Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Indigenous Knowledge in the Management of Okwangwo Division of Cross River National Park, Nigeria

A. A. Nchor, P. C. Nnadi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43584

Institutional changes in the management of biodiversity over the years have given rise to negative impacts on forest conservation, however, the use of traditional knowledge systems, taboos, sacred sites and institutions have great potentials in the conservation and utilisation of forest and wildlife resources. The study, therefore, accessed the potentials of indigenous knowledge in the management of Okwangwo division of Cross River National Park. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect primary data while secondary data were sourced from relevant documents in cross river national park as well as other past studies on the area. A total of 188 questionnaires were administered in four selected communities in the study area while forty 40 questionnaires were administered to park rangers in the division. Respondents identified four major traditional institutions that exist in the communities including Ntsebe-Oshie, Mfam, Mgbe, and Angbu. Ntsebe-Oshie was overwhelmingly rated by respondents as the most prominent traditional institution in the area (100%), followed by Mfam (94%), angbu (67%) and Mgbe (66%). The most dominant practice in the communities as submitted by a majority of the respondents was traditional harvesting methods 97%, while royal traditional rules, taboos and secret landscapes were all rated equally (85%). However spiritual landscape received the least scores from respondents (64%), the majority of the respondents asserted that violation of the rules and regulations enacted by these communities attracted sanctions by Ntsebe-Oshie, while the general perception of the respondents was that indigenous knowledge has great potentials in supporting protected area management in the division. However, the park rangers interviewed alluded to the fact that these special traditional knowledge system was not incorporated by the park in its overall management. Combination of various strategies including traditional knowledge is recommended for the effective management of the park.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Profiling of Cotton Genotypes for Fibre Properties Using Diagnostic Set of Microsatellite (SSR) Markers

H. B. Kumbhalkar, V. L. Gawande, S. J. Gahukar, V. N. Waghmare, S. R. Mawle, K. P. Ingle

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44497

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) the white gold is the world’s leading natural textile fibre and also known as "King of fibres” is one of the best gifts that nature bestowed on mankind. The objective of the present investigation was to identify the diagnostic set of microsatellite (SSR) markers for the estimation of genetic diversity and varietal identification based on genetic distances. The molecular profiling of 15 cotton genotypes were carried out by using 104 simple sequences repeats (SSRs) primers (99.26% polymorphism for fibre length and 98.07% polymorphism for fibre strength). The on an average values of polymorphic information content (PIC) were, 0.210 and 0.345, respectively for fibre length and fibre strength. Fifty primers were found polymorphic among 104 SSRs primers. The 27 SSRs primers shown 100 per cent polymorphism for the fibre length. Similarly, 23 primers were shown 100 per cent  polymorphism for fibre strength. A dendrograms for fibre properties (fibre length and strength) were constructed based on the SAB values by adopting the sequential agglomerative hierarchical non-overlapping clustering technique of unweighted Pair Groups Method of Arithmetic Mean comprising 6 main groups for the fiber length and 5 clusters groups for the fiber strength. The study revealed that parents AKH 84635, AKH 10-2 and SURAJ for fibre length and parents AKH 84635, AKH 09-5 and SURAJ for fibre strength were grouped in individual cluster and found to be most diverse and genetically dissimilar parents with broad genetic base for the above fibre properties. The identified polymorphic markers could be used in the marker assisted breeding programme for the development of cotton hybrids having high fibre length and strength through the incorporation of genetically diverse parents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Antoine Constants from Estimated Vapor Pressures of Selected Food Contaminants

Onur Ketenoglu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44173

Aims: Accurate measurement of vapor pressure is a hard challenge in the determination of evaporation behavior of pure substances.  Thus, mathematical models are widely used and are still being developed for this purpose. The aim was to tabulate Antoine constants from estimated vapor pressures of fourteen different compounds, which are mainly described as food contaminants, using property estimation software.

Study Design:  Vapor pressures were estimated using an average of modified Grain–Watson and expanded Antoine methods, which are built in the preferred property estimation software. Antoine constants were calculated using linear regression and uncertainties were given in terms of standard errors of estimate.

