Open Access Original Research Article

A Review of the CMIP5 21st Century Climate Change Projection in the Niger Basin

Ganiyu Titilope Oyerinde

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43060

Climate simulations in West Africa have been a challenge for climate models due to the complexity and the diversity of processes to be represented. No coherent trend for either decreasing or increasing precipitation emerges from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) Global Climate Model (GCM) products. The Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) is a program sponsored by World Climate Research Program (WCRP) to develop an improved framework for generating regional-scale climate projections for impact assessments using recent CMIP5 GCM projections. This paper compares patterns of climate projections in the Niger basin with the most recent and improved CORDEX-CMIP5 climate projections. It presents a comparative evaluation of projected rainfall, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration (PET) trends in the Niger basin using 8 GCMs and two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) available within the CORDEX-Africa framework. Rainfall and temperature data from a set of 8 CMIP5 GCMs under the mild (RCP 4.5) and high (RCP 8.5) emission scenarios were analyzed. The GCMs were dynamically downscaled to about 50 km resolution with the RCM SMHI-RCA (Sveriges Meteorologiskaoch Hydrologiska Institute) within the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiments. Potential evapotranspiration (PET) was computed from temperature based on the Hamon model. Spatio-temporal patterns of ensemble median of changes of the eight GCMs relative to the present-day reference period of 1970–1999 were evaluated in two future 30 years periods: the near term (2030–2059) and far-term (2070-2099). Results show that climate change will drive an increase in precipitation, temperature, and PET in the Niger basin. This analysis will enhance the deployment of suitable coping strategies to impending climate trends; especially for food and energy production schemes which are prerequisites to sustainable regional developments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Toxicity of Copper – Based Fungicides against Phytophthora megakarya; a Causal Agent of Black Pod Disease of Cocoa

D. O. Adeniyi, A. O. Adeji, O. O. Kolawole, B. A. Ogundeji, A. B. Fadara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/26120

Aim: The study determines the estimated toxicity and efficacy of copper-based fungicides use to control Phytophthora megakarya.

Study Design: Toxicity of fungicides against Phytophthora megakarya was determined in-vitro using mycelial growth inhibition.

Methodology: Isolates of P. megakarya were collected from cocoa experimental plots in Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. Three active ingredients: Cuprous oxide, Copper hydroxide and Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl in fungicides retailed in open market were assayed in-vitro at 0.5 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, 1.5 µg/ml, 2.0 µg/ml and 2.5 µg/ml of active ingredient against mycelial growth of P. megakarya; pathogen of black pod disease. The antifungal index and effective concentration at which mycelial growth was inhibited by 50% (EC50 value) was calculated for pathogen/fungicide combination and probit analysis.

Results: Toxicity of fungicides against P. megakarya using the EC50 showed significant variation as estimated from the mycelial growth inhibition. Highest mycelial inhibition (85.25%) of P. megakarya was recorded at 2.5 µg/ml of Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl with estimated EC50 value of 0.18 µg/ml and highest toxicity was recorded in Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl  while Cuprous oxide was least toxic against P. megakarya. The toxicity responses of these Copper-based fungicides against P. megakarya vary with active ingredients and Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl gave the highest fungitoxic effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Modelling of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Banana Peels for Bioethanol Production

Joseph Tagbo Nwabanne, Charles Bernard Aghadi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42906

This study investigated the use of banana peel (BP) for bioethanol production and the optimisation of the process parameters. Characterization of BP was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. Aspergillus niger isolated from infected cassava tubers was used for the hydrolysis of BP in a separate hydrolysis and fermentation process (SHF). Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for the fermentation of the hydrolytes. Statistically significant quadratic regression models (p = .05) were developed for reducing sugars and bioethanol yields prediction.  Optimal condition values for the processes parameters were established by response surface methods (RSM). The FTIR results showed that BP had strong peaks for alcohols, phenols and carboxylic acids functional groups. The proximate analysis revealed that BP contains cellulose (65.5%), fibre (15.4%) and protein (6.0%) majorly. The optimum conditions for reducing sugar yields from the hydrolysis process were the temperature of 34ºC, pH of 6.5 and a period of 5 days with a yield of 122 mg/ml. While the optimum conditions for bioethanol yield from the fermentation process were the temperature of 34ºC, pH of 6.0 and a period of 5 days with a yield of 8.1% volume weight. This works shows that the optimisation of hydrolysis and fermentation processes parameters respectively improve their yields and also Aspergillus niger isolated from rotten cassava is effective in the hydrolysis of BP for bioethanol production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Study of Temperature Dependent Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity on a Natural Convection Flow over a Sphere in Presence of Magneto Hydrodynamics

Md. M. Alam, Rina Begum, Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam, M. M. Parvez

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42677

The objective of this research is to investigate the numerical study of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity on natural convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid over an isothermal sphere in presence of magneto hydrodynamic. Viscosity is considered variation with temperature and also thermal conductivity is taken as a linear function of temperature. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless non-similar equations by using set of suitable transformations and solved numerically by finite difference method along with Newton’s linearization approximation. The computational findings for dimensionless velocity profiles, temperature profiles, local skin friction coefficient and local heat transfer coefficient are displayed in graphically and also in tabular forms for different vales of the Prandtl’s number Pr, dependent viscosity parameter ε , dependent thermal conductivity parameter γ and magnetic parameter M .

