Open Access Original Research Article

Cheese Processing, Marketing, Utilisation and Consumption in Burkina Faso

Pauline Aissaioulè Dah, Flibert Guira, Abel Tankoano, Korotimi Traore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Aly Savadogo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42863

Cheese is made in Burkina Faso since the colonial period. However, data on this product are virtually non-existent. A survey was carried out in four regions to identify and describe the different processing techniques, markets, and uses.

The results show that three different processing techniques are mostly used to produce the following cheese types:  wagashi, goat cheese and tome, respectively in the Sahel, Center, Central Plateau and Buckle of Mouhoun regions. During the different processes, powder of Calotropis procera leaves, rennet and table salt are used for curdling. The investigations among producers, it has been shown that from an average quantity 35.9 liters per production of processed milk, we get 5.2 kg of cheese. The product is preserved by sun-drying, cold storage, smoke-curing, roasting, or boiling in water containing panicles of sorghum. Good hygiene practices are a real concern; on over 65 producers surveyed, only one had few knowledge about food standards. 

Cheese is consumed directly fresh or as ingredients in cuisines. The price of cheese varies depending on the type of cheese. It is mostly eaten by all ages, 72% of adult and 68% of children. 78% of cheese consumers use it generally in households in the Mouhoun region, 98% in the Center region and 100% in the Sahel region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of New Granite Slab Geometries for Facade Cladding

Daisy Pinheiro, Orlando Longo, Gabriel Nascimento, Gilberto Couri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42824

Facade claddings are important for both functional and aesthetic purposes. Its design is an intricate process that encompasses science, art, and craft to resolve a myriad of problems. Claddings can influence how the property stands out in relation to its surroundings, adding aesthetic value and personality to every structure. The materials used in the facade cladding systems can be of any type. In its turn, the installation methods are adapted to the different types of materials used for the construction of the cladding system. The technical benefits of a well-designed facade-cladding project include shorter construction time, less labour requirement, and reduced maintenance cost. In Brazil, granite slabs are widely used for facade cladding. The most common pathology of stone cladding panels that cover a building is their detachment from the material they cover. In this study, new granite slab geometries are suggested to increase their adhesion (Anchorage) by interlocking the cladding plates. To verify the performance of the new geometries analyzed, simulations of their mechanical behaviour on the facade were performed by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The bearing capacity of traditionally utilized rectangular granite slabs was compared with "L" and "S" shaped slabs. The results presented a substantial increase in the carrying capacity of the cladding system, demonstrating that the proposed geometries provide increased safety against its detachment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Variability of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis in Tomatoes from Northern Hill Region of India

Ruchi Tripathi, K. Vishunavat, Rashmi Tewari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43297

The objective of this research was to monitor the existence of Clavibacter michiganensis sub sp. michiganensis (Cmm) in tomato growing region in the northern hill region and to assess its cultural, morphological and pathogenic variability. Tomato samples showing symptoms of Cmm infection were collected and the causal agents were isolated from these samples. On the basis of the presence of characteristic symptoms of Cmm infection in tomato, the mean disease incidence and severity of suspected pathogen was found to be 19.57% and 16.11%, respectively in the middle Himalayan region. From a total of 80 tomato plants sampled, 17 bacterial isolates exhibiting similar colony morphology to Cmm were obtained. After the cultural, morphological and pathogenicity tests, 9 isolates were identified as Cmm. The results of this experiment can be a warning sign for all tomato growers in the region especially those involved in seed trade and vegetable export. For all the collected nine Cmm isolates studies on cultural and pathogenic variability were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The design used for the experimental studies was completely randomised. Different strains of Cmm exhibited varied cultural and pathogenic variability while the morphological difference amongst the strains was observed to be non-significant, wherein all the ten isolates were of rod-shaped. During studies on cultural variability, most of the bacterial colonies were initially small, (1-4 mm diameter), mucoid and concave with three different pigmentations viz., yellow, pale-white and orange which became glistening with the increase in age. Amongst the nine isolates studied the isolate, Cmm 10 was most virulent leading to complete plant death within 18th day of inoculation.

Open Access Original Research Article

End-of-life Vehicles Steel Sections Reclamation into Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

Ziyad Tariq Abdullah, Rawaa Hamid Mohammed, Guo Shun Sheng, Sheng Bu Yun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43429

Aims: Sustainable closed loop supply chain between vehicles industry and construction materials industry through exploiting of sections of end-of-life vehicles frames as steel cores of honeycomb sandwich panels. Such sections are attributed by high value-added because they are made of hot stamped steel sheets with good thicknesses by using matured manufacturing technology. Reclamation of steel sections can help reduce energy and material consumption and Co2 emissions.

Study Design: Practical application of disassembly is followed by experimental work to prepare reclaimed steel cores honeycomb sandwich panels testing samples to study reliability and viability of such honeycomb through studying of mechanical properties and comparing reclaimed steel with recycle and virgin metals to find out energy and Co2 emissions reductions of reclaimed end-of-life vehicle steel frames sections into honeycomb panels.

