Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Certain Fungicides and Botanicals against Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans)

P. K. Ray, H. K. Singh, A. Chaudhary, R. B. Verma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45896

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), an important cash crop of India, is prone to many diseases and amongst these, late blight [Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de-Bary] is one of the highly destructive diseases and a major constraint in the profitable cultivation of potato. After realizing the significance of controlling the devastating disease for the sustainability in potato production and thus ensuring more profitability, the present investigation has been conducted with an objective to select the most effective fungicides and botanicals for the management of the disease. The present study was done by KVK, Saharsa during rabi season for consecutive two years (2015-16 and 2016-17) as On-Farm Trial mode at farmers fields of an adopted village of Saharsa district in Bihar. In each trial, there were four treatments including one control i.e. farmers’ practice. The study concludes that the best treatment option to combat late blight disease is Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 5g per kg of seed and spray of Ridomil @ 2g per litre of water starting from 30 DAP alternating with Dimethomorph 1g + ridomil 2g per litre of water at 10 days intervals. The results of economic analysis reveal that highest net return as well as benefit-cost ratio was also highest in Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 5g per kg of seed and spray of Ridomil @ 2g per litre of water starting from 30 DAP alternating with Dimethomorph 1g + ridomil 2g per litre of water at 10 days intervals.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Combination Fungicide for the Management of Sheath Blight, Neck Blast, Brown Spot, False Smut and Grain Discolouration Diseases of Paddy on Farmers Field

Sanjeet Kumar, Seema Kumari, S. N. Rai, Arvind Kumar Sinha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45898

With the objective of searching suitable and practically applicable solution to the problems of low productivity due to fungal diseases in rice, this study was conducted at the farmers participatory on-farm trial on Rice var. MTU 7029 in the Sheikhpura district of Bihar during Kharif Season in the year 2012 and 2013 for the assessment of a New combination Fungicides in Integrated Disease Management (IDM) of Rice Fungal Diseases (Sheath Blight., Neck Blast, Brown Spot, False Smut & Grain Discoloration). A total of 10 farmers as replication with 0.4 ha each, under a total of 4 treatments (including farmers practice as a check) was included in the study. The spray of fungicides was done at the booting stage of rice crop followed by recording the data on severity of 5 fungal diseases and yield at the appropriate time. The mean result of 2 years indicated that the single spray of all the 3 technology options of fungicides combination significantly reduced all 5 fungal diseases along with corresponding enhancement of grain yield, net profit and BC ratio. Out of them Nativo 75 WG (Tebuconazole 50% + Trifloxystrobin 25% ) @ 0.05 %, reduced all 5 fungal diseases viz. Sheath blight, Neck Blast, Brown Spot, False Smut & Grain discolouration to a minimum level of  9.4, 4.2, 6.5, 8.1 and 3.3 percent respectively along with corresponding highest grain yield (5230 kg/ha), the net return of Rs.28900/ha and B:C ratio 2.24.  Both other combinations viz. Monceren 250 SC ( Pencycuron 22.9% SC) @ 0.12 % +Bavistin (Carbendazim) 50WP @ 0.1%  and Sheathmar (Validamycin 3% L) @ 0.25 %+ Bavistin (Carbendazim)  50WP @ 0.1 % resulted into significantly lower diseases level statistically at par of 12.1, 9.7, 8.5, 19.4 and 6.6 % respectively along with corresponding higher grain yield (4360 kg/ha), net return of Rs.20800/ha and B:C ratio 1.94 in comparison of  38.3, 15.5, 18.4,25.5 and 12.3 % diseases level resulting with 3720 kg/ha grain yield, Rs.15,700/ha as net profit and 1.73 as BC ratio in the Farmers practice.

Hence it can be concluded that single spray of Nativo75 WG (Tebuconazole 50%+ Trifloxystrobin 25% ) @ 250 gram/ha in 500 litres of water at booting stage of Rice cultivar MTU 7029 may be highly effective method to manage major fungal diseases at farmers field and to get maximum net profit.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Bio-fertiliser (Rhizobium radiobactor) in Association with Organic Manures on Qualitative Traits of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) cv. Palam Samridhi under Lucknow Conditions

Mahendra Kumar Atal, Deepa H. Dwivedi, S. L. Narolia, B. C. Shivran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45899

