Aim: To measure methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from stored manure of buffalo calves fed different roughage to concentrate proportions.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Livestock farm of NDRI Karnal Haryana from November 2014 to January 2015.
Methodology: Fifteen Murrah male calves (154.19± 17.77 kg; 6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups and were fed maize fodder, wheat straw and concentrate in three different proportions 20:60:20 (T20), 20:40:40 (T40) and 20:20:60 (T60), respectively. The dung samples from each calf were collected during the last week of the feeding trial and stored in heaps (height 61 cm; base radius 26 cm) under a plastic bucket for three months. The stored manure samples were collected every 2 weeks for composition analysis. Gas samples were collected through a sample port on top of each bucket 3 times per day for first 10 days then after every 2 weeks for the rest of storage period and analysed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations. The amount of gas emitted was calculated as the product of gas concentration and flow rate of air passing through the exhaust. The emission rate was calculated by adding up gas emitted at each sampling and expressed in different units.
Results: Manure dry matter and organic matter (%) were not affected but nitrogen (%) was higher in T60 as compared to T20 and T40. Average CH4 (mg/kg manure/d; mg/kg volatile solids/d) and N2O (mg/kg manure/d) emission rates were higher in T60 compared to T20. However, CH4 emission expressed as g/animal/d and N2O as mg/animal/d did not (P>0.05) vary between the treatments groups. The fluxes increased up to the mid-storage period and then declined, more during the last week.
Conclusion: Overall, increasing dietary concentrate proportion increased manure CH4 and N2O flux rates but the emissions were very low. Thus, the systems of manure storage in India are not much conducive for greenhouse gas emissions which must be taken into account during the inventory preparation.
Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust, and they enter into the biosphere both naturally and as a result of human activities. This study was carried out mainly to compare by sex the concentrations of heavy metals in the Quelea birds (Quelea quelea) in Gyawana Ecosystem, Adamawa State, Nigeria, for a period of twelve months (December 2015 to November, 2016). Quelea birds (Quelea quelea), were collected once every first week of a month from various locations. A total of four hundred and eighty (480) male and female birds were captured in the wild. Their blood and organs were collected by sex. Their liver, flesh and brain which were dried at 105oC individually according to sex and digested with tri-acid mixture (HNO3: HCO4: H2SO4) in the ratio of 10:4:1, respectively. Determination of the heavy metals was done directly on each final solution using a standard method (Buck Scientific 200A Model, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The results of this study reveals that, the mean concentration of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb; (0.032±0.000 mg/g); (0.031±0.000 mg/g), (0.654±0.013 mg/g); (0.606±0.004 mg/g), (0.646±0.011 mg/g); (0.644±0.010 mg/g), (18.252±0.043 mg/g); (16.888±0.047 mg/g), (0.043±0.000 mg/g); (0.036±0.000 mg/g), (0.825±0.012 mg/g); (0.797±0.012 mg/g), respectively, were higher in female than male Quelea birds. Male birds had a higher mean concentration of Zn (8.780±0.093 mg/g) than female birds, with 8.717±0.092 mg/g. In conclusion, the concentration levels of the heavy metals studied between male and female Quelea birds, female, had higher concentrations of all the heavy metals studied with exception of zinc which was higher in male than female and chromium was not dictated in both sexes. Both male and female Quelea birds of Gyawana Ecosystem are safe for consumption.
Introduction: Menstrual disorder is very frequent complain in adolescence age and it can end too many problems .Our purpose of this study was appointed, prevalence the menstrual disorder and relation between it and BMI.
Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 1200 girl’s school that lived in north of Iran (Mazandaran province). We selected our samples randomly. We collected data by questionnaire. Analysis of data was done by spss-19 software and we used descriptive statistics, chi square. Test and in depended T test. Significant level of this study was p< 0.05.
Results: The prevalence of menstrual disturbance was 13.2% (in urban girls) and 8.6% (in rural girls). According to chi- square test, the relation between BMI and hypomenorhea (p= 0.055), polymenorhea (p= 0.384), oligomenorhea (p= 0.757), amenorrhea (p= 0.247), metrorhagia (p= 0.781) and menorrhagia (p= 0.171) was not significant.
Conclusion: Menstrual disorder is common in adolescence age and BMI is not effective on menstrual disturbance.
