to rest of its doses except 1.25 l ha-1. It showed parity to 2, 4-DEE 38% EC @ 2.65 l ha-1 and atrazine 50% WP @ 2.0 kg ha-1, which    were significantly lower over weedy check. Weed free plot showed minimum soil available N, P and K.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vermicompost Application on Nitrogen Transformation in Soil

Ajeet Kumar, Sankar Ch. Paul, Mahendra Singh, Rajiv Rakshit, Sunil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45988

Aim: To know the effect of vermicompost application on nitrogen transformation in soil.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

Place of Study: Experimental site of Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour.

Methodology: The present study includes two pot experiments i.e., with and without the effect of root rhizosphere of cauliflower have been conducted. The different of nitrogen were analysed from both the experiments by using standard methods.

Results: Available nitrogen content increased slowly and reached to peak at 40th day and 50th day that may be due to the addition of organic substrate through vermicompost which leads to the maximum activity of microbes. Ammonium N content changes in soil are quite similar to the available nitrogen in a greenhouse study. But in incubation study changes is differ. Nitrate nitrogen content changes quite dissimilar to the ammonium content. Nitrate content increased slowly and reached to a maximum at the 40th day after addition of vermicompost in both experiments. N content in cauliflower whole plant significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.88**) to soil available nitrogen content.

Conclusion: From the presented study, it may be inferred that ten days prior application of vermicompost can provide maximum support of nitrogen to the plant which can maximize nitrogen use efficiency for crop production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Genetic Diversity in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Normal Sown Condition of Bihar

Prince Raj, Anand Kumar, Sadia Perween, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Satyendra ., Tushar Ranjan, P. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45989

Aims: The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature and magnitude of genetic diversity among chickpea genotypes.

Study Design: The experimental material comprised of forty genotypes of chickpea in Rabi 2016-17 at Pulse Research Farm, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (Bhagalpur). The experiment was laid in a randomised complete block design with three replications during Rabi with the inclusion of the recommended packages and practices needed for a healthy crop

Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the forty genotypes for all the characters studied indicating that significant amount of genetic variability present in the material. The cluster I had maximum elven genotypes followed by cluster VI, 08  genotypes, cluster III, 07 genotypes and IV having five genotypes, while cluster II and V had four genotypes, respectively.  The cluster VII was mono-genotypic having one genotype. The intra-cluster D2 value ranged from 0.00 to 25.16 while, inter-cluster D2 value ranged from 30.73 to 204.05. The maximum intra cluster distance was exhibited by cluster V followed by cluster I and cluster IV.  The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster II and VII (204.05), followed by cluster II and V (170.79) and cluster III and V (157.56)  suggesting that the genetic architecture of the genotypes in one cluster differ entirely from those included in other clusters. The genotypes BAUG 108, H12-63, RKG13-380, AKG1303 and KWR108 were identified as genetically diverse parents, which can be utilized for future crop improvement programme in Chickpea.

Conclusion: The above results indicate that these genotypes have maximum genetic diversity and useful for developing a large number of segregants through crossing programme by using maximum diverse genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Performance and Economics of Grain Based Spawn on Tricholoma giganteum

N. S. Akhtar, Dayaram ., Chandan Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45990

Earlier only Pleurotus spp., Agaricus bisporus, Volvariella volvacea and Calocybe indica were cultivated by the growers in India. The sequence of whole year mushroom production breaks due to unavailability of mushroom for production during summer season except Calocybe indica and Volvariella volvacea, but due to the pungent and bitter taste of Calocybe indica and bad shelf life of Volvariella volvacea are not accepted successfully by the farmers. Tricholoma giganteum was proved the best mushroom for summer season having a pleasant taste and good shelf life as compared to C. indica and V. volvacea and at par of Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

Considering the above facts 5 local isolates of T. giganteum were tested for yield performance. The present studies include yield performance and economics of grains based spawn on Tricholoma giganteum. Altogether five isolates [CIP-12, CIP-17, CIP-18, CIP-19 and CIP-20] of T. giganteum and one isolate [CI-01] of Calocybe indica as a control were evaluated against the effect of two different grains [wheat and maize grains] for spawn production and their yield performance and economics of production was also studied.

Out of two grain substrate i.e. maize and wheat grain, wheat grain was observed most suitable substrate for spawn production with minimum days for complete colonization observed by CIP-19 and CIP-20 (13 days) followed by CIP-18 (14 days), CIP-12 (15 days), CIP-17 (16 days) and CI-01 (17 days), However complete colonization on maize grain substrate took too much time as compare to wheat grain substrate with minimum 23 days and maximum 27 days for complete colonisation.

