Effect of Pre Digestion Time on Efficiency of Biogas Production

Ghanima Chanzi, Catherine Salim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38674

Aims: Waste-to-Energy transformation has been identified as a veritable option in the integrated waste management processing of Municipal Solid Waste. The use of biogas technology to produce energy and organic fertilizer from organic waste initially from livestock farm waste and agro-industrial waste is a potential way of MSW management.

The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time required for pre digestion of solid wastes before biogas production process begun.

Study Design:  the study designed to operate on two batches and two phase experiments; the first batch was materials composted in four weeks and the second batch was in two weeks time in order to see which time will be effective on biogasification.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done at the research center of the Environmental Engineering school, Ardhi university, between February and July 2013.

Methodology: The method used was the volume displacement method where by the first phase experiment set up was aerobic composting that includes five reactors of printer paper to sugarcane waste in various proportions which were R1 (100:0), R2 (75:25), R3 (50:50), R4 (25:75) and R5 (0:100). During composting process temperature, moisture content, and pH, were monitored and process run for the periods of 30 days.The second phase experiment set up was bio gasification whereby the reactor allowed to ferment anaerobic for a period of 60 days. Each reactor contains composted printer paper with sugar cane waste and cow dung in the following ratios;  substrate to seed for each composted reactor in every batch 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100. Initial temperature was measurements were determined since have effects on biogas production.

Results: The findings from this study show that, there is a significant biogas production from Co-digestion of pre-composted printed paper and sugar cane waste. Only R4 (25:75) and R5 (0:100) are the optimum ratios of printer paper to sugarcane waste during composting, Physical and chemical characteristics of both substrates (composted printer paper and sugar cane waste) and seed (cow dung) used for biogas production was in the range to support biogas production, Quantification of biogas produced was high from R4, R5, R3, R2 to R1.

Conclusion: materials pre-composted for four weeks yield more gas compared to two weeks composted materials and Sugarcane wastes as the stimulant materials increase biogas production since as the percent of sugar cane wastes increase the biogas yield also was increased.So the increase of pre digestion time seems to increase biogas yield in biogasification process.

Threshing Methods, Dryers and Dehuskers Suitable for Brown Rice Production - A Review

Mukesh Jain, Santosh Satya, Kanchan K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41292

The importance of choosing whole grains such as brown rice rather than refined grain, i.e., white rice, to maintain a healthy body weight, prevention of cardiovascular diseases, phyto-nutrient qualities associated with health promoting activity equal to or even higher than that of vegetables and fruits, etc is well established. In India, generally after harvesting of paddy crop, it is left in the field for drying and the crop is threshed for removal of grains from the panicles.  The paddy grains are again dried and milled for the production of brown rice. During this process, lots of middle men are involved by which the cost of brown rice becomes very high and thus, unaffordable to common people.  Hence, it was thought that if equipment like thresher cum drier cum dehusker is made available, then brown rice can be produced in the farm itself which will be very cheap.  Thus, to fabricate a paddy thresher cum drier cum dehusker, a review was conducted to identify the most suitable threshing method, a drying method which can instantly dry the grains after threshing and the most appropriate dehusker which can remove the husk of the paddy grain efficiently.  From the review, it is concluded that a paddy thresher cum drier cum dehusker can be fabricated by having axial-flow threshing mechanism with  co-axial split-rotor threshing drum (suitable for high moisture paddy crop), a drier with infrared emitters for instant drying of paddy grains and rubber roll dehusker for removal of husks with high milling efficiency.

Production of Jet Biofuels from Catalytic Cracking of Vegetable Oils Using Acidic Catalysts

A. Ismail, Shady Atef Mansour, Mona A. Yossif, Mahmoud Bekhit, Nabel A. Negm

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41162

Two vegetable oils were used to obtain Jet biofuels by catalytic cracking using two acidic catalysts (alumina and clay). The reaction conditions were studied including: catalyst ratio (0.2-1%), reaction time and temperature. The obtained biojet fuels were specified and compared according to ASTM specifications. The results of the study showed that the produced biojets are comparable to the petroleum derivatives. Increasing the catalyst ratio, time and temperature of the process were increased the efficiency of the produced fuels and narrow the differences between their properties and the commercial fuel. The obtained fuels were blended by JET A-1 in different ratios and the results of the blends were studied according to ASTM specifications.

Long Term Incorporation of Rice Straw along with Inorganic Fertilization to Ameliorate Enzymatic Activities and Soil Properties in Wheat Field

Poonam Bhagat, S. K. Gosal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39631

Agricultural sustainability is essential for maintaining soil health and long term experiments provide more information about any changes in soil parameters and processes. Soil enzymes and soil physico-chemical properties immediately get altered even with slight change in the soil quality. The research was done to find the impact of long term amendment of different doses of rice straw and inorganic fertilizer at different time intervals in wheat field. It was observed that maximum dehydrogenase activity was observed to be 27.40 µg TPF.hr-1.g-1soil at 45 days after sowing (DAS). Similarly, maximum urease and alkaline phosphatase activity was observed at 45 DAS and recorded to be 330.67 µg urea.hr-1.g-1 and 15.882 µg pNP.hr-1.g-1. The treatment having 7.5T RS.ha-1 + 120 kg N.ha-1 showed higher enzymatic activity as compared to other treatments. The soil physico-chemical properties were also determined and a minor change in soil pH and electrical conductivity was observed. The organic carbon content (0.36%) was altered with increased number of days and higher dose of rice straw. The maximum available nutrients viz. nitrogen in soil was observed to be 136.9 kg.ha-1, phosphorous as 29.94 kg.ha-1 and potassium as 120.58 kg.ha-1 at 45 DAS with treatment having 10 T.ha-1 rice straw and 150 kgN.ha-1. The study revealed that long term experiment exhibited significant improvement with integrated amendment of rice straw and inorganic fertilization in soil enzymatic activities and physico-chemical properties of soil.

