Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Pest Management Practices for Major Insect Pests of Rice

Kiran Kumari, Tamoghna Saha, S. N. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45873

As we know that rice crop is prone to stress throughout the crop growth period due to the onslaught from different pests such as insects, nematodes, diseases, weeds and rats. Among the insect pests, rice stem borer, leaf folder and gundhi bug are the major one which causes maximum damage in rice crop in Bihar. Farmers are mostly relying on chemical pesticides as a result; disrupt the natural balance between insect pests and their natural enemies, secondary pest outbreak, resistance, resurgence and environmental hazard. Adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is the best solution to tackle the pest problems. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to evaluate different IPM modules for insect pest complex of rice (var. MTU 7029) at Research Farm, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour under Bihar Agricultural University, SAbour, Bhagalpur, Bihar during Kharif season for three consecutive years i.e. 2012-13, 2013-14 and 2014-15. A total of four modules were evaluated against rice stem borer, leaf folder and gundhi bug and the modules were M1 (seedling treatment with imidacloprid 70 WS @5gm/l of water, erection of pheromone traps at 30 DAT, spraying of nimbicidine @3 ml/l at ETL), M2 (seedling treatment with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @12 ml per litre of water, spraying of cow dung 5% + cow urine 5% at ETL), M3  (first spraying with profenophos 50 EC @1.5 ml/l of water at 30 DAT and second spraying with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @1ml/ 3l of water at 60 DAT at ETL) and M4 (untreated control). Among the different modules evaluated, the module M1 was found to be the most effective in reducing the stem borer infestation. The module M2 was significantly superior in reducing the rice gundhi bug population which was at par with module M3. The module M3 was found most effective in reducing the larval population of rice leaf folder. The population of natural enemies’ viz., spiders and coccinelids were found higher in the module M1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Effect of Plant Growth Regulating Hormones for Mitigating Heat Stress in Wheat

S. P. Bharati, Ravi Kant, V. K. Sharma, V. K. Choudhary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2018/v31i229019

Low productivity (2680 Kg/hectare) (Directorate of Agriculture, Govt. of Bihar; 2012-13) in Bihar is mainly due to late sowing of wheat coupled with prevalent of hot westerly wind during grain filling stage. The wheat production in the state can be increased by two means, either by horizontal expansion or by vertical expansion i.e. by using an improved variety or use of antioxidant or growth regulators to cope heat stress in delayed sown condition. Mitigation of elevated temperature on late sown wheat through genetic intervention is underway at many research station. Study of plant growth regulators in overcoming this abiotic stress of elevated temperature during the reproductive stage of wheat is of great importance.

The present investigation was carried out at DRPCAU, Pusa Bihar during Rabi 2016-2017, with five plant growth regulating hormonesviz., Glycine betaine (600PPM) (T2), Salicylic acid (800PPM) (T3), Salicylic acid (400 PPM) (T4), Ascorbic acid (10 PPM)(T5), Tocopherol (150 PPM) (T6) and control (T1) on two varieties HD-2733 (normal sown condition) and HD-2985 (late sown condition) with objective to access induced variation and differential influence created on fifteen agro-morphological traits including yield and seed quality attributes.

Different statistical tool undertaken for analysis revealed highly significant differences among entries in respect of fifteen different the agro-morphological traits under study in both conditions i.e. normal and late sown conditions.

Treatment T2 i.e., Glycine betaine (600 PPM), showed a significant effect on highest grain yield per plant via, different agro-morphological character mentioned above for normal and delayed sown condition. Yield enhancement due to effect of Treatment T2  Glycine betaine (600 PPM) was recorded 41.30% higher under normal sown condition whereas 44.92% higher under a late sown condition in comparison to control.

