Open Access Opinion Article

Causes of Climate Change and Its Impact in the Multi-Sectoral Areas in Africa-Need for Enhanced Adaptation Policies

Andy Cons Matata, Ali Adan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/37276

Africa has experienced climate change since the late Holocene which intensified in the last century mainly due to factors such as the changes brought about by the colonial administration, which led to rapid population growth from improved healthcare systems and infrastructure, and organised agriculture. Recent studies on climate change and its impact on Africa indicate that the continent is more vulnerable to climate change than other continents because of inadequate resources. The effect of climatic change has worsened in the last fifty years, mainly due to heavy pollution and the greenhouse effect caused by the industries in the developed countries and in the newly industrialized nation such as India, China, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and others. Recent studies on climate change in Africa has shown that population growth has led to decline of forest cover, increased land and environmental degradation, leading to severe ecological disruption. This change has wreaked and continued to cause severe damage to Africa’s infrastructure, health and economy. Global warming related floods have destroyed roads, crops, water sources, and killed both people, livestock and wildlife. Droughts too have caused similar problem if not worse destruction. Africa’s poverty makes it difficult for the people to mitigate their losses and to adapt to the conditions. It is, therefore, necessary for African countries and its leaders to adopt policies and laws which deliberately aim at addressing the problems created by climate change. These policies should be tilted towards adaptation rather than mitigation since African countries generally lacks the capacity. The objective of this paper is to create policy awareness on the causes of climatic change and its impact on sectoral systems in order to prioritise timely knowledge-based policy decision for stimulated green growth development opportunities. The findings and the conclusion are based on the available literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chain Saw on Hand Arm and Whole Body Vibration in Selected Species of Timber

J. D. Amine, O. M. Injor, L. R. Shishi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/29796

Experimental data collected over the years, for defining limits of vibration exposure to human beings, have resulted in a set of vibration criteria specified in ISO Standard 2631. In this article, instrumentation requirements for evaluation of the responses of humans to vibration according to these criteria are described, as well as some of the pitfalls to be avoided during these measures. The operators’ exposure to hand-arm as well as whole body transmitted vibration at Terry-Man Saw mill was tested on different kinds of wood. Using a vibrometer levels obtained by measurements for related activities and their average durations during working day, the daily vibration exposure A(8) (expressed in terms of 8-hour energy-equivalent frequency-weighted) and vibration total value was calculated in accordance with ISO 5349-1. The A(8) values obtained were compared with the limit values set for the workers’ exposure to hand-arm transmitted vibration at 2.5 m/s2 (action value). The comparison clearly shows that the work at Terry-man saw mill can be classified as dangerous as a result of exposure to vibration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Dodonaea viscosa Linn on Some Biochemical Parameters in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

C. D. Luka, G. Istifanus, M. George, N. S. Jesse

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/36991

This study evaluates the effect aqueous leaf extracts Dodonaea viscosa Linn on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Sixty grams of Dodonaea viscosa Linn leaf that has initially been pulverized was used to produce the aqueous extract. Sixteen male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of four rats per group. Three groups were induced with experimental diabetes using alloxan monohydrate at a graded dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Group A rats were given feed and water; Group B rats were not given any form of treatment for 14 days. Group C rats were treated with Dodonaea viscosa Linn extract at 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. Group D rats were treated with metformin at 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. All administration were done orally through intragastric tube method. At the end of 14 days, blood samples of all rats in each group were collected for liver function test, lipid profile, kidney function test and uric acid. The results obtained were analyzed statistically using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tool at p<0.05. Results of the analysis showed that aqueous leaf extract of Dodonaea viscosa Linn is a potential candidate for the management of diabetic mellitus and its associate complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Derivation of All Particular Solutions of a ‘Big’ Boolean Equation with Applications in Digital Design

