Open Access Original Research Article

Wave Energy Impact on Benin’s Coastline Dynamics, Gulf of Guinea

Guy Hervé Hounguè, Basile Bruno Kounouhéwa, Bernard Noukpo Tokpohozin, Mathias Adjimon Houékpohéha, Vianou Irénée Madogni, Rafael Almar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44341

Most of the shorelines around the world are affected by the phenomenon of coastal erosion, especially the Benin’s coastline.

We investigated the parameters (significant height, peak period and peak direction) and wave energy potential offshore Benin from ECMWF ERAI reanalysis. ERAI data have been adjusted with in situ data coming from the buoy installed off Autonomous Port of Cotonou (Benin) over a period of 14 years. Next, statistical analysis has been used to establish the link between wave energy and Benin’s coastline dynamics. Wave energy assessment has been carried using the empirical formula for medium water depths consideration (equation (10)).

The results show that in Benin’s coastal area, wave energy potential is moderate and available (Hs  1.36m, Tp  9.6 s and P 15.56kW.m-1). At seasonal scale, wave energy density P and coastline displacement are strongly linked ( R2=0.9).

Wave energy exploitation will contribute to energy independence and will play a crucial role in mitigating of coastal erosion effects and consequently in the protection of the country's coastline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Ready–to–Serve Beverage from Blends of Watermelon, Pineapple and Tiger Nut Juices

Ufot E. Inyang, Uwem S. Ayara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44782

Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the physical properties, nutritional composition, microbial and sensory quality of ready-to-serve beverage produced from blends of watermelon, pineapple and tiger nut juices.

Study Design: Complete randomized design was used.

Place and Duration: Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, from October 2017 to April 2018.

Methodology: Watermelon, pineapple and tiger nut were separately processed into juice. The three juices were blended at the ratios of 50:50:00(T0), 33.33:33.33:33.33(T1), 50:25:25(T2), 25:50:25(T3) and 25:25:50(T4) (watermelon: pineapple: tiger nut juice). The blended juices were separately pasteurized at 80°C for 15 min, cooled, filled into sterile glass bottles, labeled and stored at 4°C prior to analysis.

Results: The result revealed that all the parameters except total coliform count varied with the proportion of individual juice in the blends. The pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity ranged from 5.60 – 5.32, 10.60 – 12.39 oBrix and 0.32 – 0.58% respectively. The moisture, crude protein, fat, and ash contents of the blends ranged from 87.51 – 89.84%, 0.85 – 1.90%, 0.34 – 1.20% and 0.40 – 0.52% respectively. Incorporation of tiger nut juice significantly (p=.05) increased the protein and fat contents in the beverage. The vitamin C and beta-carotene contents ranged from 21.58 – 36.62 mg/100 mL and 121.05 – 144.00 mg/100 mL respectively. Potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc contents ranged from 70.39 – 122.38 mg/100 mL, 9.92 – 13.50 mg/100 mL, 8.27 – 18.39 mg/100 mL and 0.47 – 0.55 mg/100 mL respectively. The total viable counts and fungal counts ranged from 0.7 x 102 – 1.4 x 102 cfu/mL and 0.9 x 102 – 1.5 x 102cfu/mL respectively. No coliform growth was detected in all the beverages. Mean scores for sensory evaluation showed that samples T1 and T3 were the most acceptable samples.

Conclusion: The results showed that acceptable beverage of higher protein content could be produced by supplementing watermelon and pineapple juice blend with 25 to 33.33% of tiger nut juice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption and Optimization Studies of Congo Red from Solution Using Montmorillonite-Silica Nanocomposite

Shehu Zaccheus, Danbature Wilson Lamayi, Ayuba Linda, Bulama Bartholomew Mela

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44464

Congo red was removed on Montmorillonite-silica nanocomposite from solution by adsorption process. The adsorption parameters studied were adsorbent dose, initial concentration and contact time. The optimum adsorption parameters were found to be 2 mg/L, 1.5 g and 40 minutes for initial concentration, adsorbent dose and contact time respectively with removal percentage of 84.10%. Pseudo first and second order kinetics were used for the studies. Pseudo second order best fit the adsorption process with R2 = 1 than the Pseudo first order which has R2 = 0.933. Experimental data were best fitted by the Langmuir Isotherm with R2 =0.9024 other than the Freundlich Isotherm, R2 =0.568. The RL of 0.994 of the Langmuir isotherm shows the favourability of the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity by Langmuir isotherm was found to be 172. 40 mg/g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence and Management of Late Blight Diseases of Tomato in Terai Zone of West Bengal

Satyajit Hembram, Rakesh Patsa, Sibdas Baskey, Manmatha Hansda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44808

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of weather indices on disease incidence and search efficient and economically profitable management option as compared to others in field conditions against tomato late blight disease.

Methods: The seedlings were planted in a randomised block design. Seedlings were planted on four different dates with seven treatments and three replications to study the disease incidence and efficacy of new generation fungicides. The variety “Patharkuchi” was used for the present study. The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Farm, UBKV, West Bengal. Different weather parameters were collected from the nearest automatic weather station.