On seed quality traits also showed a significant positive effect of Treatment T2 Glycine betaine (600 PPM) was observed for seed germination per cent and viability per cent and no effect on vigour index of seed under both normal and delayed sown condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Variability for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in F2 and F3 Population of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cross

A. K. Choudhary, Z. A. Haider, S. B. Mishra, K. Prasad, Shanti Bhushan, Sanjay Kumar, V. K. Choudhary, Mani Bhushan, J. P. Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45875

The present investigation was carried out during Kharif 2013 and 2014 in Rice experimental area, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand. One thousand F2 progeny from BG 102/Naveen cross were randomly tagged and selected 200 plants based on four groups viz; high yielder (HY), low yielder (LY), MTL (Multi trait limit) and RPS (Random plant selection). These F2 selected plants were grown during Kharif, 2014 in RBD with two replication and two methods of sowing, such as, direct seeded and transplanted at twenty days interval; each plot measuring 2.7 x 0.4-meter size. All F3 progenies exhibited high h2 coupled with high GA as per cent of mean for traits viz; PH, PPP, GPP TW and GYP plant in Ist date of DS whereas in Ist and 2nd date of TP; GYP plant also exhibited high h2 coupled with high GA as per cent of mean indicating the preponderance of additive gene action suggesting that selection may be effective for these characters in early generation.

Leptokurtic and positively skewed distribution suggested the involvement of dominance based complementary gene interaction and involving a fewer number of genes having an increasing effect in the inheritance of PPP and GYP plant, whereas in GPP any gene interaction was not found due to negative kurtosis. Maximising the genetic gain in respect of these traits with positively skewed distribution requires intense selection from the existing variability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variation Study Using Morphological and DNA Marker-Based Genotyping in Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.)

Rajesh Kumar, Randhir Kumar, Bishun Deo Prasad, S. S. Solankey, Jitesh Kumar, B. S. Bamaniya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45876

Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) bearing chromosome no.  2n = 22, is an annual monoecious crop synonymously called as the white-flowered gourd or calabash gourd. For the above investigation twenty-four genotypes collected from various states adjoining Bihar including breeding lines collected and maintained at the department were analysed for genetic variability study and DNA marker-based genotyping analysis using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In morphological study genotypes performed significantly in all traits studied, however, BRBG-65 was found to be high yielder per hectare with supporting traits like the yield of marketable fruits per plant and no. of fruits per vine than compare to the all three check varieties used in present study. Traits like fruit length, fruit circumference, no. of fruits per vine, the yield of marketable fruits per vine, no. of seeds per fruit and yield per hectare exhibited high GCV and PCV. Almost all traits under study shown high percentage of heritability with maximum high advancement percentage for characters like fruit length, fruit circumference, average fruit weight, no. of fruits per vine, yield of marketable fruits per vine, no. of seeds per fruit and yield per hectare. Traits like average fruit weight, no. of fruits plant and yield of marketable fruits per plant were shown strong character association with yield per hectare. During molecular genotyping fifty RAPD primers were employed to screen out the polymorphic primers for use in genetic diversity assessment among these ten primers found to be polymorphic. RAPD amplicons per primer ranged from 3 to 11 and varied in bp size too. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped 24 genotypes into 2 main clusters (similarity coefficient = 0.46). Cluster-1 contained 5 genotypes which is again sub-grouped into two subgroups, one genotype named BRBG 52-2 grouped singly whereas other subgroup contained 4 genotypes whereas cluster 2 contained 19 genotypes. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient was ranged from 0.46 to 0.86. The genotypes examined from the study were genetically distinct could be utilised as a diverse parent in hybridisation programme or as direct selection and may yield useful segregants by virtue of the high level of heterosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Profitability of Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as Influenced by Split Application of Neem Coated Urea

Kuldeep Kumar, Arvind Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar Singh, C. S. Singh, S. K. Singh, Md. Parwaiz Alam, A. Minz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45877

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season 2016 at Research Farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand to study productivity and profitability of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by the split application of neem coated urea. The experiment was done out in a randomised block design with three replications and nine treatments. The result showed that the split application of neem coated urea (NCU) significantly influenced the growth and yield attributes, yields and economics viz. plant height, total tillers, dry matter accumulations, CGR, productive tillers/m2, grains/panicle and 1000 grain weight. Application of 125 % NCU 1/3rd basal + 1/3rd Max. Tillering + 1/3rd PI was significantly better than all the treatments but was found at par with treatment T3 and T2. The plant height at 30, 60, 90 and at maturity (31.6, 68.3, 106.2 and 104.4 cm), number of tillers/m2 (169, 311, 305 and 301), dry matter accumulations (185.27, 616.10, 997.30 and 1311.07) respectively, CGR at 30-60 DAT, 60-90 DAT and 90 to maturity (14.36, 12.71, and 9.96 g/m2/day) and productive tillers/m2 (291), grains/panicle (123), fertile grains/panicle (118), 1000 grain weight (24.23 g), maximum grain yield (56.70 q/ha), straw yield (82.10 q/ha), harvest index (40.52), net return (64765Rs/ha) and B: C ratio (2.21) with 125% NCU applied in three splits which was at par with T1, T2 and T3.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathc Effects of Medicinal Plant Species on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat Varieties