Maximum yield was observed on wheat grain-based spawn followed by maize grain-based by all T. giganteum isolates. As regard wheat grain-based spawn CIP-20 gave maximum yield 76.4 kg /100 kg dry substrate, followed by CIP-19 and CIP-17, CIP-12, CIP-18 and minimum yield was obtained by CI-01 (58 kg /100 kg dry substrates), However, yield performance of maize grain-based spawn, CIP-12 gave maximum yield 57.2 kg /100 kg dry substrate followed by CIP-20, CIP-17, CIP-18, CIP-19, and minimum yield was recorded by CI-01 (50.2 kg /100 kg dry substrate).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Antioxidants in Controlling Phenol Exudation in Micropropagation of Litchi cv. Purbi

Neha Nishchal, Hidayatullah Mir, Ruby Rani, Awadhesh K. Pal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45992

Conventionally litchi is propagated by vegetative means mainly by air layering or marcottage, grafting and budding. Although for large-scale production of elite litchi clones, micropropagation can be used as a potential alternative to conventional means of propagation. The presence of phenolic compounds causing the death of explants has been one of the significant bottlenecks of litchi micropropagation which causes death of explants after turning brown and these exudates appear as a reaction to injury and/or infection. Litchi cultivar Purbi grown at Horticulture Garden of Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour was selected for the investigation and the required planting material used was Leaf and Nodal segment as a source of the explant. Different antioxidants were used as treatments to control the phenol exudation. The results of the study revealed that all the antioxidants supplemented into the media significantly reduced phenolic exudation for both the explants. However, minimum phenolic exudation (+) was observed for both the explants, when media was supplemented with ascorbic acid 300 mg per litre which also results in maximum per cent shoot regeneration (54.0±0.47) for nodal segments and maximum per cent callus induction (60.9±0.61) for leaf explants after (29.0±0.81 days) and (46.4±0.55 days) of culturing, respectively. Phenolic exudation was recorded highest (++++) under control when no antioxidants were supplemented into the media. Though all other antioxidants used in our study including citric acid, PVP and activated charcoal significantly reduced percent oxidative browning, ascorbic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant in controlling lethal browning during micropropagation of litchi followed by the combination of ascorbic acid with citric acid (150 mg/l each) in the media for both the explants.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced Production of Maize Pollen during Extreme Low Temperature for DH Wheat Development in Eastern Gangetic Plains of India

Shahnishan Tabassum, Amrita Singh, Awadhesh Kumar Pal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45994

Wheat is one of the worlds most commonly consumed cereal grains. With the rapid increase in world population, the production of wheat will play a pivotal role in food security and the global economy. Conventional breeding programme for crop improvement involves hybridisation, selection and evaluation of plants which takes many generation cycles to reach homozygosity. Double haploid (DH) technology is a new boon for rapid development of new homozygous lines, which otherwise are achieved in more than seven years.  Efficiency in pseudo-seeds production during wheat-maize hybridisation may lead to enhanced production of DH lines for varied purpose. Limitation of getting maize pollen during low temperature of winter in northern India is a challenge. Pollen of maize is shortly viable, and storage of the same at a lower temperature and high relative humidity could increase its viability up to 6 days at 4°C as proposed from earlier studies. Weather conditions greatly influence pollen shedding phenomenon. Cool, humid temperature delays the pollen shed while hot and dry conditions favor the same. Thus the present study was conducted to determine the efficiency of pollen development during extreme cold under four different conditions viz. open condition (under shade from top), in polyhouse, in the tunnel (inside polyhouse with hot air supply) and on the ground soil. The data were collected in terms of the health of the plants and pollen quantity. It was recorded that the plants in tunnel showed early spike emergence and pollen shedding in comparison to plants in a natural environment like in the open and on the ground. Chlorophyll content was least in plants in tunnel and highest in the plants sowed on the ground. Stem girth and plant height were also minimum in plants which were present in tunnel. In conclusion, for early availability and regular supply of pollen, the maize plants should be grown under a tunnel with hot air supply. 

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Combining Ability and Stability in Maize (Zea mays L.)

Birender Singh, R. S. Rai, R. B. P. Nirala, S. S. Mandal, Kumari Rashmi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45996

An investigation was carried out in diallel fashion with the main objectives to evaluate the general combining ability of parents, specific combining ability of crosses and breeding values of genotypes for population improvement. Forty-five F1's along with ten parents and two checks were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Genotypes indicated the presence of considerable variability for both additive and non-additive gene effects. The magnitude of the component of variances indicated the importance of non-additive genetic variation and its interaction with the environments for eleven traits whereas, it indicated the importance of additive genetic variance for the traits 500 kernel weight. The parent CM 601was identified as the best general combiner for grain yield and its component traits. Although, it was average combiner for early maturity and the best combiner for ear length, girth and number of kernel rows. Similarly, the parents CML-3, POP 49 and CML-107 were also identified as a good general combiner for grain yield and yield attributing traits. The cross combination {(M9 x CM601) X CML 3}was found to be a best specific combination for grain yield and yield attributing traits followed by (CML-83 x CML-14), (Pop 34 x CML-14) and (CM601 x Pop 34) and these crosses were found to be promising for desirable traits. These parents may be exploited in the development of hybrid maize for higher and stable yield.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability Analysis for Grain Yield and Its Component Traits in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