The field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Farm of the Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya-Vihar, Rai-Bareli Road, Lucknow (U.P.) – 226025, India during Rabi season of 2016-17. The research material comprised of 8 treatments replicated three times in a Randomized Block Design. The chlorophyll content in leaves (108.27 mg/l), Proline content in leaves (33.99), Nitrate content in leaves (156.75 mg/kg), Carbohydrate content in leaves (108.27 mg/l), Protein content in leaves (0.38 mg/l), Carbohydrate in curd (107.49 mg/l), Chlorophyll in curd (108.62 mg/l), Antioxidant in curd (61.90 %), Flavonoid in curd (34.49 %), Nitrate in curd (172.96 mg/kg), Protein in curd (0.40 mg/l), T.S.S. in curd (10.9 ºBrix) was maximum recorded under T7(Biofertilizer + Vermicompost) treatment. The fresh weight of plant (1132.66 g), Dry weight of plant (0.203 g), Fresh weight of root (82 g) Dry weight of root (0.021 g), Root length (17.80 cm), Root spread (24.7 cm), was maximum recorded under T7 (Biofertilizer + Vermicompost) treatment. It is recommended for higher production of sprouting broccoli was under Lucknow conditions.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Marker Based Genetic Diversity Analysis in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

Vikash Kumar, Sanjay Sahay, Ravi S. Singh, Hidayatullah Mir, Kumari Rashmi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45900

Cape gooseberry is an important minor fruit crop of India. In the present study, genetic diversity of 12 genotypes of Cape gooseberry was analysed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. For this purpose, twenty RAPD primers were employed to screen out the polymorphic primer(s) for use in the genetic diversity assessment. Results showed that genotypes, CITH Sel-7 and CITH Sel- 9, and CITH Sel-1 and CITH Sel-15 as the least diverged genotypes. Though, all the genotypes of CITH were found to be more diverged than  the local SS/VK genotypes, as they clustered separately. The most promising genotypes from a genetic diversity point of view were CITH Sel-7, CITH Sel-9, CITH Sel-16, CITH Sel-5, SS/VK/501 and SS/VK/601. These genotypes could be utilised as a diverse parent in hybridisation programme or as direct selection and may yield useful segregants by virtue of the high level of heterosis.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Polygenic Variations and Character Association Studies in Garlic

B. S. Bamaniya, S. Shree, R. B. Verma, R. Kumar, R. K. Verma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45901

Garlic contains several important constituents like garlicin and allistatin. Besides it is used as spices it has several medicinal properties. Despite high demand of the crop, there is a huge gap between production and uses because of low yield potentiality. Therefore to identify high yielding variety twenty-seven genotypes of garlic were evaluated for twelve quantitative characters during the present investigation. Genotype 644 was found the highest yielder than standard check variety (G282) used. A high value of GCV (Genotypic coefficient of variation) and PCV (phenotypic coefficient of variation) were recorded for clove weight, yield per plant and cloves per bulb. It was observed that the plant height, leaf length and yield per plant were the main contributors for high heritability. The genetic gain was effective in yield per plant, the weight of clove, cloves per bulb and leaf length. Almost all morphological characters were positively correlated with yield per plant. Plant height, average clove weight and clove length directly affect the yield of garlic, clove width cloves per bulb, leaf width has indirect effects on yield. Variability present in a population is paramount importance to plant breeder for starting a judicious crop improvement programme.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Micropropagation from Nodal Segments of Apple (Malus × domestica. Borkh) Cultivars Golden Delicious and Red Fuji

Renu ., Amita Bhattacharya, Rahul Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45902

The present investigation was conducted to develop an effective micropropagation protocol of apple cultivar Golden Delicious and Red Fuji. The nodal segment was used as explants of both the apple (Malus × domestica. Borkh) cultivar Golden Delicious and Red Fuji, cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) media supplemented with 35 different combinations of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid). However, MS medium supplemented with 3.33 μM BAP alone was standardized for the shoot cultures of Golden Delicious. On the other hand combinations of 0.05 μM NAA and 4.44 μM BAP was employed for shoot multiplication in Red Fuji. These concentrations supported appreciable length of the micro-shoots. However, highest elongation in both cultivars occurred only when 0.53 μM NAA was used. Moreover, out of the different concentrations of NAA that were tested for Golden Delicious, only 0.53 μM supported highest rooting (average of 7.66 number and length of 22 cm) followed by 0.05 μM NAA where an average of 6.33 root number and 20 cm length were obtained. While Red Fuji showed no root induction in any of the concentrations of NAA tested in the present study. The developed protocols have the potential to be utilized for generation of disease-free, quality planting materials and also in crop improvement programmes.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Multifarious Antagonistic Potentials of Native Pseudomonad Isolates from Rhizosphere as Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Chickpea Wilt

Sanjeev Kumar, Sangita Sahni, Birender Kumar, S. S. Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45976