M. P. Mandal, Sunil Kumar, Preeti Kumari, Kiran .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45880

Allelopathic effect of three medicinal plant species viz. Costus speciosus, Tinospora cordifolia and Coleus forskohli was examined on seed germination and seedling  growth of four (Pusa gold, HD2733, VL-914, RSP 561) popular wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties. The aqueous leaf extracts reduced the seed germination and seedling growth of wheat. The value of percent reduction in seed germination and relative germination index (GRI), inhibitory effect of different leaf extracts was maximum in susceptible varieties   (VL-914& RSP 561) followed by tolerant varieties (Pusa gold & HD2733). The root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight declined with the increase in the concentration of the leaf extracts of all the three medicinal species. Leaf extract of all three species showed inhibitory effect on sugar and protein and a stimulatory effect on total amino acid contents of the wheat seedling. The results indicated that the allelopathic effect of leaf extracts of Coleus forskohlii was maximum in terms of all physiological and biochemical parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Water Stress on Morphological Traits and Yield in Rice Genotypes

Parveen Fatima, Pooran Chand, S. K. Singh, Purushottam ., Anurag Mishra, Pushpendra Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45881

Water stress is a major factor limiting rice production and cause a severe threat to rice production. Study of relationships of morphological traits and analysis of relationships between grain yield is a useful way to finding out genetic basis of drought tolerance. Six rice varieties Pusa Basmati1, Pusa1121, Type3 and Vallabh basmati (Basmati type) and two non-basmati rice varieties Nagina 22 and Susk Samrat were imposed on water stress. All the selected varieties were monitored to evaluate the performance of different morphological and yield-related traits under water stress condition. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomised design (CRD) in control condition with three replications. In the experiment, susceptible check Pusa Basmati1 and resistance check Nagina 22 were studied along with the rice genotypes namely; Pusa 1121, Type 3 Basmati, Vallabh Basmati 21 and Susk Samrat. Water stress tolerant variety Nagina 22 showed a minimum reduction in filled grain per panicle whereas PB1 showed a maximum reduction after water stress. The experiment was conducted in two different conditions irrigated and water stress. The result showed that all the morphological characters are decreased under water stress condition. The studied traits indicate as ideal for improvement through selection or molecular breeding and that they may provide a high response to water stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Fish Farmers' Socio-economic and Demographical Profile in Darbhanga District in Bihar

Nirala Kumar, Satya Prakash, Bipul Kumar, Dipankar Saikia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45882

A study on the fish farmers' socio-economic and demographical Profile was carried out in Darbhanga districts of Bihar states during 2016-17. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents (45.00%) belonged to middle age group. 35 per cent belonged to extremely backward caste. Majority of the fish growers (78.33%) were having fisheries + agriculture as their occupation. Majority of the selected fish growers (40%) had received their education in high school. Majority of the fish growers (40%) had a marginal size of landholding. Majority of fish growers belonged to medium entrepreneurial orientation (51.67%). Majority (38.33%) of the fish growers had an average annual income ranging from Rs. 100001/- to Rs. 150000/. Majority of them (68.33%) did not have membership in any organization. The majority (66.67%) of fish growers have regularly used TV as sources of information utilised. Majority of fish growers was 68.33 percent having no any membership in committee. The that higher percentage of the fish growers (71.67%) we found to had below 0.5 ha area of pond for their fish cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Studies for Parental Selection among Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Varieties

Saurabh Kasera, S. Saravanan, Katar Singh Burman, Anita Kerketta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45883

Aims: To evaluate twenty brinjal varieties for suitable parent selection in yield aspects.

Study Design: The experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Horticulture Experiment Station, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad, (U.P.) between September 2015 and February 2016.

