Open Access Original Research Article

Extension Workers’ Use of the Internet for Sourcing Information on Climate Change: In Taraba State, Nigeria

M. Sa’adu, I. A. Audu, A. H. Paul, A. A. Tafida

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38263

Climatic changes have led to adverse effects on agriculture in recent years; therefore extension workers would require unimpeded access to information on climate change if they are to contribute their quota in the current global fight against the menace of climate change to humanity. Over the years the internet has remained an important source of information for agriculture and rural development hence, this study was conducted to examine the use of the internet by extension practitioners for information gathering on climate change and to draw possible implications for the Agricultural Transformation Agenda. The study was conducted among extension workers of the Taraba Agricultural Development Program (TADP). Three Agricultural zones were randomly selected from the four agricultural zones in the state from which 72 respondents were sampled at random for questionnaire administration. Data was analyzed using frequency, percentage and mean score in line with the specific objectives of the study. Results showed that majority of the extension workers (64 percent) do not know how to use the internet with another 64 percent not being able to operate a computer. Findings further revealed that 78 percent of the respondents do not own email accounts and only 24 percent indicated that they use the internet to source information on climate change. Perceived constraints to internet use were identified and appropriate recommendations were offered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterosis for Yield and Quality Traits in Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa. L.) Genotypes

Dilruba A. Bano, S. P. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44706

The present investigation in aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) was undertaken for studying the magnitude of heterosis in 28 hybrids (F1s) made by following 8x8 one way diallel mating design for yields and quality traits. Twenty eight hybrids were measured as per cent increase or decrease over the mean of better parent and over the checks using Pusa Basmati 1 and Taraori Basmati as best checks for yield and quality traits. For the trait days to 50% flowering and days to maturity, superior performer over better parents showed in cross: Pusa Sugandh-2 x Pusa Basmati-1and Pusa-2517-2-51-1x Type-3. Cross combination, Kasturi Basmati x Pusa -2517-251-1 performed superior over better parents and check for number of effective tillers/plant and main panicle length. The other crosses viz., Pusa Sugandh-5 x Pusa Sugandh-2 (kernel length), Pusa Sugandh-5 x  Type-3 (amylose content) and Pusa Sugandh-5 x Pusa Basmati-1(Kernel Length, Kernel Length After Cooking, Length/Breadth ratio before cooking) exhibited significant heterosis for important grain quality traits. None of the high yielding hybrids recorded desirable performance over better parents and standard checks for all the yield and quality traits studied. Thus, these hybrids need to be further tested in observational/ multi-location trials before the commercial exploitation of its heterotic potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanical Characterisation of Concrete Beams Filled with Different Amounts of Nanosilica and Coir-Human Hair Fibre

R. Sakthivel, N. Balasundaram, C. Santulli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45417

The study concentrates on the cyclic behaviour of concrete grade M25 with the addition of nanosilica powder and equal amounts of waste coir fibres and human hair. The results indicate that the improvement of cyclic flexural and number of cycles to failure, other than compressive, split tensile and static flexural properties, are effective and consistent up to a global 1.5% volume of the two waste fibres and 3% volume of nanosilica. Also crack patterns appear neater and suggest a higher ductility of the material, up to this limit of content filler, indicating that to increase it further work on the repeatability and consistency of introduction would be required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mobile Phones: What Lies Beyond the Naked Eyes

Paul Tan, Leong Wan Hee

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42329

Aims: To determine the type of microorganisms growing on mobile phones of health care workers and the possibility of mobile phones being vectors for transmission of hospital-acquired infections.

Methodology and Results: 50 random participants were chosen from health care workers from three orthopaedic wards of Sarawak General Hospital, Sarawak, Malaysia. Verbal consent was taken and a short questionnaire given. Subsequently, the mobile phones were swabbed with a cotton swab soaked in sterile normal saline over the front, sides and back aspect of the handphone.

Samples taken were stored in a Stuart medium using Bijou bottles prepared sterile. After that, the samples were then streaked on 2 separate plates-blood agar and Mac Conkey. Subsequently,they were examined for the growth of microorganisms and the identification was made on the basis of colony morphology, gram reaction, coagulase and catalese test and antibiotic sensitivity for five different antibiotics by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. 12 out of 50 had a positive culture. Among the types of bacteria cultured, 2 (17%) was gram negative but cultured  fungal, and 10(83%) was gram positive bacteria. From the 10, 1 was methicillin resistant Staphylococus aureus, 1 was staphylococcus species extended spectrum beta lactamase, 2 more were coagulase negative staphyloccocus species resistant to methicillin and the remaining 6 were staphylococcus species methicilin sensitive.