The experiment involved seven different treatments permutation for management of late blight disease. The fungicidal sprays were done as soon as the late blight disease was observed in the tomato field. The disease incidence was recorded in percentages of diseased plants out of total plants studied. The disease severity was assessed by PDI value in 0 to 9 scale.

Results: It was observed in the study, that the number of days from sowing to initiate late blight symptom on tomato was an inverse function (Y=a+bx-1) of average maximum humidity and temperature and R2 values of the equation were statistically significant at 1% level of significance. Two sprayings with Ametoctradin + Dimethomorph @ 0.3%WP showed lowest disease severity of 6.14% and 83.11% reduction in disease severity over control at 90 days after planting (90DAP) which was significantly at par with the Cholorothelonil 40% w/w + Difenconazole 4% w/w SC fungicide. The data showed that fruit yield was significantly higher in Cymoxanil + mancozeb @ 0.3% treatment combinations (118.93 q/ha) compared to control (62.40q/ha).

Conclusion: Date of initiation of the disease positively correlated with the maximum relative humidity and negatively correlated with maximum temperature and sunshine hours. Two sprayings with Ametoctradin + Dimethomorph @ 0.3% and Cholorothelonil 40% w/w + Difenconazole 4% w/w SC fungicides could effectively manage tomato late blight disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiochemical Properties of Rice- Soybean Flour Blends and Sensory Evaluation of Their Cooked Products

O. O. Olaleye, T. A. Fasanu, O. C. Ogunjirin, T. O. Aondo, P. N. Orafa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40299

Rice is a common cereal carbohydrate, while soya bean is a legume protein. World’s rice consumption estimates reflect unbalanced nutrition and health implications of nutrients deficiency. This study examines the nutritional impact of fortifying rice with soya beans. “Rice-soy flour blends”; a mixture of rice and soya beans flours was produced using the following ratios: 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. Results obtained showed that, fortification of rice flour with soya beans flour significantly (p≤0.05) affected the physico-chemical qualities and sensory properties of the end product. While proximate composition of rice flour increased, carbohydrate content decreased (87.37 to 57.80%). The rice functional properties were also altered. The water absorption capacity decreased (3.20 – 2.00 g/cm) initially, followed by an increase (2.00 – 3.85 g/cm) as substitution levels increased from 10 to 20% and decreased (1.75 – 1.50 g/cm) from 20 to 40%. The bulk density decreased from 0.97 to 0.70%, while values of swelling index remained almost constant (3.0cm3) throughout the substitution. Organolepticaly, rice-soy ratio 20:80 was the most acceptable, followed by 100:00, 70:30, while 60:40 was the least acceptable. This study showed that fortifying rice flour with soya beans flour is a significant way of improving nutritive quality, especially the protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic Manure & Biofertlizers: Effect on the Growth and Yield of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Varieties

Obida Beenish, Latief Ahmad, Ashaq Hussain, Eugenia P. Lal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43594

A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad during 2016-17 and 2017-18 to study the organic manures and biofertilizers: Effect on the growth and yield of Indian mustard varieties. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of five mustard varieties and 10 fertilizer treatments. The result of the study revealed that the variety Rani recorded significantly tallest plant highest, number of primary branches, number of siliquae/ plant, seeds per siliqua, seed and straw yields, whereas secondary branches were significantly highest with variety yellow Goldey. Amongst fertilizer treatments T7 (75% N through vermicompost + Azotobacter) produced significantly tallest plants, the highest number of primary and secondary branches/plant high yield attributing characters, seed and stover yield. The mustard variety Rani Supplied with 75% N through vermicompost + Azotobacter realised the highest gross, net returns and benefit cost ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aeroelastic Analysis of an Atypical Geometry Building by Solving Fluid-structure Interaction Problem through Load Transmission Method

Noé Díaz-Briceño, Jaime Moisés Horta-Rangel, Jesús Gerardo Valdés-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel Pérez-Lara-y-Hernández, Guadalupe Moisés Arroyo Contreras

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45332

Aims: On this work, a methodology that solves the fluid-structure interaction problem through load transmission method approach is presented. This methodology is applicable to any building’s geometry, nevertheless, in order to develop a solution, it was proposed a building with a geometry not considered in design codes of structures under wind pressures. In order to compare the results of this methodology a tall building model widely studied by different authors is also analysed.

Place and Duration of Study: Graduate Engineering Department, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico. January 2017 to October 2018.

Methodology: First of all, two computational fluid mechanics models were developed in order to obtain the pressures of the wind around the two buildings proposed in a dynamic way. Later, the obtained dynamic pressures were transferred according to the load transfer method on the Structural Mechanical Building model through time-history analysis solved by means of a direct integration method to obtain the dynamic aeroelastic response of the structures. 

Results: The dynamic aeroelastic response for both models is obtained.   

Conclusion: This methodology does not present any restriction in the model’s geometry and leads to analyse important aspects for the structural analysis such as state of stress of the structural elements and structure displacements, accordingly, the method is suitable for structures under wind pressures that are not considered in the codes. The results obtained through this methodology present a good approach to those obtained by means of fluid structure-interaction models.