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Smart Agriculture: Approach and Perspectives for the Rice-Wheat Crop Rotation System in IGP (Indo-Gangetic Plains)

Yogesh Kumar, Raj Singh, Vijendar Singh, Atul Galav, Anil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/37451

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach that helps to guide the actions required to change and devise agriculture management techniques to effectively support growth and ensure food security in a changing climate scenario. The objectives of CSA are sustainably increase agricultural yield and incomes; adapt and build resilience to climate change like climate resilient agriculture practices; and reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. CSA is a way of developing agricultural strategies for the sustaining food security in IGP under climate change. The CSA would help small and marginal farmers in IGP, to find out agricultural practices that are suitable for local conditions and to overcome the negative impact of climate change. A thoroughly literature review on CSA, this study managed to devise strategies for the reorienting of rice-wheat cropping system in IGP, for the conditions of declining natural resources and productivity, water, labour and energy shortages of Indo-Gangetic Plains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remanufacturing as a Service Embedded within Closed Loop Cloud Manufacturing System-Literature Review Based Design

Ziyad Tariq Abdullah, Guo Shun Sheng, Sheng Bu Yun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42956

Aims: Conclude enablers to embed the remanufacturing as a service within the infrastructure of cloud manufacturing system to service closed loop supply chain of sustainable manufacturing through integration of educational institutions.

Study Design: Recent cloud manufacturing architectures are combined to be modeled again to take into consideration remanufacturing as a service to be conducted by educational institutions. Methodology: Comparative literature is used to find out some statistics to show directives of literature to help embed remanufacturing within the architecture of cloud manufacturing. Thus statement of enablers can be proposed and architecture of cloud manufacturing of remanufacturing as a service can be emerged.

Results: Sustainable approach is more suitable to be applied within societies that suffer from non-clear human development, lower education standards, without industrial infrastructure and weak communication technologies where increasing awareness of environment protection required business for value creation to be conducted. Remanufacturing will enable such societies to be linked with industrial institutions economy by establishing remanufacturing business model which is embedded as a service within the cloud manufacturing. This approach will encourage such societies to apply strict regulations to protect customer and increase value-added of imported products which end the cheap product paradigm and help new markets to be included. Resources of universities are integrated to process the remanufactured products and value creation will be certain sustainability based on human development, employment and ecosystem establishment. Conclusion: Two main directives of literature can be classified to include macro-literature and micro-literature according to degree of consistency with the aim of closing the loop of cloud manufacturing by remanufacturing as-a-service to be delivered through the same platform of cloud manufacturing. Macro-literature focuses on the economics of remanufacturing with no sign for closed loop cloud manufacturing with remanufacturing through inclusion of educational institutions to apply sustainable development. Micro- literature is consisted for some extend with aim of sustainable cloud manufacturing but it is with technological dimensions. So much more consistent directives of literature are proposed to be taken in consideration by researchers to cover the area of close the loop of cloud manufacturing with educational institutions through application of remanufacturing. Thus an absolute measurement of sustainability with more clear social criteria can be introduced. Review of literature enables classification of macro-literature, micro-literature and barriers of remanufacturing which can be used to analog control system for assessment of literature maturity in two directions of embedding remanufacturing and educational institutions within structure of cloud manufacturing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Requirement of Energy for Mechanized Cultivation of Sugarcane in Narsinghpur, (M.P.), India

Avinash Kumar, Aaradhana Patel, Atul Kumar Shrivastava, N. K. Khandelwal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/43418

The purpose of this study was to determine the requirement of the energy for mechanization in sugarcane which was involved in the cultivation of sugarcane from primary tillage to ratoon management of the crop during 2013-14 in the selected area of study, Narsinghpur (M.P.), India. Agricultural mechanization implied the use of various power sources and improved farm tools and equipment, with a view to reduce the drudgery of the human beings and draught animals, enhance the cropping intensity of sugarcane. The requirement of energy for sugarcane production was highest as compared to many other crops such as potato, maize, wheat, paddy, sorghum etc. Sugarcane was labour intensive crop requiring about 3300 man-hrs per hectare for different operations. Considering the present trend of the availability of labour for sugarcane production, it had been experienced that the use of modern machinery was inevitable. However, the adoption of these implements and machinery have not been up to the desired level. Thus there was a considerable mechanization gap, especially in the area of sugarcane planting, intercultural, plant protection, harvesting and ratoon management. This study dealt with the whole process of developing mechanization and describes the requirement of energy for mechanization of sugarcane in Narsinghpur, (M.P.) India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation Analysis of Socio-cultural and Socio-economic Profile with Knowledge Level and Existing Small Ruminant Rearing Practices of Bakarwal Tribe in Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir

Farzana Choudhary, S. A. khandi, Rayees Ahmed Bafanda, Sheikh Umair Minhaj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40192

The present study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir with the objectives to access the correlation analysis of socio-cultural and socio-economic profile with knowledge and existing small ruminant rearing practices of Bakarwal tribe in Jammu district. The  data  were  collected  from  120  Bakarwal respondents  belonging  to  Marh, Satwari, Bhalwal  and Dansal  blocks  of  Jammu  district  with  the  help  of  structured  interview  schedule  containing  selected  dependent  and  independent  variables, through  personal  interview  technique. The findings revealed that age, herd size, total annual income and marketing pattern were positively but insignificantly associated with the knowledge. On the other hand land holding, cultural attributes and relationship with other community and ownership were significantly positively associated with the knowledge. Insignificant negative association of work distribution among family members, source of information and indigenous knowledge was observed with knowledge level. Whereas ,insignificant positive association of age, herd size, wok distribution among family members, ownership pattern, total annual income and cultural attributes and their relationship with other communities was observed with existing practices. Education land holding and marketing pattern shows insignificant negative association of with existing practices. Negative significant association of source of information was observed with existing practices.