Conclusion: In this study, we concluded that pathogenic bacteria that is notorious for nosocomial infection does harbour in the mobile phones of our health care workers and urgent guidelines or protocols should be established to circumvent it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Differences on Body Image Perceptions of Tribal Adolescents

S. Beulah Margaret, P. Sreedevi, M. Sarada Devi, P. Radha Rani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42652

The present study on gender differences on body image perceptions of tribal adolescents was conducted in and around Adilabad district of Telangana state. Ex post- facto design was adapted with a sample of 180 adolescents. Tribal adolescents from tribal schools and tribal colleges were selected as the sample of the study. The study aims to find out the gender differences regarding the perceptions of body image among tribal adolescents regarding their physical attributes. The significant results of the study showed that tribal adolescent girls expressed high positive perceptions towards body image and satisfied with their physical attributes with fewer regrets when compared to that of boys. Whereas boys had high regrets with low positive perceptions towards their body image and took efforts to maintain healthy body image significantly more than girls. There were no significant gender differences in the usage of cosmetics and accessories for good looking.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability in Soil Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Population in an Indian Subtropical Forest

C. S. K. Mishra, Suryasikha Samal, Pratik Acharya, Bhagyajyoti Biswal, Mousumi Majhi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44697

Aim: The below ground biota in forest ecosystems determine and regulate the availability of nutrients in soil and is likely to indicate variation in population and metabolism with respect to the soil quality. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to study the physico-chemical characteristics, bacterial-fungal population and soil respiration in different land use zones of a sub tropical Indian forest.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from 0-20 cm depth using a core sampler (5 cm diameter) and from 12 sub plots and three regions for physicochemical and microbiological studies. For measurement of soil respiration 20 cm x 20 cm soil blocks were cut from the sub plots. Sampling was done three times in a month for two months in natural sal (Shorea robusta) forest, bamboo plantation and wet land of the Chandaka-Dampara wild life sanctuary, India in the dry season (March-April). The samples were carried to the laboratory for experimental purpose.

Results: In the soil, the sand percentage varied from 81.4% (Wet land) to 89.2% (Sal forest), clay 7.5% (Sal forest) to 15% (Wet land) and silt 3.3% (Sal forest) to 3.6% (Wet land) in different sampling zones. Wet land soil indicated the highest pH (8.21) and sal forest the lowest (5.54). Percent organic carbon (OC) was the highest (0.33%) in soil from bamboo plantation and lowest (0.11%) in wet land. The highest bacterial population (9.3 x 10CFU / g soil) was observed in bamboo plantation and fungal population (8.0 x 104CFU/g soil) in sal forest. Soil respiration ranged from 475 mg/hr/m² in sal forest to 570 mg/hr/m² in bamboo plantation. A significant positive correlation of %OC with bacterial population and soil respiration was observed.

Conclusion: It was evident from the study that soil from bamboo plantation with highest percent organic carbon, organic matter and moderately acidic pH provided the most suitable condition for maximal bacterial growth and soil respiration relative to other sampling zones. Seasonal variation in the soil microbial population and metabolism with respect to soil nutrient dynamics needs further investigation.

Open Access Review Article

Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum): A Potential Source of Biomass for Power Generation in Ghana

Jones Abrefa Danquah, Charity Odumale Roberts, Mark Appiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45224

The Government of Ghana has introduced into its energy mix many thermal generation plants, which utilize natural gas and light crude oil to augment the electric power need of the country. However, these come with high fueling cost and frequent interruption in the supply chain. One area which has not been explored is the use of biomass for electrical power generation. Pennisetum purpureum K. Schumach grows in the wild as grass in the dry semideciduous forest zone and the distributional range covers an area of approximately 2.1 million hectares. The grass has potential as a biofuel feedstock for power generation. This paper gives an overview of the potential use of Pennisetum purpureum as a cheap and readily available source of biomass or biofuel for electric power generation in Ghana.