Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points System (HACCP) during Production of Tarhana

Mohamed M. Abd El-Razik, Mohamed G. E. Gadallah, Mohamed F. Y. Hassan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38460

The aim of this study is development of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system during production of Tarhana on small scale production. Tarhana is known as a traditional fermented food widely consumed in Middle East countries. Since Tarhana prepared by traditional method, homemade and consumed widely, its safety is very important in terms of consumer health. Therefore, HACCP system as food safety tool was adopted during preparation of Tarhana. Hazard analysis of raw materials and during different production steps was established with different control measures could be used in controlling various identified hazards. HACCP plan was implemented, three critical control points: reception raw materials, fermentation and drying steps were determined during production of Tarhana. Critical limits, corrective actions and monitoring procedures for each critical control points were established, verification procedures were also discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Processing on the Levels of Pesticides in Some Commonly Consumed Meats from Sagamu, South-Western Nigeria

Olutayo S. Shokunbi, David O. Oladejo, Elizabeth O. Ngozi, Gogonte H. Amah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44154

Technological and kitchen processes can partially or fully remove or degrade pesticide residues to other compounds often less toxic, making the products safer for human consumption. This study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of processing on levels of pesticides in some commonly consumed meat in Nigeria.

Cow, goat and pork muscles were purchased from three abattoirs in Sagamu, South-western Nigeria. Each meat sample was separately packaged in a polyethylene bag and transported immediately to the laboratory, where they were processed (boiled and fried) on the same day. Samples of raw, boiled and fried meat were extracted and cleaned up before being quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatograph with pulsed flame photometric detector.

The results showed that 35 pesticide residues were detectable in all the meat samples. However, only 10 of them were significantly affected by the processing methods. The levels of some organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues and an organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residue were relatively higher in all the meat samples but were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by the processing methods; with frying being better. The levels of carbamate, triazine, chlorophenoxy, dinitroanilin, chloroalkylthiol, benzoylurea and phenylurea were somewhat low in all the samples and were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the boiling and frying methods.

The mean levels of all the detected pesticide residues were far below the various internationally set maximum residue limits for meat samples; making the meats analyzed safe for consumption. Furthermore, processing methods greatly depleted pesticide residues, especially OCPs and OPP, in the meats analyzed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Syllable and Phoneme Modelling of Agglutinative Tamil Isolated Words in Speech Recognition

Ibralebbe Mohamed Kalith, David Asirvatham, Ali Khatibi, Samantha Thelijjagoda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40568

Aim: In this paper, the emphasis was on improving the automatic speech recognition of Tamil speech by applying syllable and phoneme as a sub-word unit. Agglutinative complex words in Tamil are described by showing their element in the building of the sub-word such as the syllable and the phonemes. This present study used the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based speech recognition system that was created using CMU Sphinx speech recognition toolkit. An effective consonant-vowel six-segment (CVS-6) algorithm was designed to syllabification of the Tamil isolated words and experimentally investigated its speech recognition accuracy. The database used in this study was designed using a maximum of 160 isolated words, representing 430 syllables and 216 unique syllables.

Results: Through the experiment, the syllable-based model achieved a mean recognition rate of 93.84 (standard deviation, 5.02) compared to 91.37 (standard deviation, 6.26) achieved by a phoneme-based model.

Conclusion: It was concluded from this research that the syllable-based model using the CVS-6 algorithm is a good choice and can be used in the development of sub-word modelling of isolated words, which is an effective sub-word modelling of medium and large vocabulary ASR Tamil language.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Materials for Thermal Insulation in Rural Construction

Kossi B. Imbga, Emmanuel Ouédraogo, Vincent Sambou, Florent P. Kieno, Abdoulaye Ouédraogo, Diendonné Joseph Bathiebo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43786

This article presents a study on thermo-physical characterisation of local materials used in the building. The simulation with Energy Plus software made it possible to evaluate the energy performance of a building. The studied materials are lateritic blocks which were not stabilised and those stabilised with the nere pod, cement and lime. Simulation makes it possible to determine the performance of the building and to evaluate the thermal comfort. The asymmetric hot plate method was used to determine the properties of the different types of samples. The values of the thermal conductivities of the different bricks vary from 0.427 to 0.814 W.m-1.K-1, they are relatively weak. These materials feet better for thermal insulation of buildings. This work aims to develop a new composite material, to improve their thermophysical property. Nere pod stabilisation saves on 20 to 43% energy depending on the mixing rate compared to mere laterite. The decrement factor and the time lag are better when the wall thickness increases. For the purpose of reducing the building energy consumption, this composite material is intended to be used in walls or false ceilings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ball-Milled and Acid-Treated Mineral Activated Carbon as Hydrogen Storage Material