Place and Duration of Study: The calculations were performed for two months in early 2018 and calculations took place in the Department of Food Engineering of Cankiri Karatekin University.

Methodology: Fourteen different compounds were chosen, which are all reported as liquid materials at room temperature, and temperatures for vapor pressures ranged from 298.15 K (25°C) to 473.15 K (200°C) if not exceeding normal boiling point. Vapor pressures of these compounds were estimated with property estimation software. The estimated vapor pressures were then processed using linear regression in order to create their Antoine constants with a confidence level of 95%. Corrected vapor pressures were calculated using their respective Antoine constants and differences were given as percentages.

Results: The maximum uncertainty was calculated as 10.5 kPa for NDMA. Calculated vapor pressures were the highest for NDMA, and the lowest for DINP. Antoine constants and calculated vapor pressures for DEP were found in accordance with previously published data found in literature.

Conclusion: Antoine constants for computational methods in the determination of vapor pressure helps to save time and effort spent on experimental methods. The outcomes of this study are thought to be useful for further studies involving computational prediction of vapor pressures of such compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Tarhana Prepared from Different Cereals and Dairy Ingredients

Mohamed F. Y. Hassan, Mohamed G. E. Gadallah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38459

Tarhana is a traditional fermented food made from cereals and yoghurt mixture and popular in some European and African countries. In this study, the effects of wheat, oat or barley flour with cow or goat yoghurt on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of Tarhana were investigated. A gradually increased in acidity of all prepared Tarhana dough samples was found during fermentation time. The acidity of Tarhana powder ranged between 0.78% for Tarhana made from oat flour and goat yoghurt to 2.12% when using barley flour with goat yoghurt. In addition, incorporated barley flour and goat yoghurt in Tarhana resulted in significant increase in total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity being (27.23 mg GAE/g) and 47.45%, respectively. It could be stated that all Tarhana samples are good source of minerals especially K, Na and Mg. A significant increase in lightness (L) being 71.75 and total intensity of color being 72.46 was exhibited by Tarhana prepared from oat flour and cow yoghurt compared to all other treatments. All of Tarhana treatments were significant increase in redness (a), yellowness (b) and chroma except Tarhana samples prepared from barley flour. It could be seen that all Tarhana soups behaved as non-Newtonian fluid (pseudoplastic) whereas, the viscosity was gradually decreased with increasing the rotational speed (rpm). All of the Tarhana soups were acceptable in sensory properties except when using barley flour which need to improve their color. Tarhana soup with wheat flour and cow or goat yoghurt samples had valuable high scores in color (8.7 and 8.0), taste (8.7 and 8.7) and overall acceptability (8.9 and 8.7) and being more preferable by the panelists. It can be concluded that Tarhana supplemented with oat or barley flour can be claimed to be a good sources of minerals, phenolics as well as antioxidant activity and considered as a functional food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Groundwater Quality around Abandoned Quarry Ponds near Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria

Franklyn Chukwudi N. Mbaneme, G. C. Okoli, Emmanuel C. Obiano, Ebelechukwudi Obianuju Mbaneme