A total of nine pseudomonad isolates from different rhizosphere were isolated and screened for their antagonistic activities against F. oxysporum f.sp. ciceri. All nine isolates exhibited the ammonification property, produced HCN (Cyanide) and IAA (Indole acetic acid) and positive for phosphorus solubilization, except PGPR-Pl, this found to be negative for HCN production. Among the nine isolates, pseudomonad isolates PGPR-WS were best in exhibiting multiple PGPR traits like ammonification, HCN production, IAA production (26.08 mgl-1), and phosphate solubilization (306.51 mgl-1) as well as best in antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, showed 75.00% inhibition of growth of mycelia over control and caused total lysis of mycelia in advanced stages of antagonism. Thus screening and identification of novel bioagent PGPR-WS with multifarious activities vividly reflect its potential to suppress F. oxysporum f.sp. ciceri and suggest the usefulness of this super bioinoculant as a component of integrated disease management (IDM) of chickpea wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. ciceri.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistance to Iron Stress of Some Rice Genotypes in Calcareous Soil under Aerobic Condition

Vipin Kumar, R. K. Prasad, S. K. Sinha, B. P. Dash

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45979

A field experiment was conducted in the research farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar during the Kharif season of 2013 in iron-deficient highly calcareous sandy loam soil to screen the existing popular rice genotypes for their resistance against iron stress. Lime-induced iron chlorosis in rice is very common in upland calcareous soil. The genotypes responded differently to Fe application with respect to grain and straw yield as well as iron uptake by them. The average grain yield at soil application of 20 kg Fe ha-1 and 20 kg Fe ha-1 + two foliar sprays at pre-flowering and flowering stages of iron were statistically at par. Hence, 20 kg Fe ha-1 soil application may be considered was rated as an optimum level for most of the genotypes. From percent response (figure in parenthesis) of iron application to rice grain yield, the relative susceptibility of genotypes to iron stress may be arranged as Jirabati(37.9) >Prabhat(20.0) >R. Suwasshani(17.9) > Sanwal Basmati(11.5) > Vandana (10.2) > RAUAER-3(6.1) > MTU 7029(4.9) > RAUAER-5(4.4) > RAUAER-4(1.7).  The percent response (figure in parenthesis) of iron application to iron  uptake by grain, different genotypes may be arranged as R. Suwasshani(91.1) > Jirabati(86.5) >Prabhat(67.3) > RAUAER-3(19.6) > Sanwal Basmati(18.8) > Vandana (17.9) > MTU 7029(12.5)>Swarna Sub-1(11.7)>RAUAER-5(8.9) > RAUAER-4(6.3) . On the basis of iron efficiency (figure in parenthesis) the relative tolerance of rice genotypes to Fe stress may be arranged as RAUAER-4(94.2) > RAUAER-5(91.9) > RAUAER-3(85.6) > Vandana (91.9) > Sanwal Basmati (84.2) >MTU 7029(83.3) > Swarna Sub-1(83.1) >Prabhat(60.6) > Jirabati(55.4) > R. Suwasshani(52.7). The RAUAER-4 was the most efficient genotype followed by RAUAER-5 to tolerate iron stress soil condition.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Mutant Lines of Rice Using RAPD Markers

Sonam Kumari, Pankaj Kumar, Bishun Deo Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45980

Present study was conducted to characterized mutant lines of rice variety Rajendra Mahsuri-1. Genetic diversity in rice mutant lines (M3) was characterised by using RAPD markers among them at the molecular level. Altogether 78 alleles were amplified, of which 53 were polymorphic. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.082 for OPA2 to 0.424 for OPA3. Among the primers used, OPA3, OPA7, OPA8, OPA13 and OPB6 had a remarkably higher number of variants with greater gene diversity and rice mutant lines discrimination ability. Major allele frequency was found higher in case of OPA2, OPA4, OPA9 and OPB7. Using a similarity coefficient in the numerical taxonomic approach of classification, the mutant lines were differentiated and classified into different groups. Principal coordinate analysis based two-dimensional plotting of genetic profiles completely supported the results obtained from the hierarchical classification of mutant lines were distinctly discriminated from the remaining lines.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Strawberry Crops in Temperate Fruit for Its Adoptability and Productivity in Rohtas District of Bihar

Ratan Kumar, Sailabala Dei, H. P. Sharma, R. K. Sohane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45981

A field trial was carried out in the experimental field of Dhangain farm and four other farmers' field during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to evaluate some strawberry cultivars in the plain region of Rohtas to assess different cultivars of strawberry. This experiment was conducted with four treatment and 3 replication with one control in Randomized Block Design (R.B.D). The finding of field trial conducted to assess different cultivar of strawberry in Rohtas district of Bihar in 2013-14 and 2014-15. This short day cultivars were more tolerant to insect pest in compared to day neutral cultivars, particularly in the later stage of fruit development leading to record higher yield. The treatment were 4 varieties Festival (T1), Sweet Charlie (T2), Camarosa (T3), Kamila (T4) and control Local Sweety (T5). Results revealed that Festival produced higher yield, fruit weight, yield per plant and also plant height (22.36), flowering duration (60.56), fruit length (4.20), fruiting duration (56.25 days) and yield (16.5 t/ha). It was also revealed that are evitable microclimate was required for optimum plant growth, higher crop yield and best quality fruits.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Screening of Rajmash Germplasm for Resistant against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Causes White Mold

