Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Implication of Unreliable Power System in Nigeria: A Case Study of Ota 132/33 Kv Transmission Station

D. A. Daramola, P. K. Olulope

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/37918

The impact of Power system reliability on the economy of a nation cannot be underestimated or overemphasized. The quality of power supply to customers is measured of how reliable the available power supply is used with respect to time. Hence, an analysis of the economy based on the supply of electricity is very important to provide the quantitative results and comprehensive information about how the energy use affects economic growth and development of Ota. The power system in Ota experiences high downtime due to the fact that the substation does not have the capacity to accommodate the rapid population growth and industrial development in the area. The increasing downtime leads to blackout in most part of the city resulting in serious economic damage and industrial problems. This paper presents the economic impact of unreliable power system in Nigeria. Ota 132 kV substation was selected for the study. The performance and operations problems of the substation were investigated which include frequent power outages, assumed to be caused by environmental factors such as moisture, temperature or heat, ageing, mechanical fracture, and operational faults, which result in outage of power to the designated feeder. These abnormal conditions trigger relays in the areas of overload, overvoltage, overheating, unbalanced loading and fire hazards. All these faults are reported daily as they occur. Provision of reliable power supply is, therefore, a problem in the current substation-load scheme. The study was undertaken to show the level of unreliability of supply in Nigeria, Ota Township a case study. The load loss in MW, failure rate, downtime and revenue loss of the feeders were computed analytically and graphically represented. The result from the study revealed that the downtime, after every fault resulted in heavy load loss and in turn causes a huge revenue loss. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Influence of Bud Load and Micronutrients on Physico-chemical Traits of Grape cv. Sahebi

Aroosa Khalil, Nowsheen Nazir, M. K. Sharma, Rifat Bhat, Kousar Javaid, Sabiha Ashraf

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42300

The study on the combined influence of bud load and micronutrients on physicochemical traits of grape cv. Sahebi was carried out in model grapevine orchard of the Department of Horticulture at Kralbagh, Tehsil Lar Distt.  Ganderbal (J&K) for two consecutive years to standardise the bud load and micronutrients application for improving physic-chemical traits in grape cv. Sahebi. The experiment consisted of 15 treatments with 3 levels of budload B(96 buds/vine),  B2 (128 buds/ vine) and  B(160 buds/vine), 3 levels of micronutrients viz. M(Solubor 0.1%), M(ZnSO0.4%) and M(Solubor 0.1% + ZnSO0.4%)  applied two weeks before bloom and their 9 combinations (B1M1 , B1M2, B1M3, B2M1, B2M2, B2M3,  B3M1, , B3M2B3M3 ) replicated thrice with a double plot size in a completely randomized block design. Among the different treatments budload B2 (128 buds/vine) recorded maximum fruitful shoots, bunch length, berry length, total soluble solids /acid ratio and minimum shot berry percentage Maximum fruitful shoots, number of bunches, bunch diameter, berry length, berry diameter, total soluble solids/acid ratio, ascorbic acid and shot berry percentage was observed in micronutrient M1 (Solubar-0.1%). The combination of B2M1observed highest fruitful shoots, berry length, total soluble solids /acid ratio, ascorbic acid, and lowest shot berry percentage. Thus it was concluded that budload B(128 buds/vine), M1 (Solubor 0.1%) and their combination B2Mproved to be the best for improving physico–chemical traits of grape cv. Sahebi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Naturally Occurring Radionuclide in Soil Samples from Erena Mining Sites in Niger State, Nigeria

K. Suleiman, M. N. Agu, M. Y. Onimisi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41562

This study presents results of Activity Concentrations, Absorbed dose rate and the Annual Effective dose rates of naturally occurring radionuclides (40K, 232Th and 226Ra) in 7 soil samples collected from different areas of Erena mining sites at (indicate the name of the town here) in Niger State, North Central Nigeria. A laboratory γ-ray spectrometry NaI(Tl) at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, was used to carry out the analysis of the soil samples. The values of Activity Concentration for 40K ranged from 48.5226 ± 3.5770 to 1002.9550 ± 9.7978; for 226Ra it ranged from 23.2909 ± 2.2016 to 75.3187 ± 5.0984 and for 232Th the range is from 23.8312 ±2.0525 to 59.2930 ± 2.3945Bq.Kg-1. While the Absorbed Dose for 40K ranged from 2.0234±0.1492 to 33.0293 ± 0.3567 ŋGy.h-1, for 226Ra the range is from 10.7604 ± 1.3384 to 34.7972 ± 2.3555 ŋGy.h-1 and for 232Th the range is from 14.3940 ± 1.2391 to 35.8130 ± 1.4463 ŋGy.h-1. The total average Absorbed Dose rate of the 7  soil samples collected is 69.1480 ŋGy.h-1 and the estimated Annual Effective Dose for the sampled areas range from 0.0025- 0.0668 mSvy-1 (i.e 3 – 67 μSv.y-1), with an average Annual Effective Dose of 0.0848mSv.y-1 (i e 84.8 μSv.y-1). These results shows that the radiation exposure level reaching members of the public in the study areas is lower than the recommended limit value of 1 mSv.y-1 [6]. Also the mean Radium Equivalents obtained ranged from 82.7770 BqKg-1 (ER4) to 171.9653 BqKg-1 (ER2). These results show that the recommended Radium Equivalent Concentration is ≤ 370 BqKg-1 which is the requirement for soil materials to be used for dwellings. This implies that the soil from this site is suitable use for residential buildings. The mean External Hazard Index (Hext) ranged from 0.2236 Bqkg-1 (ER4) to 0.6686 Bqkg-1 (ER2), while the maximum allowed value of Hext = 1 corresponds to the upper limit of Raeq (370 BqKg-1) in order to limit the external gamma radiation dose from the soil materials to 1.5 mGy y-1. That is this index should be equal to or less than unity (Hext ≤ = 1). Furthermore, the mean Internal Hazard Index (Hext) ranged from 0.3191 Bqkg-1 (ER4) to 0.6681 Bqkg-1 (ER2). Finally, the mean value of the Excess Alpha Radiation (Iα) ranged from 0.1165 Bq.Kg-1 to 0.3766 Bq.Kg-1. All these values for Iα are below the maximum permissible value of Iα= 1 which corresponds to 200 Bq.Kg-1. It can therefore be said that no radiological hazard is envisaged to dwellers of the study areas and the miners working on those site area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Set-up for Creep Test of Biological/Viscoelastic Materials Subjected to Uniaxial Compressive Loading

