Open Access Short Research Article

Ant Colony Optimization and the Solution Proximity

Maxwell Scale Uwadia Osagie, Osatohanmwen Enagbonma, Amanda Iriagbonse Inyang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42200

Nature as designed has its complexity but the challenges posed by it gave room for several methods considered to be best fit for human survival. The role of science and other related fields have so far solved some of the challenges that may have classified humans unfit within the design frame. The survival of human in respect to problem solving varies from time to time and the method employed defined the result from the beginning. Ants and other insects are part of the design nature. Empirical studies on insects have showed complex problems resolved effortlessly with better cooperation and collaboration. This is seen from Ants structural design, building of bridges for navigation purposes, and the path routing for food as well as survival. This paper present an experiment carried out to ascertain the ant colony optimization and the solution proximity vis-à-vis solving the complexity posed by nature and humans. The experiment used two varieties of insect. A is the Ant experiment with ratio 26:8 of surviving rate and isolated rate while B is the Fly experiment with ratio 2:10 of the surviving rate and isolated rate respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental and Mathematical Model for the Study of the In-vitro Susceptibility of Antimicrobial Agents against Escherichi coli Isolates Obtained from Abattoir Centres in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria

Abdurasid Abdullai Ayinla, Momoh Johnson Oshiobugie, Aderele Oluwaseun Raphael

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/37290

Escherichia coli (E. coli) cause a variety of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infection, diarrhea, meningitis, peritonitis and septicemia.  E. coli still remains the leading bacterium that lives in the digestive tract of humans and animals. A total of 66 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from faeces and effluents from abattoir were examined for their susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents. Pathogenic E. coli can be released with the animal wastes coming from slaughter houses into the environment, where they can persist and cause infections. In this study we have evaluated the sensitivity to antibiotics by E. coli strains isolated from several types of infected faeces and effluents. Strains of E. coli were identified based on their cultural and biochemical characterisationThe antibiotic sensitivity test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to standards of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. High resistance levels (≥60) were detected against antimicribial agents like septrin and tetracycline. Moderate resistances (between 40-59%) were detected against chloramphenicol, augmentin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and streptomycin. Ciprofloxacin (87.9%), nitrofurantoin (80.3%), gentamicin (77.3%) and amoxycillin (62.1%) were highly sensitive to the E. coli strains. This work presents a four compartmental model, which describes the interactions of infections with Escherichia Coli in the in-vitro study, to gain more insight into the in-vitro analysis of the model formulated. The classical threshold for basic reproduction number,R0 is obtained: if R0<1, the E. coli will clear/die out of the population agar medium that was considered but if R0>1, then the E. coli will grow and persist within the agar medium. We also determine the local and global stability of the E. coli model in the in-vitro, using the comparison theorem. Our result shows that when the threshold parameter is less than unity, the disease – free equilibrium will be asymptotically stable and unstable at thresholds greater than unity. Numerical simulations were carried out using maple software to show the effects of treatment on the E. coli model. The result showed the pronounced effect of treatment which gives more insight about the E. coli model which was in great accord with the investigational analysis of the experimental work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of M-9 and MM-106 Clonal Rootstocks on Productivity and Quality of New Apple Cultivars

Rifat Bhat, Sharbat Hussain, Muzaffara Akhter, Sana Bhat, Nawsheen Nazir, Aroosa Khalil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41932

The study was undertaken to make a preliminary assessment for productivity and quality of new apple cultivars viz, Lal Ambri, Sunhari, Shireen, Firdous and Akbar on two M-9 and MM-106 clonal rootstocks respectively. The investigations were carried out at the Experimental Farm of SKUAST-Kashmir. An experiment was laid out in a randomised block design with ten treatment combinations. The results obtained revealed that the varieties raised on MM-106 rootstock resulted in higher plant height, per cent fruit set and fruit retention. And the plants which were raised on M-9 rootstock resulted in more plant girth, more spread, early fruit maturity, higher fruit weight and firmness. Among these tested varieties, Shireen performed better on M-9 rootstock as compared to other varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Analysis for Cultivation of Sugarcane: A Case Study in Narsinghpur (M. P.), India

Avinash Kumar, Atul Kumar Shrivastav, Aaradhana Patel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42876

The purpose of this study was to determine the commercial or non-commercial energy sources which were used for the cultivation of sugarcane in the selected area of study, Narsinghpur (Madhya Pradesh), India.