Ali Muhammad Rushdi, Sultan Sameer Zagzoog

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41481

This paper considers the problem of solving a system of Boolean equations over a finite (atomic) Boolean algebra other than the two-valued one. The paper outlines classical and novel direct methods for deriving the general parametric solution of such a system and for listing all its particular solutions. A detailed example over B256 is used to illustrate these two methods as well as a third method that starts by deriving the subsumptive solution first. The example demonstrates how the consistency condition forces a collapse of the underlying Boolean algebra to a subalgebra, and also how to list a huge number of particular solutions in a very compact space. Subsequently, the paper proposes some potential applications for the techniques of Boolean-equation solving. These techniques are very promising as useful extensions of classical techniques based on two-valued Boolean algebra.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Material Point Method and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Applied to the Numerical Simulation of a Dam-Break Flow in the Presence of Geometric Obstacles

Manuel Vargas, Elson Nascimento, Gabriel Nascimento, Marcelo Hotta, Marcio Almeida

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39845

Dam break is one of the greatest hazards causing damages in urban and rural areas throughout the world. It can happen due to design and construction errors, heavy rainfall, earthquakes or glacier melting, among other reasons. Once the dam collapses, the resulting flow can become even worse due to obstacles, like houses, walls, bridges and trees, which can be impacted and transported along with the water. The prevention or reduction of the downstream effects of a dam break due to the complex and highly energized flow has been a challenge to researchers and engineers all over the world. The present study aimed to compare two free computer programs for numerical simulation of a flow with obstacles, based on available experimental data. These programs are based on the material point method (MPM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), respectively. The numerical results of the two programs were in good agreement with experimental data, although important differences in computing time were observed. Therefore, these methods seem to be potential tools for the prediction of dam-break flows.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-demographic Correlates of Anaemia among Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of District Ludhiana (Punjab)

Neerja Singla, Renuka Aggarwal, Priya Singla, Rohini Jain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41286

Aim: The present study was conducted to study the correlation of various socio-demographic factors with anaemia among the adolescent girls in rural area of Ludhiana district, Punjab.

Subject and Methods: A total of 450 adolescent girls (13-16 years) were randomly selected from the three government schools one each from the three villages i.e. Hambran, Bharowal Kalan and Bhundri of Ludhiana district. An interview schedule was developed to collect the general information along with the estimation of haemoglobin.

Results: The mean age of the selected subjects was found to be 14.3 ±1.1 years and mean Hb. level was 10.0±1.8 g/dl. About 76.5 per cent of the total subjects were found to be anaemic (having Hb. level <12 g/dl). There was a positive correlation between the incidence of anaemia and income of the families as 91.9 per cent of the anaemic subjects belonged to the families having monthly income below Rs. 5000/-. Also, the education level of the parents had a strong correlation with the prevalence of anaemia among the subjects.

Conclusion:  So, it can be concluded that the dietary habits of rural masses need to be improved through nutrition education programmes about various food based strategies such as inclusion of seasonal fruits and vegetables and avoidance of tea/coffee along with the meals in their diet on daily basis, so as the incidence of anaemia may be reduced.

Open Access Review Article

Ohmic Heating for Food Products- A Review

Aaradhana Patel, Mohan Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40664

Ohmic heating is a novel technology for food processing. This review paper summarizes the research progress and application in ohmic heating technology used in food processing. Ohmic heating is an electrical resistance heating method for the heat treatment of food products. When electric current passes through the food, the food heats up because of its internal electrical resistance. In this process heating rate depends upon the electrical conductivity and field strength. By this method a product undergoes a minimum structural damage, retain its nutritional value. This technique gives excellent processed quality products in minimum operating time. In this method electrical energy is converted into thermal energy. This is an uniform and rapid heating method.  Electrical conductivity of food plays an important role in the ohmic heating process. Ohmic heating is good for liquid products, milk desserts, yoghurts, eggs, fruit juices, condiments, gelatine, wine, and hydrocolloids, etc which have electrical conductivity greater than 0.05 S/m. This method can be used in several sectors of food processing such as thawing process, blanching, sterilization, pasteurization, enzyme inactivation, expression, extraction, desalination and waste water treatment, rice bran stabilization, tofu making process, semi meat ball cooking and drying process etc.