Fermentation is an important tool for upgrading crop residues for adequate utilisation by the microbes in the rumen. In a bid to actualise the mandate of better utilisation of unconventional feed sources, the potential of ensiled maize stover as a source of feed for ruminants, especially during the dry season, was investigated. The design of the experiment was complete randomized design (CRD). Half a tonne each of maize stovers (MS) was ensiled for 30 days using three energy additives (Molasses, Honey, and Sugar) at the rate of 50g/kg to obtain the following silages: MS only (control silage), MS and Molasses (M&M), MS and Honey (MSH), MS and sugar (MSS) which served as the treatments. Ten West African Dwarf Sheep (WAD sheep) were used to assess the silage acceptability using coefficient of preference (CoP) procedure. The nutritive value of the silages was determined using in vitro fermentation technique. MS only (control) and MSH silages were acceptable as the CoP was above unity. The organic matter digestibility (OMD %), metabolisable energy (ME) (MJ/kg DM), short chair fatty acids (SCFA) (µml) and dry matter degradability (DMD %) ranged from 51.44 – 59.66, 7.07 – 8.36, 0.70 – 0.92 and 40.00 – 70.00, respectively. The OMD, ME and SCFA were highest (P<0.05) in MSS silage. Total gas volume (TGV) (ml/200mg DM) and methane production (ml/200mg DM) ranged from 31.67 - 41.00 and 16.09–28.36%, the highest being from MSS silage and the least from MS silage (control). Soluble fraction (‘a') (ml) and potential gas production (a+b) (ml) ranged from 8.00 – 10.67ml and 31.67 – 41.00 ml, respectively. The result showed that invitro gas fermentation of the ensiled maize stover without additives compares favourably with ensiled maize stover with additives and that the CoP is above unity with low level of methane production and a higher percentage of dry matter degradability.
The study was conducted that the comparison between the planting of onion by manually operated onion bulblet planter over a hand planting method (Traditional method of planting) in the college of Agricultural Engineering JNKVV Jabalpur. A manually operated onion bulblet planter was developed with an inclined plate metering device. The performance evaluation of developed planter in term of field efficiency and missing hill percentage. And it also compares the cost and time of operation of developed planter over a hand planting. The results showed that the field efficiency was 83.33% with chisel type furrow opener and the missing index percentage was 2.22%. It observed that the cost of planting by manually operated onion bulblet planter was Rs. 1790.81 per hectare of land as compared to the hand planting method for one hectare of land was required 65 man days and cost of Rs. 9300.
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the effect of graded level supplementation of selected tanniniferous phyto-sources, viz. Syzygium cumini, Machilus bombycina and Acharas zapota on in vitro methane, fermentation characteristics and rumen protozoa population in order to determine the optimum dose of supplementation for the inclusion in the ruminant diet to achieve methane reduction.
Study Design: This study was design based on previous screening studies carried out in our laboratory. A graded level study was carried out here to determine the optimum dose of inclusion of these phyto-sources in the ruminant diet.
Methodology: In vitro gas production test was carried out by adding these sources at different levels viz. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% to the basal diet consisting finger millet straw (Elusine coracana) as roughage source and concentrate in 70:30. The gas samples obtained after 24 h of incubation were analysed using gas chromatograph. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa population was determined using standard methodologies.
Results: The addition of these phyto-sources significantly (P=.05) reduced the total gas production at 10% in case of Machilus bombycina and above 10% in Syzygium cumini, while Acharas zapota had reduce gas production at the highest inclusion level. However, all the phyto-sources reduced methane production as the percentage of inclusion increased. Effect on fibre digestion was also observed. A significant effect (P=.05) on rumen ammonia-N and protozoa were observed. An overall reduction in TVFA was also recorded in this study.
Conclusion: This study confirms that the selected phyto-sources were potent methane inhibitor. Considering 200 mg of basal diet, S. cumini and A. zapota can be included within 10% of the basal diet and M. bombycina, at a maximum of 5% to reduce methane without affecting rumen fermentation unfavourably. However, long-term in vivo trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of these phyto-sources on enteric methane emission.
A comparative study of the portability of sample from Owo main water corporation and some selected borehole water sample within Owo metropolis. The water sources were assessed for microbiological quality and physico-chemical properties (temperature, odour, colour and pH). The samples were investigated for microbial load using Eosine Methylene Blue agar (EMB) Nutrient agar (NA) and Mannitol Salt agar (MSA). The physicochemical analysis of the water was also determined. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Enterobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and identified from the samples. The total viable count ranges from 10 x 101 – 5.7 x 102 cfu on Mannitol salt agar for sample from water Corporation and Folahanmi borehole sample respectively. The investigation revealed that samples from Folahanmi and Rugipo contain all the isolated microorganisms while sample from Iselu contain Escherichia coli, Proteus species and Enterobacter species only. The pH of the water sample ranged from 4.80 to 7.37 Rugipo borehole sample and sample from water corporation respectively. All the samples appear colourless and odourless. Of the water samples examined it was observed that only the sample collected from water corporation conform with the specification of Environmental Protection Agency.