The use of commercial and non-commercial energy was found 143947.43 MJ/ha and its ratio with non-commercial energy was 18.35 during the last survey of the study area during 2013-14. The productivity energy was found during the study period 0.35 kg/MJ. Due to better management of energy inputs the output-input energy ratio enhanced by 6.86% during the study period. Energy inputs are carried out and the research finding shows that there exists a positive and direct correlation between yield and tillage, irrigation and total energy at 1 per cent level of significance.  It is also seen that the contribution of energy through diesel, fertilizers and electricity were significant at 1 per cent level of significance.

The result of the study of commercial and non-commercial energy sources were used in cultivation of sugarcane, we found the use of electric energy (75191.32 MJ/ha) was the highest energy consuming source from commercial energy sources and the use of human energy (5819.21 MJ/ha) was the highest energy consuming source from non-commercial energy sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Peptide Genes and Identification of Antifungal Compounds of Bacillus sp. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense Causing Wilt in Banana

Rajesh Kumar Ponnusamy, Paranitharan Vaikuntavasan, Rajesh Subramanian, Kavino Mathiyazhagan, Muthulakshmi Palanisamy, Kamalakannan Ayyanar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42299

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc) is a serious infectious agent that causes Fusarium wilt of banana within tropical and semi-tropical regions of India. It is both necessary and critical to find an efficient biocontrol strategy to ensure banana production around the world. Twenty strains of Bacillus species from various banana rhizosphere regions were analysed using 16s rRNA and tested against Foc in vitro. Among 20 strains, B18, B4 and B7 were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen. The Bacillus sp strains were analysed through PCR with specific primers for the presence of antimicrobial biosynthetic genes viz., Iturin A, Iturin C, Bacillomycin A, Surfactin and Bacillomycin D. The effective strain B18 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on biochemical and 16s rRNA region. In addition to antimicrobial peptide gens, the crude antibiotic extract from strain B18 was highly effective against Foc possibly owing to the presence of diverse antifungal compounds namely, 1- Dodecene, heptadecane, Pyrrolidine, Tetradecane, 1- Hexadecanol and Nonadecane, detected and identified using Gas chromatography and Mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

Open Access Original Research Article

An Introduction to Expressionism Analysis Based on Meaningful Deformation

Mehdi Asasian

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42378

In this paper, we present an application of meaningful contours in visual arts. Here, after defining the meaningful circular and polygonal contour and presenting functional definitions of meaningful contour based on fuzzy thinking, we examine the grounds for deformation in the style of Expressionism, and provide a method for its understanding and learning. This view can help the method for criticizing the works of Expressionism as well as the educational methods of this style from a different perspective. It is definitely important to us that the proposed methods can maintain the individuality and individual independence of the person in the creation of the artwork based on a meaningful geometry, without involving the audience in educational stereotypes. Given the wide scope of the discussion of this style, our work is definitely describing the theoretical preliminaries in the area of fuzzy thinking and deformation, and we will provide the extensive analysis of the outstanding works of this style in the future papers and other definitions. But at the end of this paper, we will have some examples of deformation in the history of art,

Open Access Original Research Article

Resilience and Perceived Social Support of the Caregivers Attending to Alzheimer’s Patients

Mandava Hemalatha, Nasreen Banu, P. Sreedevi, V. Kavitha Kiran, S. L. Kameswari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42516

The study used to measure resilience of the caregivers attending to Alzheimer’s patients. Twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad were selected and total 60 caregivers were selected purposively for conducting the present study. Multidimensional scale of perceived social support scale which was developed by Zimet, Dahlem & Farley (1988) was used to measure perceived social support of caregiver and resilience was measured by using Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) which was developed by Kathryn M. Connor and Jonathan R.T. Davidson (2003). Results showed that there was no significant impact of caregiver’s demographic profile except a relationship with the patient. And patient demographic profile had no significant impact on the resilience of the caregiver. Multidimensional perceived social support had no significant impact on resilience of the caregiver. Hence it can be concluded that resilience is an individual characteristic.