Methodology: A field experiment was conducted with twenty different brinjal varieties. The observations were recorded on thirteen quantitative and qualitative traits. The mean data were subjected to the various statistical and biometrical analyses.

Results: Analysis of variance indicates that twenty diverse varieties of brinjal differed significantly for the thirteen traits. The highest estimate of phenotypic (PCV) and genotypic (GCV) coefficient of variation were recorded in case of Avg. Fruit Weight (gm) (PCV=35.71) and (GCV=34.80) followed by Avg. Yield/ Plant (kg) (PCV= 28.60) and (GCV=27.53), and Fruit Circumference (cm) (PCV =26.19) and (GCV=24.96) while Days to 50% Flowering exhibited lowest value (11.02 and 7.82). The presences of high heritability with the high genetic advance in per cent of the mean were observed for Avg. Fruit Weight (gm) (94.95 and 69.85), Avg. Yield/ Plant (kg) (92.62 and 54.58), Fruit Circumference (cm) (90.81 and 49.00), No. of Primary Branches/ Plant (90.08 and 45.77) and No. of Fruits/Plant (89.50 and 45.12).

Conclusion: These findings exhibiting additive gene effect and selection for these traits is reliable for a further breeding programme. Selection of suitable parents is an important criteria for the success of crop improvement programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Different Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Kharif Onion (Allium cepa L.)

S. K. Chaudhary, S. K. Yadav, D. K. Mahto, R. P. Sharma, Giri Raj Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45887

An experiment was conducted in Bihar Agricultural University, at Nalanda College of Horticulture, Noorsarai, during kharif season 2016, to assess the suitable source and optimum dose of organic fertilizer for kharif onion. The soil of the experimental plot was clay loam with 7.47 pH, 0.21 EC (dSm-1) and 0.62 % organic carbon, 262 kg, 14.60 kg and 142 kg ha-1 available N, P and K, respectively. The experiment comprised of seven treatments viz., T1-Chemical fertilizer (CF)120:60:40; T2-50 % NPK through CF+50 % N through FYM; T3-50 % N through FYM + 50 % N through VC; T4- 1/3rd of N each through FYM + VC + Neemcake; T5-50 % N through FYM + PSB + Azotobactor; T6-T3 + PSB + Azotobactor and T7-T4+PSB + Azotobactor. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications.  Results showed that plant height didn't show significant difference at 30 DAT, but as plant growth progressed, height of the onion plants differed significantly. At 60 DAT, T1 recorded highest plant (23.6 cm) which was significantly tall over T4 and T5. Although, at 90 DAT, T7 recorded maximum plant height (60.1 cm) plant followed by T6 (56.3 cm). No. of leaves differed significantly during early stage of crop growth but during later stage (90 DAT) it became non-significant. The number of leaves recorded more in T1 followed by T2, T6, T7 and T3 at 30 DAT. The similar trend of leaves number were also observed at 60 DAT.  Equatorial diameter of bulb found highest in T1 (5.3 cm) followed by T(5.2 cm) which was significantly higher over T5 (4.4 cm), T7 (4.7 cm) and T4 (4.8 cm). Bulb yield differed significantly and found highest in T1 (364.79 q ha-1) which was at par with T2 (343.31 q ha-1), T6 (321.80 q ha-1) and T3 (307.25 q ha-1). There were found significant difference in gross return, net return and B : C ratio. Among all, T1 recorded highest gross return, net return and B : C ratio, followed by T2, T6, T3 and T7. Although, T2, and T6 recorded net return (Rs. 2.28, and 2.00  lacks ha-1) which was at par with T1 (Rs. 2.50 lack ha-1). On the basis result obtained T2 as 50 % NPK through chemical fertilizer + 50 % N through FYM can be adapted as sustainable onion production, as it performed bulb yield statistically at par with chemical fertilizer and also built-up appreciable amount of N (4.36 %), P (17.32 %) and K (3.86 %).

