Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Effects of Weather Elements on Flight Operations at Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport Abuja, Nigeria

R. Dan-Okoro, S. M. Hassan, V. A. Agidi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41590

The purpose of the study was to assess the significance of weather conditions on aviation transport at Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport, Abuja. Records on visibility, rainfall, cloud cover, wind speed and direction to cloud cover, and two aspects of flight operations (flight delays and cancellations) for 15 years (2000-2014) were collected from the secondary source. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient, the coefficient of determination, t-test, and multiple linear correlations were used to ascertain relationships between weather elements and flight operations (flight delays and cancellations). Findings of this study show that wind speed has no effect on flight delays since the test of significance value of 1.63 was less than the critical value 1.77. The major weather elements that influenced flight operations was cloud cover. Individual weather elements on their own do not affect flight operations, however, when they are combined, affects aviation transportation significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Change in Scenario of Sugarcane Production in Narsinghpur, India, during 2013 to 2016

Avinash Kumar, Aaradhana Patel, Atul Kumar Shrivastava, Munish Kumar Pandey, N. K. Khandelwal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43428

The aim of this study was to determine the energy inputs and use a pattern per hectare for change in the scenario of sugarcane production in Narsinghpur, India, during the three year cropping pattern from 2013 to 2016.

The data were collected from farmers with the help of pre tested questionnaire or direct interview method. In the selected area of study, all the physical inputs in the form of direct and indirect sources and outputs in the form of yield and by-products are converted into common units of energy (MJ) per unit area (ha).

The result was found during the study, the most energy consuming operation was irrigation, it required maximum energy (66.22%) 311021.7 MJ/ha followed by sowing (10.78%) 43497.6 MJ/ha, fertilizer application (9.99%) 61623 MJ/ha, transportation (7.65%) 31215.45 MJ/ha, intercultural (2.25%) 14646.57 MJ/ha, seedbed preparation (1.28%) 5984.33 MJ/ha, harvesting (0.91%) 3528 MJ/ha, FYM application (0.47%) 6213.09 MJ/ha, plant protection (0.23%) 1843.44 MJ/ha and ratooning (0.13%) 588 MJ/ha in the cultivation of sugarcane from seedbed preparation to ratooning during 2013 to 2016.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thresholding Techniques for Image Denoising and Their Comparison by Different Wavelets

Malati Mazumder, Md. Shahadat Hossain, Md. Asaduzzaman, Md. Rafiqul Islam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42217

Though the digital images are considered as the medium of transmitting visual information and crucial technique of modern communication, the obtained images sometimes may be corrupted by unexpected noise. However, these noisy images require further processing, which involves the manipulation of the image data to produce a visually high-quality image. In this paper, several thresholding techniques, namely SureShrink, VisuShrink and BayeShrink have been presented and the suitable one is determined. In addition, various noise models, for instance, Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise and speckle noise, along with additive and multiplicative types have been utilized. The selection of the denoising algorithm being application dependent, it is crucial to have proper knowledge regarding the noise in each image for the purpose of selecting the appropriate algorithm. Typically, the wavelet-based approach finds applications in denoising images corrupted with Gaussian noise. Here the mean square error of the images has been determined as a quantitative measure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pull out Strength of Bonded-In Steel Bars Behavior in Pinus oocarpa Shiede Timber

Julio César Pigozzo, Felipe Nascimento Arroyo, André Luis Christoforo, Diego Henrique de Almeida, Carlito Calil Junior, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42970

The study of pull out strength of bonded-in steel bars in Pinus oocarpa Shiede timbers (ρ12% = 550 kg/m3) is presented. The aim was to evaluate, with the design of experiment, statistical methods and experimental works, the moisture content and anchorage areas variations effects. In addition, three angles (0, 45 and 90º), between the rod and the direction of grain were considered and a polyurethane adhesive, based on castor oil, and three epoxy resins were used. The wood specimens were seasoned to the expected moisture contents of 12, 15, 18 and 22%. In each specimen, there were four holes with 9.0 mm diameter and 40, 60, 80 and 120 mm depths. The deformed steel bars with the minimum yield tensile strength of 500 MPa and nominal diameter of 6.3 mm were axially loaded with two load cycles. The results are presented in a comparative form after the statistical analysis. The rupture modes are discussed and the need for a broad understanding of resin behaviour is highlighted. Average anchorage strength presented positive linear relationships, with an increase of the anchorage area and negative linear relationships with increased moisture content for all the resins and directions between steel bar and wood grain studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effects of Nanofluid on the Lubricity of Oil-based Mud

