Open Access Original Research Article

Critical State of Lateritic Soils Taken from Varied Burrow Pit Depth

B. A. Ajayi, H. M. Alhassan, H. Y. Gambo, U. Hassan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43920

The study aimed to investigate the behaviour of Lateritic soil at a critical state. Four undisturbed samples were taken at 1.5 m and 3.0 m respectively. Laterite materials were sourced from Janguza Burrow Pit. The samples were collected by manual digging to a depth of 1.5m and 3.0 m and inserted in polyethene bags. To classify the material, the tests conducted on the soil samples included natural moisture content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity and particle size distribution. Furthermore, Undrained Triaxial test was conducted on the soil samples with the measurement of pore pressure to determine the critical state condition of the Lateritic soil. The average moisture content value for 1.5 m depth was 3.83%, and that for 3.0 m depth was 5.57%. Atterberg limits at 1.5m depth are as follows: Liquid limit (LL) =22.9%, Plastic limit (PL) =12.6% and Plasticity Index (PI) =10.3% and for 3.0 m depth the values are Liquid limit (LL) =22.1%, Plastic limit (PL) =9.48% and Plasticity Index (PI) =12.7%. The average specific gravity is 2.67 and 2.71 for 1.5m and 3.0m depth respectively. Samples at 1.5m are found to be Well–Graded (GW) gravel-sand mixtures from sieve analysis result, while samples at 3m depth were found to be Well-Graded except sample A and D which showed poorly graded sand (GP) and gravel-sand mixtures. The samples were found to be overconsolidated and at dry side of critical. The state of stress and void ratio ranges from 30.55 kN/m2to 60.47 kN/m2 and 0.12 to 0.18 respectively. Pore pressure was stable at a range of 0.006%- 0.045% for 1.5m depth and 3.0m depth was stable at 0.005%- 0.004%. The sample reached critical state condition at deviator stress ranges 229.74 kN/m2 to 274.31 kN/m2 for 1.5 m and 3.0 m depth. The average values of the critical state soil parameters at 1.5m and 3.0 depth are ⋋=0.174, Γ=2.07 and M = 0.885 and ⋋=0.299, Γ=2.839 and M = 0.813, respectively. The results indicated that both samples were heavily overconsolidated. Overconsolidated soils heave when used in road construction, thus presenting maintenance challenges to road authorities. It is important to carry out periodic checks on the state of consolidation of soils to avoid the use of overconsolidated soils in construction. Similarly, to ensure that soils from burrow pits performed satisfactorily an oversight function should be exercised by the appropriate ministry.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Honey on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Drink Before and During Storage

T. K. Adebayo, I. A. Abdulraheem, A. S. Daramola, T. C. Israel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44040

This study determined the effects of honey on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pineapple (Ananas comosus) drink before and during storage. Packaged honey was added to pineapple drink at ratios, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Pineapple without honey was used as a control. The pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids and vitamin C content of the samples were determined. Total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of the formulated samples were also determined. Sensory evaluation was carried out with semi-trained panellist. The samples were stored under two different conditions (room temperature (29°C) and refrigeration (4°C)). The antioxidant activities of the stored pineapple drink were determined at an interval of five days for the total of 30 days. The results showed an increase in pH, total titratable acidity and vitamin C content of all the samples as the amount of the honey added increased. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of the samples also increased as the quantity of honey added increases. There was a positive correlation (0.98) between the total phenolic content of the samples and their antioxidant activities. Samples containing honey were scored high in all attributes (Colour, Taste, Aroma and overall acceptability) than the control sample. The antioxidant activities of the pineapple drink stored at room temperature increased with the increase in storage time, while the antioxidant activities of pineapple drink stored at refrigeration temperature remain constant. In conclusion, the addition of honey to pineapple drink helped to improve the health benefit of the drink by increase the scavenging power of the drink when compare with pineapple drink without honey.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Ex-ante Producer and Consumer Preference for Finger Millet in Karnataka: Application of Conjoint analysis and Logit Model

Veerabhadrappa Bellundagi, K. B. Umesh, K. R. Hamsa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44432

The common understanding by the research community is that farmers like to adopt improved varieties. While this is true in general, we often see that some improved varieties are not accepted by farmers. The reasons for such can be many. In this study, an attempt was made to verify whether there are any other traits that farmers seek in a ragi variety. We select several traits including those related to yield and production aspects as well as ultimate consumer preferences, and assess their relative importance by way of willingness to pay. This is achieved by estimating Conjoint analysis.. We further hypothesise that there are spatial relations in the willingness to pay for such traits and incorporate that into the analysis which resulted in a Logit model. Data for the study was collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire from both producers and consumers. For producer survey, the study was conducted in Tumakuru and Hassan districts of Karnataka, as they are the major ragi growing districts of Karnataka and for consumers survey, Bengaluru Urban and Hassan districts were selected based on consumption pattern. The results revealed that, analysis of producer preference indicated that, the farmers prefer more of long duration ragi varieties with high yield and drought tolerant. With respect to consumers preference, taste and aroma were found most important attributes. Further to know the willingness to pay (WTP) for new variety by producers was analyzed using Logit model. The results showed that, yield and colour had significant influence on farmers WTP for new ragi variety. The findings of the study further reinforce the potentials of ragi cultivation in Karnataka. Besides, the implementation of “Anna Bhagya Yojana” in Karnataka has given further impetus for increased demand for ragi. Therefore, there is a need to increase the production by means of increasing productivity. The scientists need to develop yield enhancing technologies with drought tolerance varieties.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Child Labour and Academic Performance in High Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