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen Management by Using Optical Sensor in Wheat in Jharkhand

Sulochna ., Md. Parwaiz Alam, Naiyar Ali, S. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45894

The field experiment was conducted at Birsa Agricultural University during winter (Rabi) season of 2017-18 with the objective to evaluate the growth parameter, yield attributes, yield and economics of wheat variety HD2967 under precision nitrogen management guided by Greenseeker. The crop was sown on 25thNovember and was laid out in randomised block design replicated thrice. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture having low nitrogen (175.6 kg/ha), medium in phosphorous (15.38 kg/ha) and potassium (183.46 kg/ha) with slightly acidic having soil pH 5.5. The twelve treatments comprised of: T1- absolute control, T2 to T4 - application of 120 kg N in two and three split doses, T5 to T7 - application of 150 kg N in two and three split doses, T8 to T10 - application of 180 kg N in two and three split doses and T11andT12 (guided by Greenseeker by NDVI technique taken at 45DAS and 65DAS) were applied with 136 kg N and 140 kg N in three split doses respectively. The two splits of nitrogen given at sowing and CRI and for three splits nitrogen was applied at sowing, CRI and at tillering stage (45 DAS). Application of 140 kg N in three split doses i.e. 30 kg N as basal, 60 kg N at CRI and Greenseeker guided nitrogen application of 40 kg at 45 DAS (second irrigation) and 10 kg at 65 DAS (third irrigation) recorded the highest No. Of tillers/m2(424.48), dry matter accumulation (1307.49 g/m2), crop growth rate (8.14 g/m2/day), effective tillers/m2(410.56), spike length (12.96 cm), spikelets per spike (21.66), filled grains per spikes (53.10), unfilled grains per spikes (2.56), thousand grain weight (42.80 g), grain yield (48.39 q/ha), straw yield (71.72 q/ha), net return (Rs 55695/ha) and B:C ratio (1.75).

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Precision Nitrogen Management on Nutrient Uptake and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Irrigated Wheat

Sulochna ., Md. Parwaiz Alam, Naiyar Ali, S. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45895

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season 2017-18 at Research Farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand to evaluate the nutrient uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of wheat variety HD2967 under precision nitrogen management guided by Greenseeker. The crop was sown on 25thNovember and was laid out in randomised block design replicated thrice. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture having low nitrogen (175.6 kg/ha), medium in phosphorous (15.38 kg/ha) and potassium (183.46 kg/ha) with slightly acidic having soil pH 5.5. The twelve treatments comprised of: T1- absolute control, T2 to T4 - application of 120 kg N in two and three split doses, T5 to T7 - application of 150 kg N in two and three split doses, T8 to T10 - application of 180 kg N in two and three split doses and T11andT12 (guided by Greenseeker by NDVI technique taken at 45DAS and 65DAS) were applied with 136 kg N and 140 kg N in three split doses respectively. The two splits of nitrogen given at sowing and at CRI and for three splits nitrogen was applied at sowing, CRI and at tillering stage (45 DAS). Application of 140 kg N in three split doses i.e. 30 kg N as basal, 60 kg N at CRI and Greenseeker guided nitrogen application of 40 kg at 45 DAS (second irrigation) and 10 kg at 65 DAS (third irrigation) recorded the highest nitrogen uptake in grain (86.76 kg/ha), nitrogen uptake in straw (39.68 kg/ha), total nitrogen uptake (126.44 kg/ha), phosphorus uptake in grain (16.25 kg/ha), phosphorus uptake in straw (2.91 kg/ha), total phosphorus uptake (19.16 kg/ha), potassium uptake in grain (19.38 kg/ha), potassium uptake in straw (106.17 kg/ha), total potassium uptake(125.56 kg/ha), agronomic efficiency (19.68 %) and recovery efficiency (53.46 %).

 

Open Access Review Article

Heterologous Expression of Rice Chitinase Gene in Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.) against Powdery Mildew