Application of Genetic Algorithm Solution Approach to Voltage Drop Issues on 33 kV/11 kV Injection Feeders: A Case Study of Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria

M. Olajide Okelola, E. O. Olabode

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41614

The place of good quality and quantity of electricity supply by electric power provider in national growth cannot be underestimated. But, sadly the quantity and quality of electricity in most third world countries such as Nigeria is plagued by quite a number of power quality disturbances and technical losses inherent within the system. Voltage drop affects the quantity of available electricity and it is a major concern of electric power providers as it challenged their sole responsibility of supplying customers with the required voltage level at all times. Surprisingly, the causes and effects of voltages drops on 33kV/11kV transmission systems have not been extensively looked at in Nigeria. This paper presents application of genetic algorithm solution approach to voltage drop issues on 33kV/ 11kV Injection feeders: a case study of Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria. The result of the analysis showed that the receiving end voltage is of low proportion compared to the sending end voltage. The parametric modeling of voltage drop revealed several causes of voltage drop in the study area. Different cable sizes were used to mitigate the effect voltage drop, it was discovered that, to attain minimum voltage drop in this station, the 65 mm2 cable used has to be augmented to 85 mm2 or reduce to 50 mmwhile the number of the injection stations should be increase.

Utilization of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam Seeds for Wet Processing of Textiles – as Sizing Agent on Cottons

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41633

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam seeds have potential starch content, which can be used for different end uses. Characterization and application of Jack Fruit Seed Starch (JFSS) as a substitute to commercially available, Arrow root starch (ARS) for sizing of cotton fabrics (Cambric and voile) was carried out in the present study. Starch was extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam through isolation method, which gave very fine texture on par with ARS. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that, the size of JFS ranges between 5.5 to 9.03 μm. The pasting character of JFSS has shown a viscosity of 489 with a peak time at 8.74 min and maintaining gelatinization temperature at 85ºC.

5, 10, 15 & 20 percentage of ARS and JFSS were applied to cotton fabric and were tested for geometrical, mechanical and handle properties. Along with control sample (CS) i.e., untreated sample, JFSS treated samples, when tested against ARS treated samples for different fabric properties are found to be on-par with ARS treated samples. Apart from CS and ARS treated samples, JFSS treated samples with 10% followed by15% has shown good tear resistance along with stiff hand. Hence, it can be used as a substitute to commercial starches.

Electrostatic Attraction: Inhibitory-mechanism of The Medicinal Synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate against Electrically Charged Disease-agents (Human immune deficiency virus/Cancer-cells/Other viruses/Infected cells) and the Medicines Adjuvant Effects

Maduike C. O. Ezeibe, Mary E. Sanda, Ijeoma J. Ogbonna, Ekenma Kalu, Njoku U. Njoku

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41491

Aim: To review mechanisms of actions of The medicinal synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate (MSAMS) as, antiviral, antiretroviral and anticancer medicine and as adjuvant.

Materials and Methods: Literature-review for information on Aluminum-magnesium silicate (AMS) as a pharmaceutical binder/stabilizing agent and results of experiments on effects of electrostatic attraction, between AMS-Nanoparticles and opposite electrical charges, on disease-agents.

Findings: AMS is traditionally a pharmaceutical binder for drug-formulations. It binds medicines because its molecular Nanoparticles have negatively charged surfaces and positively charged edges. Viruses and abnormal cells (cancer and infected) are also electrically charged. So, AMS bonds to the disease-agents by opposite-charges electrostatic attractions.  For that reason, it has antiviral and anticancer effects. As a silicate, it stimulates immunity.  It is also a stabilizing agent. Stabilizing medicines prolongs bioavailability. Again, Nanoparticles deliver drugs to targets.  Prolonging bioavailability and improving delivery enhance efficacy of antimicrobials. Enhancing efficacy leads to enough clearance of infections so that immunity completes their termination to prevent development of drug-resistance. Enhancing efficacy of antimicrobials also reduces their doses, needed to achieve desired effects, thus reducing side effects of drugs, to further enhance patients immune responses. Synergy between enhanced efficacy of medicines and enhanced patients immunity, leads to clearance of resistant secondary infections and termination of viral infections. By reducing doses of drugs, concentrations of their active ingredients in formulations are reduced thus minimizing their cost. AMS is not found in every county and even in countries where it is found, it contains impurities. So it requires purifying to make it safe. However, oxides and silicates of Aluminum and Magnesium are already approved medicines being used for treatments. So, Aluminum silicate was reacted with Magnesium silicate to get MSAMS: Al4 (SiO4)3 + 3Mg2SiO4 → 2Al2 Mg(SiO4)3.

Conclusion: MSAMS mops HIV/other viruses and cancer-cells. It normalizes immunity and improves efficacy of medicines. Synergy between these MSAMS-effects and immunity inhibits electrically charged disease-