Sangita Sahni, Birendra Kumar, Devendra Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45982

White rot or stem rot caused by the polyphagous fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious threat to production and productivity of rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris). The regular incidence of Sclerotinia blight in different states of India has been recorded as a limiting factor for this pulse crop grown in moister regions and wet years. Sclerotinia infection in pulses leads to stem and pod rot, crop lodging and reduced seed fill and causes considerable yield losses.  Effective disease control measures against S. sclerotiorumcontinues to be a challenge because of the inefficiency of the chemical control in managing this disease and not environmentally safe. Therefore, cultivation of rajmash cultivars highly resistant to Sclerotinia would be most desirable for both ecological and economic reasons. Thirty two genotypes of rajmash, collected from All India Coordinated Research Project on MULLaRP, T.C.A., Dholi were screened against Sclerotinia rot. Out of these entries, Out of 32 genotypes evaluated, only one genotypes, Utkarsh was found to be resistance and five genotypes (RKR 1038-1, RKR 1011, Amber, Arun, and Uday) showed moderate resistance.  Two genotypes i.e. SKUAB 341, and SKUAST WB 1634 exhibited moderately susceptible reaction. However, twenty-four genotypes showed a sensitive and highly susceptible reaction against this disease.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

An Optimised Combination Approach of Physicochemical Methods for Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for High Production of Bio-alcohol

Vijay Kumar Jha, Kumar Pranay, Birendra Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45983

Production of bio-ethanol from lignocellulosic waste like wheat straw has been a very attractive approach since earlier. However, production of ethanol is compromised from lignocellulosic waste due to its tough and crystalline structures. To resolve this issue, the combination of physical methods (such as milling, irradiation, steam) and chemical methods (such as NaOH treatment) has been explored in our study for the pre- treatment of wheat straw during separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) steps. Fungus VBVI (Aspergillus terreus) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used for the Microbial hydrolysis and Fermentation respectively for the optimization of alcohol production. Interestingly, we observed that content of xylan and lignin from wheat straw gradually decreases during pre-treatment events, which facilitates the overall enhanced alcohol production. Amount 10gL-1 of pre- treated wheat in nutrient media treated with Aspergillus terreus VB (VI) inoculum and was observed high cellulase and xylanase activity rapidly post 120 hrs of inoculation. Later on, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was inoculated for fermentation once the saturated microbial hydrolysis was achieved. After 192 hrs, 3gL-1ethanol was observed to be produced, indicating conversion rate and ethanol yield 45.6% and 18%respectively of the theoretical maximum values reported so far. Our study suggested that strain VBVI (Aspergillus terreus) has a very good potential for enhanced bio-ethanol production from wheat straw. Moreover, different steps of pre-treated method have also been optimized and explored in this study for the overall production of ethanol. Overall, this study reveals out an easier and cheaper approach to scale up the industrial bio-alcohol production.

 

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in Conservation, Utilization and Benefit Sharing of Plant Genetic Resources

Chandan Roy, Prerna Kumari, R. D. Ranjan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45897

India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries in the world with two hotspots at Himalayan Region and Western Ghat. Besides, north-eastern hilly region; Andaman and Nicobar Islands are also carrying huge diversity for biological resources. Phytobiodiversity and species richness have been observed with the longitudinal decrease or increase in these regions. Urbanisation, industrial growth and deforestation are threatening the plant genetic resources (PGR) that led to many plant species to be extinct or endangered. Thus, protection of PGR, their sustainable utilisation is crucial in the context of mitigating climatic changes and their access and benefit sharing. Protection of plant biodiversity particularly varieties were first time considered with the establishment of Union for Protection of Plant Varieties in the year 1961. Later on, in 1992 the ‘Earth Summit' protection of PGR and benefit sharing was considered with the establishment of Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). Plant varieties and their parts are not patentable subject matter, but it was directed as per article 27.3(b) of World Trade Organization (WTO) that member countries have to protect the plant varieties through Patent or any other sui generis system. Establishment of Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer's Rights act (PPVFRA) in the year 2001 was sui generis system adopted in India. Presently, 150 crop species include food crops, horticultural crops, trees and forest crop species are accessible for registration under this act for a period of maximum 15 or 18 years. Till now, 3439 plant varieties of different crops were registered under the PPVFR Act. Among which maximum varieties of 1796 were of rice from different states of India. However, most of the genetic resources available in the public domain are untouched that needs intensive work plan to provide protection to that valuable germplasm.