Fadairo Adesina, Ogunkunle Temitope, Abraham Victoria, Oladepo Adebowale, Lawal Babajide

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/35139

Nanofluids are applied where heat transfer, drag reduction, binding ability for sand consolidation and corrosion control is of utmost priority. This paper discusses the experimental work carried out on a pre-conditioned base fluid (ethylene glycol and ethanol) with silicon-oxide powder as a nanofluid to investigate the nanofluid effect on lubricity enhancement in the oil based mud. The lubricity test was carried out using Ofite EP lubricity tester which simulates the speed of rotation of drill pipe and the pressure with which the pipe bears against the borehole wall.

The result shows that nanofluids prepared using ethanol and ethylene glycol exhibited different rheological behaviors. But ethylene glycol treated with nanoparticles and oil based mud treated with nanofluid shows improved lubricity coefficients that falls within the obtainable lubricity coefficient observed in oil-based mud. Increase in weight percent of the nanoparticles in ethylene glycol resulted into decrease in the lubricity coefficient for the oil-based mud. It has been found that the weight percent of the nanoparticles and the type of continuous phase (ethylene glycol or ethanol) have an important effect on the lubricity of the oil-based mud. From the results, it can be concluded that, there is a non-linearity relationship between lubricity coefficient and particle weight. Percent in the mud treated with Nanofluid. The lubricity reduction effect observed in pre-conditioned oil-based mud can be said to be as result of combined effect of both the nanoparticles and the based fluid.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Visual Basic Programme for Performance Evaluation of Three-point Linkage Hitch System of Agricultural Tractors

L. K. Dhruw, C. M. Pareek, Naseeb Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43491

A visual basic programme that evaluates the performance of three-point linkage hitch system of agricultural tractor in vertical longitudinal plane was developed. The three-point linkage hitch performance parameters were determined by generating the locus of upper hitch point, lower hitch point and virtual hitch points throughout the power travel of lift arm by computer simulation. The effect of different dimensional parameters of three-point linkage hitch on its mechanical advantage was also analyzed. The results revealed that the mechanical advantage of the three-point linkage hitch system is most affected by the lift rod length. Developed programme has the potential to validate the three-point linkage hitch design according to the standard defined in ISO 730. The developed programme is simple and practically useful for design engineers and also meet the user requirements for educational and research purpose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conventional Milling Machine into CNC Machine Tool Remanufacturing, Eco-comparison Ratio Based Analysis

Ziyad Tariq Abdullah, Guo Shun Sheng, Sheng Bu Yun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42898

Aims: Machine tool remanufacturing input material, energy and Co2 emissions are assessed to help conclude feedbacks about environmental benefits and burdens, what is necessary to enable educational institutions to conduct remanufacturing of machine tools as a business to deliver closing the loop supply chain for sustainable manufacturing.

Study Design: Bridgeport manual milling machine is remanufactured within insights of new eco-design ideas to change it into CNC vertical milling machine where machine enabled to be flexible to embed cheap emerged CNC technology. Thus enough data can be acquired to be analyzed for feasibility study. 

Methodology: A step by step case study of CNC machines technology introduction into conventional machine architecture is illustrated. Modules of ball screws and ball linear guide ways are embedded by means of magnetic mechanical flexible interfaces. Servo motors and CNC controller are used to deliver computer numerical control. Literature comparison and calculation are made to find eco-audit of the remanufacturing process.

Results: Melting point of N35 Neodymium is compared with mean melting point of Cast Iron to exploit well-defined eco-audit of Cast Iron literature through defining ECR (eco-comparison ratio).

Conclusion: To fulfill remanufacturing, eco-design enables modules of linear slides rails-carriages and ball lead screws to be assembled to conventional milling machine, which can be certain through magnetic pots based mechanical interface. Comparative eco-audit of technological path for CNC technology integration is required to optimize eco-innovation strategy to deliver sustainable remanufacturing. Such integrated platform of machine tool remanufacturing based on both emerged lower cost CNC technology adoption and capabilities of institutes of technology where the hybrid labor-student remanufacturing environment can be certain to deliver hybrid public-private services that is aimed to establish triple bottoms of economic, environmental and social sustainability.