Methodology: End-of-life vehicle frames are studied and disassembled to classify three suitable sections to be used as steel cores for honeycomb sandwich panels. Thin galvanized steel sheets are also used to cover the cores at the top and bottom as sandwich for both purposes of strengthen and decoration. Reclamation and testing routes are figured and mechanical properties data are recorded to be used for under load behavior analysis. Feasibility study of reclaimed sections honeycomb is based on energy and Co2 emissions reductions through eco-comparison energy and Co2 ratios based mitigation among reclaimed steel and recycled and virgin metals include steel, stainless steel and aluminium.

Results: End-of-life sections can be successfully reclaimed into honeycomb to substitute current consumption of paper, aluminium and stainless steel in field of construction materials which delivered with a reduction in energy consumption and Co2 emission. By using these high value-added sections, mechanical properties of honeycomb can be enhanced to be more than enough for construction application. High levels of cut in both of energy and Co2 emissions are obtained.

Conclusion: Reliable steel cores honeycomb sandwich panels can be produced to be used as construction material by exploiting of manufacturing technology and assembly techniques for reclamation. End-of-life sections are of high value-added and also can reduce using of new materials for making honeycomb as a sustainable manufacturing contribution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Discerning of Biologically Proficient Rice and Maize Based Cropping Sequences in Central Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh

Rentapalli Balaji, Karam Husain, Uma Shankar Tiwari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44880

Aim: Comparative evaluation of various rice and maize based cropping sequences and assessment of their  productivity. 

Study Design: Descriptive statistics was used and each treatment was replicated quadruple times using randomized block design. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agronomy, CSA University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India from 2010-2017.                                                                                       

Methodology: We have undertaken traditional cropping systems along with some new proposed cropping sequences in central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh to find out the biologically efficient cropping systems in terms of rice equivalent yield. We implemented randomized block design in the field level to layout the different crops according to the various seasons in terms of space and time. Various inputs like water, fertilisers, chemicals etc. applied accordingly as per their recommendation. Different types of cultural practices are implemented to fulfill the crop needs. Timely samples are drawn from all the crops to analyze the characteristics of their biological yield and production efficiency.

Result: Among four rice based cropping sequences, hyb. rice –wheat-green gram (G+R) and six maize based cropping sequences, maize+blackgram-potato-onion cropping sequences were recorded the highest rice equivalent yield of 219.04 Kg/ha and 320.43 kg/ha respectively. In terms of production efficiency (kg/ha/day) same trend was followed.                                                                   

Conclusion: On the basis of overall productivity, biological yield, production efficiency and land use efficiency it may infer that hyb. rice-wheat-green gram (G+R) and maize+blackgram-potato-onion crop sequences were treated as best biologically efficient cropping sequences among rice based and maize based cropping sequences, respectively.

Open Access Review Papers

Different Drying Methods for Preservation of Dates: A Review

K. Ch. S. Saikiran, N. Sreedhar Reddy, Lavanya Mn, N. Venkatachalapathy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41678

Background: Dates, the staple food in many Gulf countries and they are the fruits with high nutritional values, besides highly perishable, so there is a need for a better preservation technique which will prevent the dates from deterioration and also in the extension of shelf life of dates. Dates, the fruit of date palm provide not only the essential nutrients but also health benefits. They can be consumed by adding in coffee, milk or yoghurt and the dates which are processed can be used as paste, syrup, pickles, jams, and jellies and also used in bakery and confectionary products along with chocolate, coconut, honey, vinegar and other.

Scope and Approach: This article describes the purpose of drying and dehydration of dates and also different drying methods for dates like solar drying, hot air oven drying, vacuum drying, spray drying and drum drying. Keeping the nutritional composition and health benefits of dates in mind there is a need to know the different processing techniques which extend the shelf life of dates.

Key Findings and Conclusion: The most common medicinal use of dates and its products is as a tonic, especially for women who are close to delivery and at the postpartum stage. The extent of spoilage in dates is very high when there are unfavourable climatic conditions and prone to coliform attack. This leads to loss of consumer interest and export potential, so in order to prevent these losses drying and dehydration is needed.

Open Access Review Article

Quality Management of the Pre-Analytical Phase of Total Laboratory Testing Process: Monitoring and Control

Tunji Akande

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43874

Background: Laboratory testing is a complex process comprising three phases that include the preanalytical, analytical and the post analytical phase of total laboratory testing process. Pre-analytical phase represents the most error prone phase of the laboratory testing process. Consequently, many problems arise mostly at pre-analytical phase of non-laboratory settings which are outside the control of the laboratory before the analysis of the submitted specimens.

Objectives: To evaluate the monitoring and control of errors in the non-laboratory related pre-analytical phase of the total testing process.

Methods: A literature review of the continuous quality improvement and Quality Assurance (CQI/QA) components of the preanalytical phase of total laboratory testing process.

Results: The prevalence of preanalytical errors is approximately 70% of all errors that occurred in laboratory diagnostics. Many of the variables are outside the traditional laboratory areas. Errors in the pre-analytical phase can result in misdiagnosis and mismanagement and consequently compromise patient’s safety. Errors presentation at this stage requires good communication and co-operation among all health professionals involved in the total testing process from the time a laboratory request is made until the sample is ready for testing.

Conclusion: In non-laboratory settings, continuous monitoring and control of the initial phase of the total testing process is critical in order to reduce pre-analytical errors so that the laboratory can achieve accurate and reliable results. Non-laboratory errors in pre-analytical phase can be monitored and controls by timely and effective coordination of health care professionals for improved patient's safety and reliable testing outputs.