José Luis Iturbe-Garcia, Beatriz Eugenia López-Muñoz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44431

For several decades, carbon allotropes, including graphitic nanofibres and other nanostructures, have been studied as hydrogen storage materials. In this paper, activated mineral carbon (bituminous) was used for the hydrogen storage process. For 3 h, the carbon particle size was continuously reduced by mechanical milling, and the carbon was subsequently refluxed with concentrated nitric acid. Microstructural characterisation and evaluation of the hydrogenation behaviour of the chemically treated and milled mineral were performed. Hydrogen adsorption/desorption experiments were carried out using two methods: the first one using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system with a hydrogen atmosphere during the process of adsorption and nitrogen as carrier gas in the desorption and the second method of hydrogenation was performed in the microreactor (MR) varying pressure, temperature and contact time. On the other hand, ten cycles of adsorption/desorption of hydrogen were performed with each method. The qualitative analysis for hydrogen identification was carried out with a gas chromatograph and the same thermogravimetric analyser with nitrogen used as the carrier gas. The hydrogen absorption capacity in powder samples was 0.45±0.01 and 1.38±0.05 wt% hydrogen in the TGA system and in the MR respectively, according to these results the best method for hydrogen adsorption was using the MR because the pressure applied was higher.

Open Access Original Research Article

Critical Factors for Successful Implementation of E-procurement in the Kenyan Public Sector

Martin Mairu Mathenge, Agnes Wausi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43333

E-procurement can be defined as the usage of information and communication technology in performing all procurement process stages through the internet. It is aimed at ensuring transparency, efficiency as well as accountability in procurement. However, unlike the private sector, the Kenyan public sector has not been successful in implementing e-procurement. E-procurement has also not been able to decrease the corruption problem in Kenyan public sector procurement. This research was aimed at identifying critical factors which can ensure successful implementation of e-procurement in Kenyan public sector organisations. The study adopted the exploratory research approach. A stratified sampling method was used to select a population sample of 12 parastatals and 2 government ministries which had 140 respondents. 110 questionnaires were filled and returned – a 79% response which was adequate for data analysis and interpretation. Data analysis was conducted using frequencies, percentages and mean scores while multiple regression analysis obtained using SPSS was used in testing the hypothesis regarding the critical factors’ influence on successful e-procurement implementation. The R square values were 0.828 for managerial factors, 0.878 for system factors and 0.930 for stakeholder factors. The three models reach statistical significance (p < 0.0005). In order to contribute the dependent variable (implementation level), the beta values are 0.472 for managerial factors making them the strongest contributor followed by 0.375 for stakeholder factors and 0.230 for system factors. The research recommends Kenyan public organisations’ top management to support e-procurement implementation and provide adequate resources for successful e-procurement implementation. There should also be proper data encryption, training programs for supply chain personnel and proper IT infrastructure set up. Kenyan public organisations should have a perfect connection with their business partners and suppliers and have an appropriate e-procurement implementation strategy with proper mechanisms for measuring, evaluating and controlling e-procurement implementation. Organisational systems should be engineered to be highly compatible with current e-procurement systems while adequate resources should be availed by the Kenyan government and top management in Kenyan public organisations for effective e-procurement implementation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Vegetable Oil Blends

S. Prathibha, V. Anusha Reddy, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, V. Vijaya Lakshmi, K. Uma Maheswari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40193

Blending vegetable oils can be one of the potential solutions for optimum fatty acids composition and good storage stability. The present study was conducted to identify the best oil blend ratio in terms of physico-chemical, functional and sensory properties of cottonseed and soyabean oil. Blends at different ratios of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 20:80 were prepared. The fresh and heated oils were analysed for colour, specific gravity, smoke point, moisture content, free fatty acids, peroxide value, acid value and oil retention capacity. Deep fat fried item pakora was prepared with all the blends and subjected to sensory evaluation. The results showed that moisture content, peroxide value and acid value were in permissible levels in all blends studied. Sensory evaluation scores suggested that blend of 80:20 was most acceptable.