Sweta Kumari, Dilip Das

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45886

Pisum sativum L. (Garden pea) is an annual crop of immense importance. In India it is cultivated in an area of more than 280.0 thousand hactares with annual production of more than 4.0 million tonnes but its yield declines heavily due to powdery mildew a fungal disease caused by Erysiphae pisi, E. polygoni; E. cichoracearum etc. Severe infection reduces plant growth seed weight, seeds per pod and pod number. Pod infection causes seed discolouration leading to downgrading its quality. Management using fungicides; most commonly triadimefon is in regular practice, but they only protect uninfected foliage. Over time, the fungicides accumulate at the leaf margins, leaving other parts of the leaf more open to infection which also has a hazardous effect on the environment. One of the effective methods for controlling fungal infection may be the introduction of rice chitinase into the sensitive but otherwise high yielding crops. Large number of genetic transformation procedures are available using both direct i.e. biolistic or gene gun or particle bombardment or in-direct i.e. Agrobacterium mediated for constitutive expression of introduced chitinase gene. Upon standardisation of efficient shoot regeneration and transformation system in pea, transgenic plants may produce against these fungi leading to reduced yield loss in this economically valued crop. The functional validation of chitinase in pea will show way for its effective utilisation in future for reducing loss caused due to several fungi.

Open Access Review Article

Biotechnology Applications in Weed Management

Bal Manohar, Seema ., Sushmita ., Anuradha Sinha, Santosh Kumar Pandit

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45888

Biotechnology provided new dimensions to herbicide technology. Transgene technology has generated herbicide-resistant crops (HRCs) that have profound impact on the herbicide market. This same technology has the significant potential to make crops better competitors with weeds through improving competitive traits or making the crop more allelopathic. Living biocontrol agents can sometimes be applied to weeds, much like a herbicide. In the bioherbicide approach, microbial plant pathogens are applied to target weeds. Fungi, bacteria and viruses offer great promise as bioherbicides. Formulations of Phytophthora palmivora (De Vine) as a selective mycoherbicide for the control of milkweed (Morrenia odorata) in citrus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Collego) for the control of Northern joint vetch in rice and soybean, are now widely used in developed countries. Extensive research has demonstrated that several allelochemicals possess good herbicidal activity. Thus, A crop that is genetically engineered to be resistant to yet another selective herbicide must fulfil a weed management need that is unmet, such as those niches that were filled by bromoxynil-resistant crops.

Open Access Review Article

High Temperature Stress in Chickpea: Effects on Physiological Processes, Nitrogen Fixation, Pollination and Reproductive Growth

Satya Narayan Prasad, Trisha Sinha, Alisha Kumari, Antara Rakshit

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45889

Plants face various abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, chilling, freezing, and high temperatures etc. during their lifespan. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop and heat stress affects chickpea ontogeny over a range of environments. The crop often experiences abnormally high temperature (>35℃) during the reproductive stage. Heat stress at the reproductive stage is thus increasingly becoming a serious constraint to chickpea production in northern India due to climate change. Heat stress (≥ 35℃) during flowering and pod development results in severe yield losses due to the impact of high temperatures on different physiological processes. The most significant effects on the reproductive phase that affect pod set, seed set and yield are (1) flowering time (2) asynchrony of male and female floral organ development and (3) impairment of male and female floral organs. This review describes the recent status of chickpea production, the effects of high temperature on chickpea, and the scopes for genetic improvement of chickpea to high-temperature tolerance. Recent field screening at ICRISAT has identified several heat tolerant germplasm, which can be used in successful breeding programs for improved heat tolerance in chickpea. It is observed that the detrimental effects of high temperature on membrane integrity, chlorophyll content, nitrogen-fixing ability, pollen and stigma function etc. are comparatively less in the tolerant genotypes than the sensitive ones. Therefore, identification and development of heat tolerant genotypes is an important aspect of chickpea breeding, especially in the aspect of the continuously changing global climate scenario.

Open Access Review Article

Livestock Reproductive Techniques

Alok Bharti, Sailabala Dei, Santosh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/45891

Genetic improvements of farm animals through assisted reproductive technologies like artificial insemination, superovulation, in vitro fertilisation, embryo transfer, embryo cryopreservation, cloning, transgenesis, sexing of semen and embryos, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems. These technologies are used to increases the offspring from selected females as well as to reduce the generation intervals in farm animal. Reproductive ability and efficiency have improved significantly since the introduction of artificial insemination. These alternative reproductive methods are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also powerful tools in overcoming the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. These technologies have also been used to conserve the indigenous breeds. The successful reproductive technologies namely AI and embryo transfer required for application on a large scale, emerging biotechnologies such as MOET, IVF and cloning provide powerful tools for rapidly changing the animal populations. These advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play a significant role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance of livestock.