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/15685

A field study was conducted on the Assessment of Ground Water Quality Around Abandoned Quarry Ponds near Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria and to establish how the Ponds were influenced by past quarrying activities. Water samples were collected from the four abandoned quarry ponds measured fifty meters (50 m) (165 ft) deep. These were labeled ABP1, ABP2, ABP3, ABP4, while the wells were labeled HDW (hand dug wells) measured eighty meters (80 m) (264 ft) deep and BH (borehole), measured two hundred eighty meters (280 m) (924 ft). In-situ measurements were done with HORIBA U-10 Water Quality Checker to determine pH, temperature, total dissolved solids, turbidity, conductivity, and salinity. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation (r) and test of homogeneity (ANOVA) were used to analyse data. There were no wide variations in the levels of the physicochemical parameters of water samples from the abandoned quarry ponds and wells. pH levels ranged between 6.800 and 8.000 (7.200±0.225), temperature ranged between 29.000 and 29.400 (29.067±0.0667) °C, turbidity ranged between 5.00 and 20.00 (10.83±2.71) NTU, total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged between 500 and 1020 (720±103) mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) ranged between 50 and 800 (525±106) mg/L, Salinity ranged between 5.00 and 15.00 (10.00±1.83) 0/00, conductivity ranged between 50.0 and 500.0 (183.7±69.1) µS∕cm, CaCO3 ranged between30.0 and 500.0 (355.0±92.2) mg/L, Nitrate ranged between8.00 and 25.00 (13.83±2.52) mg/L, Sulfate150.0 and 280.0 (215.0±18.4) mg/L while Sodium 205.0 and 300.0 (255.8±15.5) mg/L. There was significant variation in concentrations of the physiochemical parameters measured [F (19.27) > F crit (2.37)] at P< 0.05 and sodium, conductivity, Sulfate and Calcium Carbonate were the most responsible for the observed inequality. Nitrate correlated positively with turbidity(r=0.942), and sulfate correlated positively with total dissolved solids (r=0.942) while turbidity correlated positively with total dissolved solids, (r=0.930) and (r=0.964) at P<0.01. Study findings include increased levels of the physiochemical parameters in the hand dug wells which are therefore a grave danger to consumers. The near surface water table and rock over-breaking due to uncontrolled blasting are enhancing pond water and groundwater interaction, and the resultant groundwater pollution in the study areas. Therefore, the quarry operators must reclaim the pits before departing or provide for the reclamation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Reconstruction and Remediation of Soil Acidity on a One Dimensional Flow Domain with Constant and Linear Temporally Dependent Flow Parameters

Catherine Mutheu Munene, Thomas Tonny Mboya Onyango, Cleophas Muhavini

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44081

A mathematical backward problem which involves solving a mathematical model based on a one dimensional advection - diffusion process of solute transport in a homogeneous soil structure is considered. The diffusion coefficient and advection velocity in the governing unsteady non-linear partial differential equation (PDE) are varied from constant to linearly dependent on time. This is done to develop a mathematical understanding of the initial root causes and levels of acidification in priori because determination of analytic solution involves a lot of assumptions making the results unrealistic as opposed to the our numerical experiment approach which is cost effective and more reliable results are obtained. Flow domain is assumed semi infinitely deep and homogeneous and it is subdivided into small units called control volumes of uniform dimension. A hybrid of Finite volume and Finite difference methods are used to discretize space and time respectively in the governing PDE. Discretized equations are inverted to obtain the concentrations at various nodes of the control volumes by using mathematical codes developed in Mat-lab and the results presented using graphs at different soil depths and time to determine the parameters that can help detect the contamination levels before disastrous levels are reached and with ease.

From the results it is observed and concluded that the concentration levels of ions with depth and time can easily be detected when diffusion coefficient and advection velocities are linearly depended on time and mitigation strategies can easily be employed.

Open Access Review Article

Tigernut Plant and Useful Application of Tigernut Tubers (Cyperus esculentus) - A Review

N. Maduka, F. S. Ire

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43551

Since thousands of years ago, millions of people enjoy chewing raw tigernut tubers (Cyperus esculentus) with less emphasis in processing the tubers into more useful products. Tigernut tuber is very common and abundant in Nigeria. It is always available in both wet and dry season. As global human population is increasing, it is pertinent to fully utilize readily available agricultural products such as tigernut tubers for the production of more useful products. Tigernut tuber is usually processed into three major useful products namely tigernut milk, tigernut flour and tigernut oil which could further be utilized to produce diverse edible and non-edible products. Several studies have been carried out by researchers to develop more useful products from tigernut tubers. The inability to effectively and adequately disseminate recent research findings to the populace as well as massively commercialize tigernut-derived products has been the bane of increased utilization of tigernut tubers in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, this review article is aimed at sharing comprehensively available information on tigernut and recent research findings focused on increasing the utilization of tigernut tubers for the production of useful products.