Aaradhana Patel, Mohan Singh, Avinash Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42055

A set-up was developed for testing of creep test of viscoelastic materials like vegetables, fruits etc. creep test was provided under in uniaxial compressive loading.  If a constant load is applied to biological materials and if stresses are relatively large, the material will continue to deform with time, this slow deformation with time is known as creep.  Green pea kernels were taken in the set-up for testing of creep. Set-up is consisted of a PVC cylinder, two SS plates, a rectangular wooden box, A stand is provided to facilitate mounting of scale for measurement of downward movement of cover plate inside the cylinder. seven different compressive stresses 88.55, 177.11, 265.66, 354.22, 442.77, 531.33 and 708.44 N/m2 were used and deformation was observed at different time intervals 0, 0+,5, 10, 15, 20, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Creep curves were plotted to show the variation in volumetric strain for different time intervals. The volumetric strain with respect to variation of loading is maximum in case of maximum stress that was 708.44 N/m2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Metal Concentration in Lubricating Oil with Predictive Purposes

M. C. Fernández-Feal, M. L. Fernández-Feal, L. R. Sánchez-Fernández, J. R. Pérez-Prado

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41472

Aims: To determine the concentration of the metals present in a lubricating oil of mineral base, before, during and after its use in the engine of a truck, to know its variation for predictive purposes.

Study Design: In the study, a truck was used in which the lubricating oil of mineral base, diesel grade 15W/40 was tested. Periodically, a sample of the oil contained in the crankcase was taken and the concentration of the metals present in it was determined to know its variation.

Duration of Study: The study was carried out during the period corresponding to 57000 km of operation of the lubricating oil in the engine.

Methodology: The determination of the metals concentration of both new and used lubricating oil samples, extracted from the crankcase after regular periods of its use, was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Results and Conclusion: The analysis of the lubricating oil allowed to know that what was happening inside the engine. It helps to detect wear problems of its components, as well as detecting contamination and degradation suffered by the lubricating oil itself. Thus, it can be considered a valid method in the predictive maintenance of the engine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Ohmic Heating Model for Parboiling of Oryza sativa L.

Aaradhana Patel, Mohan Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42367

Ohmic heating is an alternative and fast technology for processing of food products, which takes its name from Ohm’s law. The basic principle of this technique is the conversion of electrical energy into heat, resulting in internal heat generation within the food products e.g. - Paddy. The aim of the study is to develop an ohmic heating model for parboiling of paddy. In this study the voltage is applied directly to the end of both electrodes from an electrical source which causes internal energy generation into the food material, like- paddy. This technology has a wide range of applications in the area of food processing. In the present study, a laboratory scale ohmic heater was developed for the parboiling of paddy.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Ecotoxicological Analyses of Spent Phone Batteries on Pseudomonas sp. in Tri Aquatic Environment

Renner Renner Nrior, Lucky Barinedum Kpormon

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/42169

Aim: To analyze and compare the effect of two products of spent phone batteries on   Pseudomonas sp. in Marine, brackish and freshwater using standard toxicological bioassay.

Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study:  Freshwater and Marine samples were collected from Gokana L.G.A while, brackish sample was collected from Eagle Island, all in Rivers state, Nigeria. These samples were transported with ice pack to the Microbiology Laboratory of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, for analyses within 24 hours. Spent Nokia and Techno phone batteries were obtained from the main phone market, Garrison junction, Aba road, Port Harcourt.

Methodology: Toxicity testing procedures were carried out by dissolving four (4) grams of the spent phone batteries content into one hundred milliliter (100 ml) each of autoclaved water bodies separately. This served as a stock solution, from which different concentrations (%); 0, 5, 25, 50 and 75, were made; each was inoculated with one milliliter (1 ml) of the test organism (Pseudomonas sp.) and tested for duration 0,4,8,12,and 24 hours respectively using spread plate techniques. The cultures were incubated at 35°C for 18 to 24 hours. Median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined using SPSS version 20.

Results: The results revealed that percentage logarithm survival of Pseudomonas sp decreased with increasing exposure time and concentrations. (LC50) of the spent phone batteries ranging from 61.76 to 65.31%. Nokia phone battery in freshwater (65.31%) <Techno phone battery in freshwater (65.14%)<Techno phone battery in marine (64.73%)<Nokia phone battery in brackish  (64.53%)<Nokia phone battery in fresh water (64.17%) < Nokia phone battery in  marine (62.75%) < Techno phone battery in marine ( 61.76% )(noting; the lower the LC50 the more toxic the toxicant)

Conclusion: The effect of Techno phone battery in marine is the most toxic (LC50 = 61.76%) having the lowest LC50 while Nokia phone battery in freshwater (LC50= 65.97%) has the lowest toxicity effect this is because, statistically when the median lethal concentration is high the toxicity effect is low. These results show that spent phone batteries if disposed into aquatic environments can inhibits normal biological processes within the aquatic ecosystem.