Khadijat Aderonke Azeez, Linus O. E. Nwauwa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/10146

This study examined child labour and academic performance among students in Nigerian secondary schools with reference to Emmanuel College secondary School, Orita U.I. Systematic random sampling method was employed to collect primary data from 60 respondents through a well-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 83.3% were male and 16.7% were female. Also, 51.7% of the sample population worked after school hours while 13.3% worked during vacation and 35% engage in no economic activities. The regression results showed that level of education of parents, parents’ income and family size explained about 83% of the total variation in hours of work. All the coefficients for the socio-economic factors were significant at 5% probability level. The result further showed that a negative relationship exists between average score and hours of work. Also, a negative relationship exists between hours of work and parents’ income and level of education of parents but a positive relationship exists between hours of work and family size. Based on the empirical results, the study therefore recommends that creating employment opportunities and increasing income of parents would help parents sponsor their children’s education.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Combination Effect of Germination and Fermentation on Functional Properties of Sorghum Flour

Abd Elmoneim O. Elkhalifa, Rita Bernhardt

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44491

Aims: To understand the effect of the combination of the two traditional Sudanese processing methods, germination and fermentation, on the functional properties of sorghum flour.

Study Design: Factorial Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany between May 2015 and July 2015.

Methodology: Fetarita sorghum was germinated for three days, and then the flour obtained was fermented for 8 h. The functional properties of produced flour were studied and ungerminated, and unfermented flour was used as a control.

Results: The germinated-fermented flour has low pH and high titratable acidity. The proteins of the germinated-fermented flour were more soluble in different buffers than the control. Germinated-fermented sorghum flour had the least gelation concentration of 8% compared to 18% for the control. Germination and fermentation significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased the bulk density (loose and packed), water and alkaline water capacities. A significant increase in the oil binding capacity, emulsifying activities and stabilities, foaming capacity, foaming stability and wettability was reported in the treated flour. The produced flour has high dispersibility at all pH tested, and high dispersibility was observed at the alkaline pH. SEM results of the germinated-fermented flour support the development in functional properties.

Conclusion: Combination of germination and fermentation improves the functional properties of sorghum flour. This could help anticipate end-product quality and more applications in gluten-free products based on sorghum flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Model for Yield Estimation of ‘Gala Red Lum’ Apples after Bloom in Northern India

Tabasum Mushtaq, S. A. Mir, Nageena Nazir, T. A. Raja, A. H. Pandith, Khalid Rasool, Mushtaq A. Lone

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43430

The objective of this paper is to develop the best fitted model for estimating yield in Gala Red Lum after bloom. The data used for this research were primary data collected from high density apple block of SKUAST-Kashmir (HDP, Plate-1). The study was undertaken at experimental field of Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, Northern India, during the years 2015 and 2016. The measurements of various tree/fruit characteristics in Gala Red Lum were recorded. The data recorded was pooled to average out the on /off bearing effect. Regression technique was used to find the relationship between the yield and various biometrical characters of apple trees. Models were first developed on the whole population and then on sample. The best fitted model was Y= -FCT+FCA-FCT*FCA and was validated by using k-fold cross validation and bootstrap validation techniques. Thus, the developed model can be used for estimating the yield in Gala Red Lum after bloom.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Drought and Rainfall Due to Tropical Cyclone and Depression in Ninh Thuan, Vietnam

Pham Thi Phuong Thao, Phan Minh Thu, Nguyen Minh Giam, Ho Dinh Duan, Bui Hong Long

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44857

Tropical depressions/cyclones are natural phenomena which might impact negatively on human beings and the environment. Like other natural hazards, they sometimes can cause severe damage to the economy, infrastructure and community so that the benefits that come along with such hazards have almost been neglected. On the land, rainfall during and after the tropical cyclones has significantly decreased drought conditions in some semi-arid and arid areas. In the case of Ninh Thuan Province, tropical depression/cyclones could cause the flooding in the area where it is passed, but the weak tropical depression/cyclones can help to increase 0.5 - 12.39 times of monthly rainfall and contribute to total rainfall of 7 – 40% in dry season; and 0.4-2.18 times and 37 - 145% in wet season, respectively; or 3 – 39% of annual climatological rainfall. As the results, agriculture economic and local people can be taken a benefit from tropical depression/cyclones. Based on these results, the authorities can have some strategies to adapt and develop the local economy after such natural hazards.