Ram Balak Prasad Nirala, Neha Rani, Shivasankar Acharya, Ramanuj Vishwakarma, Tushar Ranjan, Bishun Deo Prasad, Awadhesh Kumar Pal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45998

Twenty-eight crosses generated from eight diverse parents of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in diallel mating design (excluding reciprocal) were evaluated against Shekhar as check-in randomized block design for nine quantitative traits, to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) of crosses, for development of high yielding varieties. Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes differed genetically from each other for all the nine characters studied. Combining ability analysis revealed that mean square due to GCA and SCA for days to 50 % flowering, days to 50 % maturity, plant height, number of primary branches, number seeds per capsules, oil percent and grain yield were significant. The genetic component of variances depicted that additive genetic variance was higher than non-additive genetic variance for plant height, number of capsules per plant and oil percent. Whereas, non-additive genetic variance was higher for the rest of the characters studied. SLS72 was found to be good general combiner for grain yield and its attributing traits viz. Oil percent, number of capsules per plant, shorter plant height and early flowering. Crosses PKDL71 x LCK7035, NL260 x SLS72, NL260 x Shekhar, RL26018 x Shekhar, LCK7035 x BAU-06-05 and RL26018 x LCK7035 showed higher positive significant SCA effects for grain yield per plant.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Importance of Yield Contributing Characters for Improved Yield Potential in Chilli

G. Kranthi Rekha, C. Venkata Ramana, L. Naram Naidu, K. Umajyothi, M. Paratpararao, K. Sasikala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45999

Chilli is one of the most important commercial crops in India. It is grown almost throughout the country. Chilli yield is a complex quantitative character controlled by several genes, and its improvement depends on the functioning and interaction of several components that vary for different genotypes. A study was conducted to investigate associations among traits and their direct and indirect influences on yield using path analysis and correlation procedures in Chilli genotypes to understand how inter-character relationships influence fruit yield. Correlation and path coefficient analyses were carried out for characters of yield and its components. Differences were observed among genotypes. The characters like plant spread, a number of fruits per plant, average dry fruit weight, fruit length and a number of seeds per fruit showed positive and significant correlation with dry fruit yield per plant. The results of path analysis revealed a fairly high positive direct effect of a number of fruits per plant on dry fruit yield per plant followed by plant spread, fruit length and dry fruit weight as major yield components which could be considered indices for improvement. Thus in the present study correlation and path analysis collectively revealed the importance of average dry fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, plant spread, number of seeds per fruit and fruit length in determining selection criteria for improvement of dry fruit yield per plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vase Life Characteristics of Gerbera as Influenced by BA and GA3

P. Panja, D. Bhattacharjee, D. Mallick, R. Reddy, R. S. Dhua

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45861

Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) widely used as a decorative garden plant, is a member of the Compositae family. Due to high temperatures and humidity, the post-harvest vase-life of gerbera is very less. Keeping quality is an important parameter for evaluation of cut flower quality so the addition of chemical preservatives to the holding solution is recommended to prolong the vase-life. Gerbera variety Palmbeach was grown in the poly house of AICRP and experiment was conducted under laboratory condition at the Department of Post Harvest Technology, BCKV, West Bengal. Uniform stalk length was maintained about 30 cm. and after cut, they were weighed and subjected to pulsing treatment with a freshly prepared chlorine solution (100 ppm) from sodium hypochlorite (4%) and AgNO3 solution (100 ppm) separately. After 24 hours of pulsing treatment all the cut stems were then kept in vase preservative solutions Benzyladenine (BA) comprising T1(20 ppm), T2(10 ppm), T3(5 ppm), T4(tap water) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) comprising T1(20 ppm), T2(10 ppm), T3(5 ppm), T4(tap water) treatments separately. The experimental design was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with five replications. The increased vase life of 9 days, with delayed flower drooping, petal discolouration and petal fall was observed with flowers which were pulsed with chlorine (100 ppm) followed by keeping in BA (10 ppm) as well as the maximum vase life of 10.8 days was noted with flowers which were pulsed with silver nitrate with delayed petal discolouration, petal fall and flower drooping was observed with GA3 (10 ppm) among the different vase preservatives containing GA3. The result showed that pulsing with silver nitrate (100 ppm) is more effective than chlorine (100 ppm) and among the growth regulators, the performance of GA3 was much better than BA which was pulsed with silver nitrate in the maintenance of the postharvest quality and shelf life. The performance of BA treatment was comparatively better which were pulsed with chlorine (100 ppm).