Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a Fuel for Commercial Vehicles in Ghana: A Case Study at Tema Community 1

R. Amorin, E. Broni-Bediako, D. Worlanyo, S. A. Konadu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41531

Globally, there is an increasing number of vehicles being manufactured to run on LPG due to its tendency to decrease exhaust emissions and also increase profit for vehicles users; endearing many commercial drivers. The commonest means of transportation in the Tema metropolis, Ghana, is by commercial taxis. It is estimated that about 1600 commercial vehicles (taxis) are actively running on LPG in the metropolis. Currently, most of the taxis originally designed to run on gasoline have converted to run on LPG without any approved regulations. Unfortunately, the conversion is often carried out by unqualified mechanics which the aftermath may pose safety concerns to users. The vehicle regulatory body in Ghana (Driver Vehicle and Licensing Authority) has expressed its concern over their inability to exercise regulatory authority over converted LPG operated vehicles as well as lack of gadgets to check the safety of the vehicles, especially for leakages. This research looks into the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a fuel for commercial vehicles in Ghana, using Tema Community 1 as a case study. Questionnaires were distributed to 100 out of estimated 160 LPG powered vehicle users to sample their views on the use of LPG to fuel vehicles. It was revealed that 81% of LPG vehicles in the metropolis were converted from an originally run gasoline fuel. Also, the only means for leakage detection employed by most LPG vehicle drivers is by the use of smell; a very unreliable and unsafe practice. The LPG automobile users show inadequate safety knowledge on LPG usage. It is recommended that government should establish by-laws to regulate the operations of all LPG automobile users, perform regular training, education, inspection and enforce all LPG automobile users install safety devices in their vehicles for safety purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Outdoor Ambient Radiation Hazard Indices in Selected Mining Sites in Kogi State, Nigeria

E. C. Uzuegbu, G. O. Avwiri, B. C. Ndukwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/44000

The evaluation of outdoor ambient radiation hazard indices of solid minerals in selected mining sites of Kogi State, Nigeria was carried out using radalert 100 and digilert 200 nuclear radiation monitors and a geographical positioning system (Garmin GPSMAP 76S). The sites studied include Ike Kabba (Gold), Ayedayo and Ayedera (Feldspar-Mica), Obajana (limestone), Itakpe (iron ore) and Okobo (coal). The mean background radiation exposure rates ranges from 0.023±0.004 at Ike Kabba to 0.024±0.007 mRhr-1 at Apala River while 0.024±0.006 mRhr-1 was recorded at Ayedayo and 0.029±0.008 mRhr-1 for Ayedera. Mean background radiation value of 0.018±0.006 mRhr-1, 0.021±0.009 mRhr-1 and 0.026±0.007 mRhr-1  was recorded at Obajana (limestone), Itakpe (iron ore) and Okobo (coal) mine field respectively. The obtained values are higher than world standard limit of 0.013 mRhr-1 recommended by ICRP. The mean absorbed dose rates calculated for the various mining sites are 204.2 and 211.1 nGyh-1 (gold), 206.8 and 251.9 nGyh-1 (feldspar-mica), 159.7 nGyh-1 (limestone), 181.6 nGyh-1 (iron ore), 229. nGyh-1 1 (coal). These values were observed to be higher than world permissible value of 89 nGyh-1. The annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) for outdoor exposures values are 0.31 and 0.32 mSvy-1 for Ike Kabba gold mine and Apala River respectively. 0.32 and 0.39 mSvy-1 for Ayedayo and Ayedera feldspar-mica mine while 0.25 mSvy-1, 0.29 mSvy-1 and 0.35 mSvy-1 are for limestone, iron ore and coal mines respectively. The values were observed to be within safe values while the excess lifetime cancer risk estimated for the mine sites are 1.10 and 1.13×10-3 for gold mine and Apala River respectively, 1.11 and 1.35×10-3 for Ayedayo and Ayedera respectively. 0.86×10-3, 0.97×10-3 and 1.23×10-3 for Obajana, Itakpe and Okobo communities respectively. The recorded values are higher than the world permissible value of 0.29×10-3. The study shows that there is the probability of residents developing radiation-related illness overtime.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Seaweed Extract in Enhancing Phytoremediation of Bio-Digester Effluent by Duckweed

Moses N. Kamau, Hemedi M. Saha, James K. Mwololo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43588

Accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface water bodies renders aquatic ecosystem non-functional. Duckweed may be used to remove excess nutrients from wastewater, while it requires large surface areas. However, under limited space, nutrient uptake by duckweed may be enhanced by applying seaweed extract (SWE) to the wastewater. The effectiveness of SWE to enhance nutrient uptake under the hot-humid conditions of coastal Kenya has not been assessed. A study was therefore conducted to determine the optimum application rate and a number of applications of SWE to enhance maximum N and P uptake by duckweed from the bio-digester effluent. Four application rates (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 µL SWE per litre of effluent) and a number of applications of SWE (none, one, two, three and four) were evaluated. A Randomised Complete Block Design with a factorial arrangement of treatment was used.  The experiment was replicated for three times.  The results showed a significant negative relationships between effluent N content and duckweed biomass (r2 = 0.982, P = 0.013) and effluent P content and duckweed biomass (r2 = 0.908, P = 0.04). Three applications of SWE reduced the effluent N content by 5.4%. An application rate of 9 µL SWE per litre of effluent reduced the N and P contents of effluent by 9-10% and 20-23% respectively, and increased the duckweed biomass by 22-62%. It is therefore recommended that SWE can be applied at least three times at the rate of 9 µL SWE per litre of effluent.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of the Methods of Boolean-Equation Solving and Input-Domain Constraining for Handling Type-2 Problems of Digital Circuit Design

Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi, Waleed Ahmad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43728

With the advent of digital computers, several prominent problems of digital circuit design emerged. A particular class of these problems, (called Type-2 problems) can be divided into two subclasses depending on whether an honest translator is possible or a sneaky translator is warranted. The case of an honest translator is simply an inverse problem of logic in which knowledge of the vectorial function Z(X) is utilised to produce its inverse vectorial function X(Z). Though an old method of solving type-2 problems was known almost half a century ago, two modern methods are now possible, namely the method of Boolean-equation solving and the method of input-domain constraining. The purpose of this paper is to expose and illustrate these two novel methods, with a stress on comparing them together and demonstrating their superiority to (as well as agreement with) the old conventional method. This purpose is achieved by way of three typical classical examples for which conventional solutions are somewhat tedious and cumbersome, while modern solutions are simple and insightful. Throughout these examples, the Karnaugh map is effectively utilised, either in its conventional version or in its variable-entered version. The Boolean-equation-solving method seems to involve certain unwarranted steps that might be possibly skipped. However, its utility can be extended beyond type-2 problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Optimization of the Physical and Functional Properties of Extruded Products

Leticia Amoakoah Twum, Akash Pare

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41035

Aim: To optimize extruded products made from flour blends and studying the effect of ingredients on physical and functional properties of the extrudates.

Study Design: Design Expert mixture model.

Place and Duration of Study: Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology, Thanjavur, Tamil-Nadu - India. Nov, 2016- May, 2017. 

Methodology: Yellow corn, brown rice, soybean and pineapple pomace were mixed to obtain 20 runs using the Stat-Ease (Design-Expert 10, 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA) statistical software and extruded at a constant extruder parameter.

Results: Statistical analyses of the results showed that, the ingredients used for the study had an effect on the physical and functional properties of the final extruded products. The brown rice, yellow corn and pineapple pomace had effect on most of the physical and functional parameters analyzed. The inclusion of soybean was seen to be significant in increasing the solubility of the final product

Conclusion: The study will help facilities the utilization of soybean in extrusion cooking and improve the uses of yellow corn, brown rice and pineapple pomace in the food industry.

Open Access Short Research Articles

Extended Spectrum and AmpC Beta-lactamase Producing Salmonella Rough Strains Associated with Gastroenteritis in Piglets of Meghalaya (India)

Hosterson Kylla, Measuredian Kharchandy, Dachemlok I. Kjam, Laureata Dkhar, Iadarilin Warjri, Ernestine Basawiamoit, Lahun R. Dkhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43596

Aim: An investigative study for gastroenteritis in unorganised private pig farms of Meghalaya, a North East State of India.

Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from 32 pigs including severely diarrhoeic piglets and were processed for detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Clostridium spp., Rotavirus, as well as parasitic eggs and larvae. The isolates were screen by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rotavirus and the presence of virulence associated genes of E. coli and Salmonella. An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on isolated Salmonella and screened for the presence of drug resistance beta-lactamase genes.

Results: A total of 40 E. coli were isolated, all of which were found to be negative for any putative virulence genes of shigatoxigenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli pathotypes. From severely diarrhoeic piglets, four salmonellae were isolated, which were recorded as Salmonella Rough strains. All the 4 isolates detected positivity for ESBL (blaTEM) and ampC β-lactamase (blaCMY-2) genes. However, no samples were found to be positive for viral and parasitic pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed the Salmonella strains were resistant to commonly used drugs, such as enrofloxacin, cefalexin, tetracycline, amoxycillin, ampicillin and aztreonam. RAPD-PCR revealed the homogeneity of the strains associated with Salmonella infection in the area.

Conclusion: The study indicated the involvement of Salmonella Rough strains with piglet diarrhoea in unorganised farms of Meghalaya. Detection of Salmonella possessing antibiotic resistance genes in food animal warranty immediate attention to hygienic practices and regulated use of antibiotics.

Open Access Review Article

Exploring the Possibilities of Sowing Sugarcane Bud and Potato Tuber with a Single Equipment –A Review

Jaideep ., Er. Mukesh Jain, Vijaya Rani, Rahul Singh Pannu, Parveen Dhanger

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43589

Planting of any crop is very much important as far as the crop growth and yield is concerned. Sugarcane and potato planting is a very labour intensive job and involves considerable human drudgery. India stands second in sugarcane production in the world next to Brazil. In case of potato, India is the third largest potato producing country in the world. There are many factors which affect the seed germination and crop yield. In this article, reviews of different planting methods of potato and sugarcane crop are discussed. It was found that the rotary and cylindrical cutting mechanism for sett cutting of sugarcane seed was used in most of the mechanical planters. In most of the potato planting machines, the cup-belt type metering mechanism was used. A new technique of sugarcane bud-chip planting has been introduced for sugarcane planting. Seed rate in case of sugarcane bud-chip planting was found to be 1-1.5 t/ha which was very less as compared to mechanical planting by sett cutter planter in which seed rate of approximately 9.7 t/ha was required. It was found that 75% of labour cost was saved with semi-automatic and 87.50% labour costs were saved with automatic planter as compared to conventional manual planting.